Royal Bank of Scotland
The Royal Bank of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Banca Rìoghail na h-Alba, Scots: Ryal Bank o Scotland abbreviated as RBS, is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, together with NatWest and Ulster Bank. The Royal Bank of Scotland has around 700 branches in Scotland, though there are branches in many larger towns and cities throughout England and Wales. Both the bank and its parent, The Royal Bank of Scotland Group, are separate from the fellow Edinburgh-based bank, the Bank of Scotland, which pre-dates The Royal Bank of Scotland by 32 years; the Royal Bank of Scotland was established in 1724 to provide a bank with strong Hanoverian and Whig ties. Following ring-fencing of the Group's core domestic business, the bank is expected to become a direct subsidiary of NatWest Holdings by 2019. NatWest Markets comprises the Group's investment banking arm. To give it legal form, the former RBS entity was renamed NatWest Markets in 2018. Drummond and Child & Co. businesses in England.
The bank traces its origin to the Society of the Subscribed Equivalent Debt, set up by investors in the failed Company of Scotland to protect the compensation they received as part of the arrangements of the 1707 Acts of Union. The "Equivalent Society" became the "Equivalent Company" in 1724, the new company wished to move into banking; the British government received the request favourably as the "Old Bank", the Bank of Scotland, was suspected of having Jacobite sympathies. Accordingly, the "New Bank" was chartered in 1727 as the Royal Bank of Scotland, with Archibald Campbell, Lord Ilay, appointed its first governor. On 31 May 1728, the Royal Bank of Scotland invented the overdraft, considered an innovation in modern banking, it allowed a merchant in the High Street of Edinburgh, access to £ 1,000 credit. Competition between the Old and New Banks was centred on the issue of banknotes; the policy of the Royal Bank was to either drive the Bank of Scotland out of business, or take it over on favourable terms.
The Royal Bank built up large holdings of the Bank of Scotland's notes, which it acquired in exchange for its own notes suddenly presented to the Bank of Scotland for payment. To pay these notes, the Bank of Scotland was forced to call in its loans and, in March 1728, to suspend payments; the suspension relieved the immediate pressure on the Bank of Scotland at the cost of substantial damage to its reputation, gave the Royal Bank a clear space to expand its own business—although the Royal Bank's increased note issue made it more vulnerable to the same tactics. Despite talk of a merger with the Bank of Scotland, the Royal Bank did not possess the wherewithal to complete the deal. By September 1728, the Bank of Scotland was able to start redeeming its notes again, with interest, in March 1729, it resumed lending. To prevent similar attacks in the future, the Bank of Scotland put an "option clause" on its notes, giving it the right to make the notes interest-bearing while delaying payment for six months.
Both banks decided that the policy they had followed was mutually self-destructive and a truce was arranged, but it still took until 1751 before the two banks agreed to accept each other's notes. The bank opened its first branch office outside Edinburgh in 1783 when it opened one in Glasgow, in part of a draper's shop in the High Street. Further branches were opened in Dundee, Dalkeith, Port Glasgow, Leith in the first part of the nineteenth century. In 1821, the bank moved from its original head office in Edinburgh's Old Town to Dundas House, on St. Andrew Square in the New Town; the building as seen along George Street forms the eastern end of the central vista in New Town. It was designed for Sir Lawrence Dundas by Sir William Chambers as a Palladian mansion, completed in 1774. An axial banking hall behind the building, designed by John Dick Peddie, was added in 1857; the banking hall continues in use as a branch of the bank, Dundas House remains the registered head office of the bank to this day.
The rest of the nineteenth century saw the bank pursue mergers with other Scottish banks, chiefly as a response to failing institutions. The assets and liabilities of the Western Bank were acquired following its collapse in 1857. By 1910, the Royal Bank of Scotland had around 900 staff. In 1969, the bank merged with the National Commercial Bank of Scotland to become the largest clearing bank in Scotland; the expansion of the British Empire in the latter half of the nineteenth century saw the emergence of London as the largest financial centre in the world, attracting Scottish banks to expand southward into England. The first London branch of the Royal Bank of Scotland opened in 1874. However, English banks moved to prevent further expansion by Scottish banks into England. An agreement was reached, under which English banks would not open branches in Scotland and Scottish banks would not open branches in England outside London; this agreement remained in place until the 1960s, although various cross-border acquisitions were permitted.
