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8th Division (Australia)

The 8th Division was an infantry division of the Australian Army, formed during World War II as part of the all-volunteer Second Australian Imperial Force. The 8th Division was raised from volunteers for overseas service from July 1940 onwards. Consisting of three infantry brigades, the intention had been to deploy the division to the Middle East to join the other Australian divisions, but as war with Japan loomed in 1941, the division was divided into four separate forces, which were deployed in different parts of the Asia-Pacific region. All of these formations were destroyed as fighting forces by the end of February 1942 during the fighting for Singapore, in Rabaul and Timor. Most members of the division became prisoners of war, waiting until the war ended in late 1945 to be liberated. One in three died in captivity; the 8th Division began forming in July 1940, with its headquarters being established at Victoria Barracks, in Sydney. The division’s first commander was Major General Vernon Sturdee.

The third division raised as part of the all-volunteer Second Australian Imperial Force, the formation was raised amidst an influx of fresh volunteers for overseas service following Allied reverses in Europe. Consisting of around 20,000 personnel, its principal elements were three infantry brigades, with various supporting elements including a machine gun battalion, an anti-tank regiment, a divisional cavalry regiment, engineer and other logistic support units; each infantry brigade had an artillery regiment assigned. The three infantry brigades assigned to the division were the 22nd, 24th; these were raised in separate locations: the 22nd in New South Wales, the 23rd in Victoria and Tasmania and the 24th in the less populous states of Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. In September 1940, a reorganisation of the 2nd AIF resulted in the 24th Brigade being sent to North Africa, where it became part of the 9th Division, it was replaced in the 8th Division by the 27th Brigade, the last 2nd AIF brigade to be formed.

The division's cavalry regiment was transferred to the 9th Division. While it had been planned for the 8th Division to deploy to the Middle East, as the possibility of war with Japan loomed, the 22nd Brigade was sent instead to Malaya on 2 February 1941 to undertake garrison duties there following a British request for more troops; this was a temporary move, with plans for the brigade to rejoin the division, which would be transferred to the Middle East. Meanwhile, the 23rd Brigade moved to Darwin in April 1941; the 2/22nd Battalion was detached from it and deployed to Rabaul, New Britain that month, as part of plans to deploy to the islands to Australia's north in the event of war with Japan. The 27th Brigade joined the 22nd Brigade in August; the remainder of the 23rd Brigade was split into another two detachments: the 2/40th Battalion to Timor, while the 2/21st Battalion went to Ambon in the Dutch East Indies. In October 1941, the 23rd Brigade taken off the division’s order of battle, to simplify command arrangements, strained by the splitting of the division's brigades.

As war broke out in the Pacific Japanese forces based in Vichy French-controlled Indochina overran Thailand and invaded Malaya. The loss of two British capital ships, HMS Repulse and HMS Prince of Wales, off Malaya on 10 December 1941, neutralised Allied naval superiority, allowing the Japanese to perform amphibious assaults on the Malayan coast with much less resistance. Japanese forces met stiff resistance from III Corps of the Indian Army and British units in northern Malaya, but Japan's superiority in air power and infantry tactics forced the British and Indian units, who had few tanks and remained vulnerable to isolation and encirclement, back along the west coast towards Gemas and on the east coast towards Endau. On 14 January 1942, parts of the division went into action for the first time south of Kuala Lumpur, at Gemas and Muar; the 2/30th Battalion had some early success at the Gemencheh River Bridge, carrying out a large-scale ambush which destroyed a Japanese battalion. Following this, the Japanese attempted a flanking towards Muar.

