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British Rail Class 04

The British Rail Class 04 was a 0-6-0 diesel-mechanical shunting locomotive class, built between 1952 and 1962 and was the basis for the Class 03 built in the British Railways workshops. The prototype locomotive was built in 1947 and served as a departmental shunter at Hither Green depot as number DS1173, before being transferred to the capital stock list as D2341 in 1967; the Class 04 locomotives were supplied by the Drewry Car Co. which at the time had no manufacturing capability. Drewry sub-contracted the construction work to two builders both of whom built other locomotives under the same arrangement. Early locomotives were built by Vulcan Foundry, examples were built by Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns. A clear line of development can be seen in the Class 04 from the 0-4-0DM locomotives built by Andrew Barclay and Drewry/Vulcan Foundry in the early 1940s. Similar 0-6-0DM locomotives had been built before the first Class 04, others were built for industrial use; the design continued to develop during the construction period, although this was confined to minor changes, including the diameter of the wheels.

The first batch were equipped for street-running. The second batch were shaped cab front windows. From the fourth batch the small cab side window of the earlier batches was replaced with a much larger window, the rear half of which slid open; the wheel diameter was increased from 3'3" to 3'6". From locomotive D2274 onwards, the wheel diameter was again increased, from 3'6" to 3'7"; the first four of these locomotives were fitted with side skirting and cowcatchers for use on the Wisbech and Upwell Tramway and on the Yarmouth Docks tramway system, since British law requires locomotives running on unfenced street trackage to be so equipped for the protection of pedestrians and animals. At least two engines were fitted with cowcatchers and skirting for use on the Ipswich docks tramway system; the class was distributed throughout the British Railways system, but the significant decline in the traffic for which they were designed resulted in a large surplus of shunting engines on the network. With this reduction in the need for shunters it was decided to standardise on the Class 03 as a light diesel-mechanical shunter and the Class 08 and 09 as larger, diesel-electric shunters, leading to the withdrawal of the class 04 engines.

Mechanically they were identical to the Class 03, with the same 24 litre Gardner engine, 5-speed epicyclic gearbox and the same overall layout. They had a straight bonnet from the front to the rear-mounted cab, unlike the 03s which bulged higher towards the rear, the cab's rounded roof met the sides at an angle instead of with a curve as in the 03, with a lip all the way round; the internal cab layout was symmetrical to allow the driver to work from either side as required. The engine is a Gardner 8-cyl, 4-stroke 8L3 developing 204 hp at 1200 rpm, connected to a Wilson-Drewry CA5 R7, 5-speed epicyclic with RF11 spiral bevel reverse and final drive unit mounted on a jackshaft; the drive to the wheels was by coupling rods from the jackshaft. The prototype was numbered DS1173 in departmental service; the first 60 production units were numbered in the sequences 11100–11103, 11105–11115, 11121–11135, 11149–11160, 11212–11229. From 1957, new production units received numbers in the D-prefix numbering series.

All existing units were renumbered in the same series, sequentially from D2200 to D2259, with the new production units continuing from D2260 to D2340. The prototype locomotive left departmental service and entered the service fleet, being re-numbered as D2341; the Class 04s were withdrawn from service earlier than the Class 03, being taken out of service between June 1967 and May 1972, with some sold for re-use by industry. Four were exported to Italy about 1972, with D2289 reported as still in service until 2012. 21 examples of the class were preserved. Of these, 20 were BR Class 04 locomotives, 1 was of the same type, but operated by the CEGB. One preserved engine, D2267, was scrapped in 2003, leaving 20 in preservation, including 19 operated by British Rail. A number of identical industrial locomotives were supplied to various private companies in the United Kingdom. One example supplied to Adams Newport in 1948 is preserved at the Mangapps Railway Museum where it has been modified to recreate a Wisbech and Upwell Tramway class 04, using the number 11104, not used in the actual class 04 numbering sequence.

The class 04 design was the basis of some related narrow gauge industrial engines built for export overseas. An example of this was the Tasmanian Government Railways V class which ran on 3'6" gauge, necessitating an outside frame design, the main visible difference; the first batch Class 04 locomotives were the basis for the character Mavis in The Railway Series books written by the Rev. W. Awdry, the subsequent Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends TV series. Airfix produced a plastic OO kit in the 1960s. Bachmann produced an example in

Rafi Escudero

Rafi Escudero is a Puerto Rican musician, composer and political activist. Escudero was raised in San Juan, Puerto Rico the capital city of the island, his parents were well aware. They stressed that their son receive a good education and sent him to study in private schools, they wanted their son to learn about classical music and contracted the services of violin teacher Eduardo Geigel to teach Escudero how to play the violin. When Escudero wasn't in school or taking violin classes, he would spend hours on the family piano until he taught himself how to play, he perfected his piano playing by taking piano lessons from the maestro Pedro Escabi. During the 1960s, he enrolled in the University of Puerto Rico; as a student in the university, he was exposed to the works of some of Puerto Rico's greatest poets, Antonio Machado, Julia de Burgos and Juan Antonio Corretjer. The works of these poets influenced Escudero and where to serve as the basis for his inspiration. Escudero debuted as a musician by recording modernized versions of classical danzas.

