A hereditary carrier, is a person or other organism that has inherited a recessive allele for a genetic trait or mutation but does not display that trait or show symptoms of the disease. Carriers are, able to pass the allele onto their offspring, who may express the genetic if they inherit the recessive allele from both parents; the chance of two carriers having a child with the disease is 25%. This phenomenon is a direct result of the recessive nature of many genes. Queen Victoria, her daughters Princesses Alice and Beatrix, were carriers of the X-linked hemophilia gene. Both had children who continued to pass on the gene to succeeding generations of the royal houses of Spain and Russia, into which they married. Since males only have one X chromosome, males who carried the altered gene had hemophilia B. Females have two X chromosomes, so one copy of an X-linked recessive gene would cause them to be an asymptomatic carrier; these females passed it to half of their children. Up to 1 in 25 individuals of Northern European ancestry may be considered carriers of mutations that can lead to cystic fibrosis.
The disease appears only when two of these carriers have children, as each pregnancy between them will have a 25% chance of producing a child with the disease. However, it is thought that carriers of CF may be more resistant to diarrhea during typhoid fever or cholera, are therefore not asymptomatic; this resistance leads to increased fitness of the carriers, known as a heterozygote advantage, thereby increases the frequency of the altered genes in the population. Although only about 1 of every 3,000 Caucasian newborns has CF, there are more than 900 known mutations of the gene that causes CF. Current tests look for the most common mutations. Genetic testing can be used to tell if a person carries one or more mutations of the CF gene and how many copies of each mutation; the test looks at a person’s DNA, taken from cells in a blood sample or from cells that are scraped from inside the mouth. The mutations screened by the test vary according to a person's ethnic group or by the occurrence of CF in the family.
More than 10 million Americans, including 1 in 25 Caucasian Americans, are carriers of one mutation of the CF gene. CF is present in other races, though not as as in Caucasian individuals. 1 in 46 Hispanic Americans, 1 in 65 African Americans, 1 in 90 Asian Americans carry a mutation of the CF gene. Sickle cell anemia is the most common genetic disorder among African Americans in the United States. While 8% are carriers, 1 in 375 African Americans are born with the disease. Carriers are asymptomatic, but they may show symptoms at high altitudes or under oxygen-poor environments as in instances of extreme exercise. Carriers are known to be resistant to malaria, suggesting there is a heterozygote advantage in certain regions of Africa; this is a probable explanation for why the disease is most prevalent among African Americans
The International Cat Association
The International Cat Association is considered the world's largest genetic cat registry. A North American organization, it now has a worldwide presence; the organization has a genetic registry for pedigreed and household pet cats and is one of the world's largest sanctioning bodies for cat shows. TICA's activities include: encouraging its members to be owners and breeders of cats who work together to promote the preservation of pedigreed cats and the health and welfare of domestic cats maintaining a certified pedigree registry providing cat shows which promote both pedigreed and non-pedigreed cats promoting positive relations between breeders in the USA and other countries setting up a foundation to encourage research on feline health issues and to provide lists of resource materials on health issues to its members TICA administers the rules for the licensing and management of hundreds of cat shows annually in 104 countries; the TICA show season runs from May 1 to April 30 of a given year at which point all Regional and International Award points are reset.
All TICA shows are open to the public. A TICA cat show is a number of smaller shows all running at the same time in various “rings” throughout the show hall; each ring is run by a licensed TICA judge who evaluates each cat based on a written standard that describes the ideal for each particular breed. Household pets and household pet kittens, are not judged against a standard but instead are evaluated on overall condition, health and personality. TICA recognizes cats for competition in 8 classes; each class is judged separately. For example, alters are not judged against kittens; each cat entered in the show is assigned an identifying number based on its class and coat length so that exhibitors know when their cats are needed in a ring. In the rare instance where there are more cats than fit in the range of numbers, the next class starts with the first available number. For example, if there are 55 longhair kittens those kittens are 1-55, the shorthair kittens would start at 56. A typical judging ring is made up of an L or U shaped arrangement of cages, with the judge’s table in the center.