The Royal Bank's English expansion plans were resurrected after World War I, when it acquired various small English banks, includin
Wolff Olins is a brand consultancy, based in London, New York City and San Francisco. Founded in 1965, it now employs 150 designers, technologists, programme managers and educators, has been part of the Omnicom Group since 2001, it has worked in sectors including technology, retail, energy & utilities and non-profit. In 2012, the London 2012 brand, developed by Wolff Olins in 2007, was included in Extraordinary Stories about Ordinary Things, an exhibition of design that has shaped the modern world at The Design Museum in London. However, despite costing £400,000 the logo was largely criticised by the British public, being described as'puerile'. In 2012 the Orange and London 2012 brands were included in a retrospective examining design from 1948 - 2012 at the V&A in London. In 2012, the firm was recognised by The Sunday Times as being one of the Best Small Companies to work for and by Ad Age as one of the Best Places to Work in media and marketing. In 2018 Wolf Olins was named the most innovative design firm in the world by Fast Company.
Wolff Olins was founded in Camden Town, London, in 1965 by designer Michael Wolff and advertising executive Wally Olins. Wolff left the business in 1983, Olins in 2001. Wolff Olins has offices in London, New York City and San Francisco. In 2002, Wolff Olins was selected by the British Library as a subject of their National Life Stories oral history project. In 2017, Sairah Ashman was appointed as the first female CEO of Wolff Olins. From 1965 to the early 1990s, Wolff Olins developed corporate identities for various large European companies. During this time Olins published Corporate Identity. Olins defined corporate identity as "strategy made visible", the firm worked with companies including BOC, The Beatles' Apple Records, Volkswagen's VAG, 3i, Prudential and BT. During the 1990s, Wolff Olins focused more on corporate branding; the company's work during that time includes First Direct, Odeon, Heathrow Express, Tata Group. More recent work has included Tate, GE, Manpower, Sony Ericsson, RED, London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, New York City, Mercedes-Benz, Tata DoCoMo, AOL, Target's Up and Up brand, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Asian Art Museum, Hero MotoCorp, the Smithsonian, NBCUniversal, USA Today, Skype, Cyient, ZocDoc, The Met, Oi, GrubHub Seamless, Virgin Active and Genesis Beijing, an urban redevelopment project, Wolff Olins Oral History of Wolff Olins on British Library's National Life Stories
British Rail Class 333
The British Rail Class 333 is an electric multiple unit with a top speed of 100 mph. These trains are operated by Northern and are based on the Class 332 units operated by Heathrow Express. Sixteen three-car units were introduced in early 2000 by Northern Spirit and are now operated by Northern, they replaced the Class 308 slam-door units on the Wharfedale and Airedale lines in West Yorkshire and North Yorkshire. They are based at the Neville Hill depot in Leeds and painted in the livery of West Yorkshire Metro, the local passenger transport executive. Due to increased passenger numbers, the units were lengthened to four cars, 333001–333008 in 2002 and 333009–333016 in 2003, funded by Metro and the Strategic Rail Authority. However, this funding ran out in 2007 and as a consequence of this the fourth cars could have been removed. Had this happened the four-car Class 321s would have been removed from Doncaster services to Wharfedale and Airedale services; this means that the fourth cars are now funded by South Yorkshire PTE, despite running in South Yorkshire, to ensure that four-car units are available on Doncaster services.
Units 333002 and 333004 received the new livery by September 2008, but the finish of the vinyls was unsatisfactory. New vinyls were acquired and the whole fleet was reliveried by mid-2009. Beginning in late 2018, the entire fleet of 16 is going under a complete refurbishment. There will be a new livery and a refreshed interior. At-seat plug points and customer information screens will be installed at a date. Along with the Class 321 and Class 322 units, these trains were fitted with free Wi-Fi facilities in 2015; the units are capable of 100 mph. They have standard class only 2+3 high-density seating, each set has one toilet, they are fitted with Scharfenberg couplers at each end and are only compatible within their own class. "RRNE confirms orders for 16 Class 333 EMUs for West Yorkshire". RAIL. No. 327. EMAP Apex Publications. 25 March – 7 April 1998. P. 10. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699
Train Protection & Warning System
The Train Protection & Warning System is a train protection system used throughout the two UK passenger main-line railway networks, in Victoria, Australia. The UK Rail Safety and Standards Board's definition is: The purpose of TPWS is to stop a train by automatically initiating a brake demand, where TPWS track equipment is fitted, if the train has: passed a signal at danger without authority approached a signal at danger too fast approached a reduction in permissible speed too fast approached buffer stops too fast. TPWS is not designed to prevent SPADs but to mitigate against the consequences of a SPAD, by preventing a train that has had a SPAD from reaching a conflict point ahead of the signal. A standard installation consists of an on-track transmitter adjacent to a signal, activated when the signal is at danger. A train that passes the signal will have its emergency brake activated. If the train is travelling at speed, this may be too late to stop it before the point of collision, therefore a second transmitter may be placed on the approach to the signal that applies the brakes on trains going too to stop at the signal, positioned to stop trains approaching at up to 75 mph.