The 2/29th and the 2/19th Battalions were detached as reinforcements for the 45th Indian Infantry Brigade, in danger of being overrun near the Muar River. By 22 January, a mixed force from the two battalions, with some Indian troops, had been isolated and forced to fight their way south to Yong Peng. Members of the Imperial Japanese Guards Division massacred about 135 Allied prisoners at Parit Sulong, following the fighting. Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Anderson, acting commander of the 2/19th, was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions in leading the break out. On the east coast, the 22nd Brigade fought a series of delaying actions around Mersing, as the Japanese advanced. On 26 January, the 2/18th Battalion launched an ambush around the Nithsdale and Joo Lye rubber plantations, which resulted in heavy Japanese casualties and held up their advance allowing the 22nd Brigade time to withdraw south. Meanwhile, the remainder of the 27th Brigade waged a rearguard action around the Ayer Hitam trunk road, while the 22nd Brigade was sent back to guard the north end of the Johore–Singapore Causeway which linked the Malayan Peninisula to Singapore, as Allied forces retreated.

As Allied forces in Malaya retreated towards Singapore, a 2,000-strong detachment of 8th Division reinforcements arrived in Singapore, including the 2/4th Machine Gun Battalion. These reinforcements were provided to the 2/19th and 2/29th Battalions wh

John Larkin (actor, born 1912)

John Larkin was an American actor whose nearly 30-year career was capped by his 1950s portrayal of two fictional criminal attorneys – Perry Mason on radio and Mike Karr on television daytime drama The Edge of Night. After having acted in an estimated 7,500 dramatic shows on radio, he devoted his final decade to television and, from April 1962 to January 1965, was a key member of the supporting cast in two prime-time series and made at least twenty major guest-starring appearances in many of the top drama series of the period. A native of the San Francisco Bay city of Oakland, Larkin developed a distinctively resonant voice suited to radio, the prime entertainment venue in American homes during the Depression 1930s. By the latter part of the decade, when he was in his mid-twenties, Larkin had worked for a number of stations, including KCKN and WHB in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, where he was an announcer and in Chicago, where he became known for versatility in performing announcing and hosting duties in addition to acting in front of the microphone for numerous scripted shows, including Vic and Sade, one of network radio's most popular programs of the 1930s, the one for which he received his first major credit as a radio actor.

He played Frankie McGinnis in the 1935–41 NBC radio soap opera Girl Alone, a role that included some singing. An item in Movie Radio Guide noted, "when the script calls for Frankie to sing, John Larkin does his own singing."Following military service in World War II, he established himself in the capital city of network radio, New York and, having become one of the medium's top dramatic voices, was offered, in 1947, the title role in CBS Radio Network's three-and-a-half-year-old afternoon crime serial, Perry Mason which, as was the case with all radio daytime dramas, consisted of an 11-minute script, broadcast Monday through Friday in a 15-minute time slot, including commercials and credits. A renowned criminal lawyer, Perry Mason was a fictional character created by attorney Erle Stanley Gardner who, starting in 1933, became one of America's best-selling mystery writers. Following his first appearance in book form, Mason was adapted to the big screen with three actors portraying him in six films produced by Warner Bros. between 1934 and 1937.

The radio show premiered during the middle of the war, in October 1943. While concerned with crime and legal procedure, it was still structured in the manner of a soap opera, with omnipresent organ music, laundry-product commercials from its sponsor, television's largest advertiser, Procter & Gamble, its 2:15 time slot, sandwiched between two "standard" soap dramas. A number of actors voiced Mason during the show's early years, with Bartlett Robinson, Santos Ortega and Donald Briggs, each performing for several months. Shortly before John Larkin took over the role in May 1947, Irving Vendig, who became the program's new head writer seven months earlier, reinvigorated Mason's personality and brought the show which, to Erle Stanley Gardner's dissatisfaction, had become less and less distinguishable from Procter & Gamble's domestic soaps, back to its courtroom theatrics and crime detection roots. Larkin's familiar authoritative voice had soon come to symbolize the Perry Mason radio persona and he remained with the role for eight-and-a-half years until the program's conclusion in December 1955.