Three people work in each judging ring: the judge and steward. All TICA judges are trained and licensed to evaluate each breed of cat in order of how well they represent their individual breed standard; the clerk acts as an executive assistant to the judge. They are responsible for the accuracy of all records of the ring; each clerk keeps a marked catalog of the results of the ring and validates that what the judge writes in their own records is how the awards were presented in their evaluation to the audience. A steward helps keeps the cages clean and disinfected in between cats in order to prevent illnesses from spreading. There are two types of judging rings at TICA shows and Specialty. Allbreed rings will have all longhair cats and shorthair cats within each class judged together in competition with one another. In a Specialty ring, longhair cats within each class are only judged against longhair cats and shorthair cats are only judged against shorthair cats. Regardless of the ring type, each judge evaluates every cat entered in the show.
The cat show competition is structured like a pyramid. First, all of the entries are divided into their respective classes. Within each of these classes, cats are called to the judging ring according to breed and color/pattern; the judge handles each cat placed in the judging ring. Each cat is taken from their cage, placed on the judging table and evaluated against the written standard for the breed; some judges will use toys to get a better look at a cat’s eye shape, ear size and placement and overall balance. Although some associations make a cat’s title known, the only information provided to a TICA judge about each cat is its: breed, color and age; the judge has no way of knowing if it is the cat’s first show or how it has performed in other rings. After the judge is done evaluating each cat in a breed group, they will hang a colored ribbons on the cat's cages to award Best of Color and Division. TICA does not have Best of Breed ribbons but the judge will announce their choices and note their selections in the Judge's Book.
The clerk will write down each of these selections for the record. Best of Color: The judge will first award the best of color through the 5th Best of Color for each breed. For example, if seven blue British Shorthairs are competing; the cat is judged against the whole breed standard, not just color. Out of the seven British Shorthairs competing they are judged against how the fulfill the full British Shorthair standard. “Best of Color” does not mean that the cat has the best blue coat. All Household Pets and Household Pet Kittens will receive a Best of Color award regardless of how many cats of a particular color there are. Best of Division: From the color winners, the judge will select a Best and Third Best of Division. For example, the seven blue British Shorthairs belong to the Traditional Solid Division. Other solid colored British Shorthairs would be judged in the Solid Division. Tabbies would be judged in the tabby division and so forth. Household Pet Kittens do not receive division awards.
Best of Breed: Once a judge has selected their First through Third of Division cats, they will select Best and Third Best of Breed from all of the breed’s divisions. Household Pet and Household Pet Kittens do not receive breed awards. After the judge has seen all of the cats in a particular class, they decide on their best exhibits of each breed and ask for
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
The British Shorthair is the pedigreed version of the traditional British domestic cat, with a distinctively chunky body, dense coat and broad face. The most familiar color variant is the "British Blue", a solid blue-gray with copper eyes, medium tail, but the breed has been developed in a wide range of other colours and patterns, including tabby and colorpoint, it is one of the most ancient cat breeds known originating from European domestic cats imported into Britain by the invading Romans in the first century AD. In modern times, it remains the most popular pedigreed breed in its native country, as registered by the UK's Governing Council of the Cat Fancy; the breed's good-natured appearance and calm temperament make it a frequent media star, notably as the inspiration for John Tenniel's famous illustration of the Cheshire Cat from Alice in Wonderland. The Cat Fanciers' Association profile reads: "When gracelessness is observed, the British Shorthair is duly embarrassed recovering with a'Cheshire cat smile'”.
The origins of the British Shorthair most date back to the first century AD, making it one of the most ancient identifiable cat breeds in the world. It is thought that the invading Romans brought Egyptian domestic cats to Great Britain. Over the centuries, their isolated descendants developed into distinctively large, robust cats with a short but thick coat, the better to withstand conditions on their native islands. Based on artists' representations, the modern British Shorthair is unchanged from this initial type. Selective breeding of the best examples of the type began in the nineteenth century, with emphasis on developing the unusual blue-grey variant called the "British Blue" or "English type" in particular; some sources directly credit UK artist and pioneering cat fancier Harrison Weir with the initial concept of standardizing the breed. The new British Shorthair was featured at the first-ever cat show, organised by Weir and held at the Crystal Palace in London in 1871, enjoyed great initial popularity.