At around 400 high-risk locations, TPWS+ is installed with a third transmitter further in rear of the signal increasing the effectiveness to 100 mph. When installed in conjunction with signal controls such as'double blocking', TPWS can be effective at any realistic speed. TPWS is not the same as train stops which accomplish a similar task using electro-mechanical technology. Buffer stop protection using train stops is known as ‘Moorgate protection' or'Moorgate control’. TPWS was developed by British Rail and its successor Railtrack, as a development of the Automatic Warning System after a 1994 decision that the nationwide installation of a full Automatic Train Protection system was not practicable. Trial installations of track side and train mounted equipment were made in 1997, with trials and development continuing over the next two years; the rollout of TPWS accelerated when the Railway Safety Regulations 1999 came into force in 2003, requiring the installation of train stops at a number of types of location.
However, in March 2001 the'Joint Inquiry Into Train Protection Systems' report found that TPWS had a number of limitations, that while it provided a cheap stop-gap prior to the widescale introduction of ATP and ERTMS, nothing should impede the installation of the much more capable European Train Control System. A pair of electronic loops is placed 50–450 metres on the approach side of the signal, energised when it is at danger; the distance between the loops determines the minimum speed at which the on board equipment will apply the train's emergency brake. When the train's TPWS receiver passes over the first loop a timer begins to count down. If the second loop is passed before the timer has reached zero, the TPWS will activate; the further the pair of loops is from the signal, the more spaced they will be. There is another pair of loops at the signal energised when the signal is at danger; these will stop a train that runs past the signal. In a standard installation there are two pairs of loops, colloquially referred to as "grids" or "toast racks".
Both pairs consist of a ` trigger' loop. If the signal is at danger the loops will be energised. If the signal is clear, the loops will de-energise; the first pair, the Over Speed Sensor, is sited at a position determined by line gradient. The loops are separated by a distance that should not be traversed within less than a pre-determined period of time if the train is running at a safe speed approaching the signal at danger. Due to different braking characteristics freight engines operate at 120% of the passenger timing; the first,'arming', loop emits a frequency of 64.25 kHz. The second,'trigger', loop has a frequency of 65.25 kHz. The other pair of loops is back to back at the signal, is called a Train Stop Sensor. The'arming' and ` trigger' loops work at 65.25 kHz respectively. The brakes will be applied if the on-train equipment detects both frequencies together after having detected the arming frequency alone. Thus, an energised TSS is effective at any speed, but only if a train passes it in the right direction.
Since a train may be required to pass a signal at danger during failure etc, the driver has the option to override a TSS, but not an OSS. When a subsidiary signal associated with a main aspect signal is cleared for a shunting movement, the TSS loops are de-energised, but the OSS loops remain active. Where trains are signalled in opposite directions on an individual line it could be possible for an unwarranted TPWS intervention to occur as a train travelled between an OSS arming and either trigger loops that were in fact associated with different signals. To cater for this situation one signal would be nominated the ‘normal direction’ and fitted with ‘ND’ equipment; the other signal would be fitted with ` WD' equipment. Wrong direction TPWS transmission frequencies are different, working at 64.75, 66.75, 65.75 kHz. At the lineside there are two modules associated with each set of loops: a Signal Interface Module and an OSS or TSS module; these generate the frequencies for the loops, prove the loops are intact.