During the show's run, he continued to perform in radio's numerous primetime dramas — as an example, in May 1948, he was in Lux Radio Theater's version of the 1946 Gary Cooper vehicle Cloak and Dagger, Ford Theater's versions of The Front Page, playing Hildy Johnson, as well as Laura, in which he voiced police lieutenant McPherson, who falls in love with the portrait of the title character. By the early- to mid-1950s, most of radio's entertainment and information programming had transferred to the new medium of television, with the process reaching its completion at the start of the 1960s. Although Larkin had done some television announcing and isolated acting appearances during the medium's early years, his first sustained work came in the final year of his Perry Mason radio run. Another Procter & Gamble radio soap, Road of Life, on the air since 1937, had initiated a separate TV version, which premiered on CBS' daytime schedule December 13, 1954. Following the pattern set by radio, much of daytime programming, including all soaps, was structured as 15-minute productions during television's first eight years of full-schedule broadcasting.

The show's leading characters, Dr. Jim Brent, a surgeon, his wife, were played by daytime veterans Don MacLaughlin and Virginia Dwyer who voiced the roles in the radio version. Nine months after the show's cancellation on July 1, 1955, MacLaughlin and one of radio's earlier Perry Masons, Santos Ortega, would spend thirty and twenty years on one of daytime's first two half-hour soaps, As the World Turns. John Larkin, as Dr. Brent's friend, Frank Dana, had a medium-sized role amidst the show's large supporting cast, including thirty-year-old Jack Lemmon who in the year, would be cast in his Oscar-winning role as Ensign Pulver in Mister Roberts. Larkin played Frank Dana for the first four months of the show's course, with another actor playing the part in subsequent episodes. Road of Life lasted only six-and-a-half months on TV, but continued on radio for another four years ending its twenty-two-year run in 1959. Larkin remained with Perry Mason until its final episode at the end of the year and was immediately offered a continuation of the role on television.

Procter & Gamble could not, come to terms with Erle Stanley Gardne

Mission-driven marketing

Mission-driven marketing, or mission-based marketing refers to a strategic marketing approach which uses an organization’s core mission as the foundation and focus of its marketing communications. Philosophically, it is based on the organization’s desire to promote the purpose and goals of the organization, as outlined in its mission statement, to communicate the benefits of achieving those goals to its stakeholders; the term, mission-driven marketing, has been associated with the non-profit sector, non-governmental organizations, as early as 1998. Mission-driven marketing philosophy and strategy has been applied in the healthcare and education sectors, is being adopted by businesses as part of their corporate social responsibility and philanthropy initiatives. A mission-driven, or mission-based organization can be non-profit or for-profit, public or private, governmental or non-governmental, philanthropic or religious. Mission-driven organizations, are formed and/or managed to accomplish goals that extend beyond profits for stakeholders and owners to include a societal benefit.

This could include an array of focus areas such as, youth development, protecting the environment, caring for the sick, fighting poverty, promoting spirituality. Companies who adopt fair trade or environmental sustainability business practices could be considered as an organization with a mission-driven focus. Values based organizations are mission-driven. Therefore, central to mission-driven marketing philosophy is adherence to the organization's core values, using its mission statement as the basis for planning and implementation of marketing strategy. Market factors are taken into account, it has been defined as being "mission-based and market driven". Such businesses are being referred to as a "conscious business", or engaging in "conscious capitalism"; the organization's values provide a foundation for its marketing messages. Mission statement Social marketing Social entrepreneurship Social enterprise Relationship marketing Non-profit organization Corporate social responsibility Cause marketing Green marketing Fair Trade

Gustav Nebehay

Gustav Nebehay was an Austrian art dealer and patron of the arts. In 1900, the Viennese bookseller Nebehay went to Leipzig, where he joined the company C. G. Boerner – one of the oldest German art shops, whose customer had been Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in former times. Soon, the prior rather nationally known company turned into a world-renown establishment in the field of old graphics. Nebehay’s clients included famous personalities such as the Austrian writer Stefan Zweig. In the following years, he rose to become a major graphic connoisseur and antiquary, as well as a leading specialist in the field of hand drawings of old masters. Nebehay was the first art dealer to produce his catalogues in various printings. In 1908, he married Carl Sonntag junior’s sister Marie Sonntag. Nine years in 1917, they moved to his hometown Vienna, where he opened his own art gallery at the Hotel Bristol and became partner of the bookseller V. A. Heck at Kärntnerring in Vienna’s first district. Nebehay was in professional and amicable contact with many well-known turn-of-the-century artists like Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele, Josef Hoffmann.