By the 1890s, with the advent of the newly imported Persian and other long-haired breeds, the British Shorthair had fallen out of favour, breeding stock had become critically rare by World War I. At least to alleviate this, British Shorthair breeders mixed Persians into their bloodlines; the genes thus introduced would become the basis for the British Longhair. As all cats with the "blue" colouration were judged together as variants on a de facto single breed, the Blue Shorthair, outcrossings of the British with the Russian Blue were common. After the war, in an attempt to maintain the breed standard, the GCCF decided to accept only third-generation Persian/British Shorthair crosses; this contributed to another shortage of pure breeding stock by World War II, at which point the Persian and Russian Blue were reintroduced into the mix. British Shorthair breeders worked with the French Chartreux, another ancient breed, which although genetically unrelated to the British Blue is a similar cat in appearance.
After the war, breeders worked to re-establish the true British type, by the late 1970s the distinctive British Shorthair had achieved formal recognition from both the American a and The International Cat Association. According to the GCCF's 2013 registry data, it is once again the most popular pedigreed breed in its native country; the British Shorthair is a powerful-looking large cat, having a broad chest, strong thick-set legs with rounded paws and a medium-length, blunt-tipped tail. The head is large and rounded, with a short muzzle, broad cheeks and large round eyes that are deep coppery orange in the British Blue and otherwise vary in colour depending on the coat, their large ears are broad and set. The'British Blue' variant can be confused with the grey Scottish Fold. However, the Shorthair can be characterised by having its pointy triangle ears, whereas the Fold has softer, folded ears, they are slow to mature in comparison with most cat breeds, reaching full physical development at three years of age.
Unusually among domestic cats they are a noticeably sexually dimorphic breed, with males averaging 9–17 lb and females 7–12 lb. The British Shorthair's coat is one of the breed's defining features, it is dense but does not have an undercoat. Although the British Blue remains the most familiar variant, British Shorthairs have been developed in many other colours and patterns. Black, white, cream, golden and—most recently—cinnamon and fawn are accepted by all official standards, either solid or in colourpoint, tabby and bicolour patterns. All colours and patterns have tortoiseshell variants; the Tabby patterns include: Classic Tabby, Mackerel Tabby, Spotted & Ticked Tabby. The non-tabby patterns include: Tortoiseshell, Bi-Colour, Van patterns Bi-Colour & White, Tipped & Colourpointed, they are an easygoing and dignified breed, not as active and playful as many but sweet-natured and devoted to their owners, making them a favourite of animal trainers. They tend to be safe around other pets and children since they wi
E. B. White
Elwyn Brooks White was an American writer and a world federalist. For more than fifty years, he was a contributor to The New Yorker magazine, he was a co-author of the English language style guide The Elements of Style. In addition, he wrote books for children, including Stuart Little, Charlotte's Web, The Trumpet of the Swan. In a 2012 survey of School Library Journal readers, Charlotte's Web was voted the top children's novel. White was born in Mount Vernon, New York, the youngest child of Samuel Tilly White, the president of a piano firm, Jessie Hart White, the daughter of Scottish-American painter William Hart. Elwyn's older brother Stanley Hart White, known as Stan, a professor of landscape architecture and the inventor of the Vertical Garden, taught E. B. White to explore the natural world. White graduated from Cornell University with a bachelor of arts degree in 1921, he got the nickname "Andy" at Cornell, where tradition confers that moniker on any male student whose surname is White, after Cornell co-founder Andrew Dickson White.
While at Cornell, he worked as editor of The Cornell Daily Sun with classmate Allison Danzig, who became a sportswriter for The New York Times. White was a member of the Aleph Samach and Quill and Dagger societies and Phi Gamma Delta fraternity. After graduation, White worked for the United Press and the American Legion News Service in 1921 and 1922. In 1922–23, he was a cub reporter for The Seattle Times. On one occasion, when White was stuck writing a story, a Times editor said, "Just say the words." He worked for two years with the Frank Seaman advertising agency as a production assistant and copywriter before returning to New York City in 1924. When The New Yorker was founded in 1925, White submitted manuscripts to it. Katharine Angell, the literary editor, recommended to editor-in-chief and founder Harold Ross that White be hired as a staff writer. However, it took months to convince him to come to a meeting at the office and additional weeks to convince him to work on the premises, he agreed to work in the office on Thursdays.