They interface with the signalling system. SIM Modules are colour coded red ND TSS Modules are colour coded green WD TSS Modules are colour coded brown ND OSS Modules are colour coded yellow WD OSS Modules are colour coded blue Every traction unit is fitted with a. TPWS control panel (sta
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Regenerative braking is an energy recovery mechanism which slows a vehicle or object by converting its kinetic energy into a form which can be either used or stored until needed. In this mechanism, the electric motor uses the vehicle's momentum to recover energy that would be otherwise lost to the brake discs as heat; this contrasts with conventional braking systems, where the excess kinetic energy is converted to unwanted and wasted heat by friction in the brakes, or with dynamic brakes, where energy is recovered by using electric motors as generators but is dissipated as heat in resistors. In addition to improving the overall efficiency of the vehicle, regeneration can extend the life of the braking system as its parts do not wear as quickly; the most common form of regenerative brake involves an electric motor as an electric generator. In electric railways the electricity generated. In battery electric and hybrid electric vehicles, the energy is stored chemically in a battery, electrically in a bank of capacitors, or mechanically in a rotating flywheel.
Hydraulic hybrid vehicles use hydraulic motors to store energy in the form of compressed air. In a fuel cell powered vehicle, the electric energy generated by the motor is used to break waste water down into oxygen, hydrogen which goes back into the fuel cell for reuse. Regenerative braking is not by itself sufficient as the sole means of safely bringing a vehicle to a standstill, or slowing it as required, so it must be used in conjunction with another braking system such as friction-based braking; the regenerative braking effect drops off at lower speeds, cannot bring a vehicle to a complete halt reasonably with current technology, although some cars like the Chevrolet Bolt can bring the vehicle to a complete stop on surfaces when the driver knows the vehicle's regenerative braking distance. This is referred to as One Pedal Driving. Current regenerative brakes do not immobilize a stationary vehicle. Many road vehicles with regenerative braking do not have drive motors on all wheels. For safety, the ability to brake all wheels is required.
The regenerative braking effect available is limited, mechanical braking is still necessary for substantial speed reductions, to bring a vehicle to a stop, or to hold a vehicle at a standstill. Regenerative and friction braking must both be used, creating the need to control them to produce the required total braking; the GM EV-1 was the first commercial car to do this. In 1997 and 1998 engineers Abraham Farag and Loren Majersik were issued two patents for this brake-by-wire technology. Early applications suffered from a serious safety hazard: in many early electric vehicles with regenerative braking, the same controller positions were used to apply power and to apply the regenerative brake, with the functions being swapped by a separate manual switch; this led to a number of serious accidents when drivers accidentally accelerated when intending to brake, such as the runaway train accident in Wädenswil, Switzerland in 1948, which killed twenty-one people. Electric motors, when used in reverse function as generators, convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Vehicles propelled by electric motors use them as generators when using regenerative braking, braking by transferring mechanical energy from the wheels to an electrical load. Early examples of this system were the front-wheel drive conversions of horse-drawn cabs by Louis Antoine Krieger in Paris in the 1890s; the Krieger electric landaulet had a drive motor in each front wheel with a second set of parallel windings for regenerative braking. In England, "automatic regenerative control" was introduced to tramway operators by John S. Raworth's Traction Patents 1903–1908, offering them economic and operational benefits as explained in some detail by his son Alfred Raworth; these included tramway systems at Devonport, Birmingham, Crystal Palace-Croydon, many others. Slowing the speed of the cars or keeping it in control on descending gradients, the motors worked as generators and braked the vehicles; the tram cars had wheel brakes and track slipper brakes which could stop the tram should the electric braking systems fail.
In several cases the tram car motors were shunt wound instead of series wound, the systems on the Crystal Palace line utilized series-parallel controllers. Following a serious accident at Rawtenstall, an embargo was placed on this form of traction in 1911. Regenerative braking has been in extensive use on railways for many decades; the Baku-Tbilisi-Batumi railway started utilizing regenerative braking in the early 1930s. This was effective on the steep and dangerous Surami Pass. In Scandinavia the Kiruna to Narvik electrified railway carries iron ore on the steeply-graded route from the mines in Kiruna, in the north of Sweden, down to the port of Narvik in Norway to this day; the rail cars are full of thousands of tons of iron ore on the way down to Narvik, these trains generate large amounts of electricity by regenerative braking, with a maximum recuperative braking force of 750 kN. From Riksgränsen on the national border to the Port of Narvik, the trains use only a fifth of the power they regenerate.
The regenerated energy is sufficient to power the empty trains back up to the national border. Any excess energy from the railway is pumped into the power grid to supply homes and businesses in the region, the railway is a net generator of electricity. Ele