He recorded "Añoranzas", "Carta a Juan Morel" and "Caricias". The recordings were a success and Escudero received the acceptance and recognition from the public and fellow musicians alike. During the 1970s, Escudero composed many songs that were recorded by the following singers, Danny Rivera, Marco Antonio Muñiz, Jose Feliciano, Cheo Feliciano, Ismael Miranda and many others. Escudero recorded'Sin tu Amor", "Cuando el amor germina", "Repica ese guiro y canta" and "Pa' cortase las venas", he participated with dozens of Latin American singers in the recording of "Somos el Projimo", the Latin-American version of "We Are The World". Escudero, appeared in the film "Under Suspicion" starring Morgan Freeman and Gene Hackman as a Ballroom musician and performed on the song "Party Man" written by Miguel Zayas; the following is a list of some of Escudero's Danza's: Añoranza Caricias Carta a Morel Escudero wrote two books of poetry. The first book was titled "En un Mundo de Cuerdos" and the second book "Comentario desde el Soberao", published by the Puerto Rican Institute of Culture.

In 1999, he recorded "Comentario desde el Soberao" where he describes the situations and characters in his book. This was the first time. Among the many awards and recognitions bestowed upon Escudero are the following, The Agüeybaná de Oro for composer of the year 1981 and the Outstanding Singer Award in the Record Festivals from 1983 to 1985. Escudero was exalted into the Puerto Rico Music Hall of Fame on May 12, 2018. In 1998, Escudero was named by Puerto Rico's governor Pedro Rosselló to join the board of directors of the Puerto Rican Institute of Culture and of the Luis A. Ferre Center for the Performing Arts. In 2001, he ran for the position of president of the New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico, however he withdrew from the race. Escudero remains politically active in the party. List of Puerto Ricans Popular Culture

Judiciary of Trinidad and Tobago

The judiciary of Trinidad and Tobago is a branch of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago that interprets and applies the laws of Trinidad and Tobago, to ensure equal justice under law, to provide a mechanism for dispute resolution. The judiciary is a hierarchical system comprising a Supreme Court of Judicature, a Magistracy and a Family Court; the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is the head of the judiciary and is appointed by the President, on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition. The Supreme Court consists of a High Court and a Court of Appeal, whilst the Magistracy consists of separate criminal and civil courts with original jurisdiction, is led by a Chief Magistrate. Final appeal on some matters is decided by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London, but in recent years there have been attempts to transfer this function to the Caribbean Court of Justice, based in Port of Spain, Trinidad. In April 2012, the Prime Minister Kamla Persad-Bissessar announced that criminal appeals to the Privy Council would be abolished in favour of the CCJ, after a commitment made at the Caricom Heads of Government conference in Suriname in July 2011.

However, the Opposition suggested that such a "halfway" move might be against treaty obligations, although they supported any moves to the CCJ. Precedent for the partial abolition of appeals to the Privy Council was set by Canada ending criminal appeals to the court in 1933 and civil appeals in 1949

Percussion Concerto (Higdon)

The Percussion Concerto is a one-movement concerto for solo percussion and orchestra by the American composer Jennifer Higdon. The work was jointly commissioned by the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra, the Dallas Symphony Orchestra, with contributions from the Philadelphia Music Project and the Lacy Foundation of LDI, Ltd; the piece was completed in 2005 and is dedicated to the percussionist Colin Currie, for whom the concerto was written. The piece won the 2010 Grammy Award for Best Classical Contemporary Composition; that same year, Higdon won the Pulitzer Prize for Music for her Violin Concerto. The music critic Gregory Sullivan Isaacs of Theater Jones lauded the Percussion Concerto as "fascinating" and said it "makes wondrous use of percussion in all its wide spectrum of sounds." Tim Smith of The Baltimore Sun praised the piece, saying, "Higdon unleashes a kinetic storm of urban beats, balanced by passages of Asian-influenced musings that exploit the most seductive qualities of the diverse percussion instruments assigned to the soloist."