White was shy around women, claiming he had “too small a heart, too large a pen." But in 1929, culminating an affair which led to her divorce and Katherine Angell were married. They had a son, Joel White, a naval architect and boat builder, who owned Brooklin Boat Yard in Brooklin, Maine. Katharine's son from her first marriage, Roger Angell, has spent decades as a fiction editor for The New Yorker and is well known as the magazine's baseball writer. In her foreword to Charlotte's Web, Kate DiCamillo quotes White as saying, "All that I hope to say in books, all that I hope to say, is that I love the world." White loved animals and farming implements and weather formats. James Thurber described White as a quiet man who disliked publicity and who, during his time at The New Yorker, would slip out of his office via the fire escape to a nearby branch of Schrafft's to avoid visitors whom he didn't know. Most of us, out of a politeness made up of faint curiosity and profound resignation, go out to meet the smiling stranger with a gesture of surrender and a fixed grin, but White has always taken to the fire escape.
He has avoided the Man in the Reception Room as he has avoided the interviewer, the photographer, the microphone, the rostrum, the literary tea, the Stork Club. His life is his own, he is the only writer of prominence I know of who could walk through the Algonquin lobby or between the tables at Jack and Charlie's and be recognized only by his friends. White had Alzheimer's disease and died on October 1, 1985, at his farm home in North Brooklin, Maine, he is buried in the Brooklin Cemetery beside Katharine, who died in 1977. E. B. White published his first article in The New Yorker in 1925 joined the staff in 1927 and continued to contribute for six decades. Best recognized for his essays and unsigned "Notes and Comment" pieces, he became the magazine's most important contributor. From the beginning to the end of his career at The New Yorker, he provided what the magazine calls "Newsbreaks" under various categories such as "Block That Metaphor." He was a columnist for Harper's Magazine from 1938 to 1943.
In 1949, White published Here Is New York, a short book based on an article he had been commissioned to write for Holiday. Editor Ted Patrick approached White about writing the essay telling him it would be fun. "Writing is never'fun,' " replied White. That article reflects the writer's appreciation of a city that provides its residents with both "the gift of loneliness and the gift of privacy." It concludes with a dark note touching on the forces. This prescient "love letter" to the city was re-published in 1999 on his centennial with an introduction by his stepson, Roger Angell. In 1959, White updated The Elements of Style; this handbook of grammatical and stylistic guidance for writers of American English was first written and published in 1918 by William Strunk Jr. one of White's professors at Cornell. White's reworking of the book was well received, editions followed in 1972, 1979, 1999. Maira Kalman illustrated an edition in 2005; that same year, a New York composer named. The volume is a standard tool for students and writers and remains required reading in many composition classes.
The complete history of The Elements of Style is detailed in Mark Garvey's Stylized: A Slightly Obsessive History of Strunk & White's The Elements of Style. In 1978, White won a special Pul
Dilution gene is a popular term for any one of a number of genes that act to create a lighter coat color in living creatures. There are many examples of such genes: Diluted coat colors have melanocytes, but vary from darker colors due to the concentration or type of these pigment-producing cells, not their absence. Pigment dilution, sometimes referred to as hypomelanism, has been called leucism, ghosting and isabellinism. Albinism describes a condition where there is no color pigment Leucism describes a condition that creates loss of pigment cells Cat coat genetics discusses many dilution genes in cats Equine coat color genetics discusses color genes in horses, including a brief description of dilution genes Equine coat color describes various colors in horses Cream gene, describes the process for horses by which the cremello, smoky cream double-dilute colors are created as well as the buckskin and smoky black single dilute colors. Dun gene describes another common dilution gene in horses Champagne gene, describes a different and rarer dilution gene in horses that creates cream coloring, pale skin with mottling and light-colored eyes.
Pearl gene called the "Barlink factor", is a recessive gene. One copy of the allele has no effect on the coat color of black, chestnut horses. Two copies on a chestnut horse produce a pale, uniform apricot color of body hair and tail as well as pale skin, it interacts with Cream dilution to produce "pseudo-double" Cream dilutes with pale skin and blue or green eyes. Silver dapple gene, describes a dilution gene that works in a unique manner, lighting the mane and tail of a horse to a greater degree than the body color White describes several unique genetic processes that create white, not diluted, color in horses. Gray explains the process of the gray gene, which lightens the coat over time, but is not a dilution gene. Mushroom describes an unknown and unmapped theorized dilution gene dilutes red pigment in body color to a pale beige color. Wikispecies:Felis sylvestris catus wikispecies:Equus caballus
The Persian cat is a long-haired breed of cat characterized by its round face and short muzzle. It is known as the "Persian Longhair" in the English-speaking countries. In the Middle East region they are known as "Iranian cat" and in Iran they are known as "Shirazi cat"; the first documented ancestors of the Persian were imported into Italy from Iran around 1620. The exact history of the Persian cat does seem to be a bit of a mystery but many of these long-haired cats were seen in hieroglyphics; the story has it that these long-haired cats were imported into Europe as their popularity grew and breeding took place in Italy and France. The Persian cat was first presented at the world's first organised cat show in 1871 in London, before making its way to the United States of America in the early 1900s; the Persian cat breeding standards have always called for a cat with a short face, but it's important to note that the Persian cat had a much longer nose than the flat-faced Persians of today. Hereditary polycystic kidney disease is prevalent in the breed, affecting half the population in some countries.