Gustav Klimt, for example, dedicated three of his drawings to the Nebehay family. Nebehay was entrusted with the sale of Klimt’s and Schiele’s artistic legacies. Furthermore, he organized the first posthumous Schiele exhibition and the exhibition of Klimt's works on the Stoclet-Frieze. A photograph of Klimt's funeral shows Nebehay next to Klimt’s muse Emilie Flöge, the architect and founding member of the Wiener Werkstätte, Josef Hoffmann, the writer and salonnière Berta Zuckerkandl, the painter Ludwig Heinrich Jungnickel, the politician Julius Tandler. Nebehay funded and supported many Austrian artists. In 1917, for example, Egon Schiele wrote in a letter to his brother-in-law: "I found someone, interested in me." Nebehay published Schiele’s and Klimt’s first drawing catalogues. When Schiele visited an exhibition at the “Kunstverein Kärnten” at the Künstlerhaus in Klagenfurt, Carinthia, he was enthusiastic about one of the portraits of Herbert Boeckl and subsequently recommended the young artist to Gustav Nebehay.

Thereupon, Nebehay became Boeckl's funder. Amongst others, he financed the artist’s study trips to Paris and Sicily. After Nebehay’s early death in 1935, his eldest son Christian M. Nebehay continued to manage the family share at V. A. Heck. In 1945, he set up his own bookshop at Annagasse 18. Nebehay, Gustav. In: Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950. Volume 7. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1978. Nebehay, Christian M. Die goldenen Sessel meines Vaters. Vienna: Christian Brandstätter, 1983. Gustav Nebehay: Vienna History Wiki Gustav Nebehay: Getty Images

Rigs of Rods

Rigs of Rods is a free and open source vehicle-simulation game which uses soft-body physics to simulate the motion destruction and deformation of vehicles. The game uses a soft-body physics engine to simulates a network of interconnected nodes and gives the ability to simulate deformable objects. With this engine and their loads flex and deform as stresses are applied. Crashing into walls or terrain can permanently deform a vehicle until it is reset. Rigs of Rods was created as an off-road truck simulator, but has developed into a versatile physics sandbox game. Prior to version 0.28, the game was limited to typical land vehicles with wheels, but plane and boat engines have been added since. All engines allow for a wide range of customization, leaving no boundaries. Vehicles are built using vertices connected by beams. Vertices are influenced by the stress on the beams. If a beam is too stressed, it will deform, thus altering the associated nodes position which alters the appearance and handling of a vehicle.

Vehicle configurations are stored in plain text. Simple 2D skins can be made to wrap the vehicle, can be supplemented with static mesh objects. Recent development has allowed for static meshes to be deformed according to a skeleton of nodes, much like the system in the game 1nsane; this system is known as Flexbody, has been included since version.36. The mapping system uses terrain data defined in a raw image file, such as that found in a digital elevation model which can be used to form a realistic surface. Terrains can be made using any other program that can generate a white raw image format; this means that maps can be made from any image. As a sandbox, Rigs of Rods has no fundamental gameplay goal, but scripting support contributes to missions and game play interaction like the timing of checkpoints along a road or dragstrips. Lua was supported as the scripting engine, but it has now been replaced by AngelScript since version 0.38. Multiplayer support allows over 64 users to interact on a playing field.

Physicist Brian Beckman described Rigs of Rods as "one of the best driving simulations I have seen." Rigs of Rods was featured in PC Gamer UK in the Christmas 2007 edition. French magazine MicroSim previewed Rigs of Rods in their June 2008 issue. Rigs of Rods author, Pierre-Michel Ricordel, was invited to talk about the game at the French convention, Libre Software Meeting on July 10, 2009. In 2011, some Rigs of Rods developers gathered to create a new commercial product called BeamNG.drive using the basics from what they had learned making Rigs of Rods. List of open source games Official website Rigs of Rods on SourceForge.net Rigs of Rods on GitHub