Smith continued:Adding an unusual layer to the work is Higdon's decision to treat the orchestra's percussion section as a second protagonist. That means a whole lot of beating going on at times; the result is that the rest of the orchestra, all those strings and things, sometimes seems like an afterthought. But that doesn't much matter in the end, for the concerto is filled with absorbing musical ideas that are taken in interesting foot-stomping directions. Conductor and frequent Higdon collaborator Marin Alsop wrote of the work, "In this concerto, you can hear the essential qualities about Jennifer as a composer and person — the music is direct and visceral with clear direction and shape, just some of the qualities that define her as an'American' composer." Alsop further remarked, "'Accessible' is a dirty word in the world of art, but Jennifer embraces the concept and explains that a major priority for her is to give listeners a sense of grounding and a feel for where they are in her compositions.

She is far less concerned with formality and technique than she is with the final test of a piece: how it sounds." List of compositions by Jennifer Higdon

Vacuum expectation value

In quantum field theory the vacuum expectation value of an operator is its average, expected value in the vacuum. The vacuum expectation value of an operator O is denoted by ⟨ O ⟩. One of the most used examples of an observable physical effect that results from the vacuum expectation value of an operator is the Casimir effect; this concept is important for working with correlation functions in quantum field theory. It is important in spontaneous symmetry breaking. Examples are: The Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value of 246 GeV This nonzero value underlies the Higgs mechanism of the Standard Model; this value is given by v = 1 / 2 G F 0 = 2 M W / g ≈ 246.22 G e V, where MW is the mass of the W Boson, G F 0 the reduced Fermi constant, g the weak isospin coupling, in natural units. The chiral condensate in Quantum chromodynamics, about a factor of a thousand smaller than the above, gives a large effective mass to quarks, distinguishes between phases of quark matter; this underlies the bulk of the mass of most hadrons.

The gluon condensate in Quantum chromodynamics may be responsible for masses of hadrons. The observed Lorentz invariance of space-time allows only the formation of condensates which are Lorentz scalars and have vanishing charge, thus fermion condensates must be of the form ⟨ ψ ¯ ψ ⟩. A tensor field, Gμν, can only have a scalar expectation value such as ⟨ G μ ν G μ ν ⟩. In some vacua of string theory, non-scalar condensates are found. If these describe our universe Lorentz symmetry violation may be observable. Wightman axioms and Correlation function vacuum energy or dark energy Spontaneous symmetry breaking

Astara, Iran

Astara is a city and capital of Astara County, Gilan Province, Iran. It lies on the Caspian Sea, it is an important border trade center between Iran and the Caucasus. It is believed; the earliest mention, under the name Astārāb, comes in the Ḥodūd al-ʿālam, written toward the end of the 10th century. In the 14th century, Astara became the seat of the small principality of the Esfahbad or Espahbad of Gīlān. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, the Ṭālešī Khans of Āstārā were either autonomous or nominally subordinate to the governors of Gīlān or Ardabīl. According to Minorsky, We do not know whether the governors of Astara still continued the line of the ispahbads. After the conquest of Northern Tālish by the Russians the family of the Tālish-khans maintained some special rights. Astara was part of the short lived Talysh Khanate in the 18th and 19th centuries, for a short while it was the capital of the Khanate before it was moved to Lankaran. In 1828, with the signing of the Treaty of Turkmenchay, Astara was split into two.

The city of Astara in Azerbaijan is located just across the Astarachay River. Astara has various attractions and is considered a major tourist destination for Iranians and foreigners those from the Caucasus; the city is near to a Temperate rainforest. Annually over six million Iranians, six hundred thousand foreigners visit the city; the most popular beaches in this city are Shariati sadaf beach. Shariati beach park is located in the city, Sadaf beach is 7 kilometers far from Astara city Astara is home to one of the first libraries established in the country. Rice has been cultivated in this region for many years, where some indigenous cultivars were conventionally bred by farmers. Astara has a humid subtropical climate with cold, wet winters and hot, humid summers; the majority of people in Astara speak the Azeri language. However, there is a sizeable Talysh minority in the city. Shia Islam is the predominant religion in the city, however there is a minority of Sunni Muslims. Fereydun Ebrahimi – Procurator-General in Azerbaijan People's Government Ebrahim Nabavi – Iranian journalist Behzad Behzadi – an author of Azerbaijani language dictionaries Payan Rafat – football player Kamal Habibollahi – last Commander of the Imperial Iranian Navy Islamic Azad University of Astara Astara, Azerbaijan Astarachay Kazi Magomed–Astara–Abadan pipeline Astara entry in the Encyclopædia Iranica Pazuki, Arman & Sohani, Mehdi.

"Phenotypic evaluation of scutellum-derived calluses in'Indica' rice cultivars". Acta Agriculturae Slovenica. 101: 239–247. Doi:10.2478/acas-2013-0020. Retrieved February 2, 2014