In 2015 it was ranked as the 2nd most popular breed in the United States according to the Cat Fanciers' Association. The first is the Exotic breed, it is not clear when long-haired cats first appeared, as there are no known long-haired specimens of the African wildcat, the ancestor of the domestic subspecies. The first documented ancestors of the Persian were imported from Khorasan, into Italy in 1620 by Pietro della Valle, from Angora, Ottoman Empire, into France by Nicholas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc at around the same time; the Khorasan cats were grey. From France, they soon reached Britain. Recent genetic research indicates that present day Persians are related not to cats from the Near East but to cats from Western Europe; the researchers stated, "Even though the early Persian cat may have in fact originated from Persia, the modern Persian cat has lost its phylogeographical signature." The first Persian cat was presented at the first organized cat show, in 1871 in the Crystal Palace in London, organized by Harrison Weir.
As specimens closer to the established Persian conformation became the more popular types, attempts were made to differentiate it from the Angora. The first breed standard was issued in 1889 by cat show promoter Weir, he stated that the Persian differed from the Angora in the tail being longer, hair more full and coarse at the end and head larger, with less pointed ears. Not all cat fanciers agreed with the distinction of the two types, in the 1903 work The Book of the Cat, Francis Simpson states that "the distinctions with hardly any difference, between Angoras and Persians are of so fine a nature that I must be pardoned if I ignore the class of cat called Angora". Dorothy Bevill Champion lays out the difference between the two types in the 1909 Everybody's Cat Book: Our pedigree imported long-hairs of to-day are undoubtedly a cross of the Angora and Persian. Bell goes on to detail the differences. Persian coats consists of a woolly under a long, hairy outer coat; the coat loses all the thick underwool in the summer, only the long hair remains.
Hair on the shoulders and upper part of the hind legs is somewhat shorter. Conversely, the Angora has a different coat which consists of long, soft hair, hanging in locks, "inclining to a slight curl or wave on the under parts of the body." The Angora's hair is much longer on the shoulders and hind legs than the Persian, which Bell considered a great improvement. However, Bell says the Angora "fails to the Persian in head," Angoras having a more wedge-shaped head and Persians having a more appealing round head. Bell notes that Angoras and Persians have been crossbred, resulting in a decided improvement to each breed, but claimed the long-haired cat of 1909 had more Persian influence than Angora. Champion lamented the lack of distinction among various long-haired types by English fanciers, who in 1887, decided to group them under the umbrella term "Long-haired Cats"; the traditional Persian, or doll-face Persian, are somewhat recent names for what is the original breed of Persian cat, without the development of extreme features.
As many breeders in the United States, Germany and other parts of the world started to interpret the Persian standard differently, they developed the flat-nosed "peke-face" or "ultra" type over time, as the result of two genetic mutations, without changing the name of the breed from "Persian". Some organizations, including the Cat Fanciers' Association, today consider the peke-face type as their modern standard for the Persian breed, thus the retronym Traditional Persian was created to refer to the original type, still bred today, mirroring the renaming of the original-style Siamese cat as the Traditional Siamese, to distinguish it from long-faced modern development which has taken over as "the Siamese". Not all cat fancier groups recognize the Traditional Persian, or give it that specific name. TICA has a general standard, that does not specify a flattened face. In the late 1950s a spontaneous mutation in red and red tabby Persians gave rise to the "peke-faced" Persian, named after the flat-faced Pekingese dog.
It was registered as a distinct breed in the CFA, but fell out of favor by the mid-1990s due to serious health issues. Despite this, breeders took a liking