Western Australian Museum
The Western Australian Museum is the state museum for Western Australia. It has six main sites: in Perth within the Perth Cultural Centre, two in Fremantle, one each in Albany and Kalgoorlie-Boulder; the Western Australian Museum is a statutory authority within the Culture and the Arts Portfolio, established under the Museum Act 1969. Established in 1891 in the Old Perth Gaol, it was known as the Geological Museum and consisted of geological collections. In 1892, ethnological and biological exhibits were added, in 1897, the museum became the Western Australian Museum and Art Gallery; the museum employed collectors to obtain series of specimens, J. T. Tunney ventured across the state form 1895 to 1909 obtaining animals and the tools and artefacts of the indigenous inhabitants. During 1959, the botanical collection was transferred to the new Western Australian Herbarium and the museum and the art gallery became separate institutions; the museum focussed its collecting and research interests in the areas of natural sciences, anthropology and Western Australia's history.
Over the 1960s and 1970s, it began to work in the then-emerging areas of historic shipwrecks and Aboriginal site management. In February 2008, the Government of Western Australia announced that it would build a new $500 million museum at the East Perth Power Station site. However, following the election of a new State Liberal party government under Colin Barnett, the redevelopment plans were scrapped in early February 2009. On Museums day in 2012, the Barnett State Government pledged to build a new museum at the Perth Cultural Centre at a cost of $428 million, for completion by 2019–20; the Western Australian Museum — Perth site has closed temporarily from 18 June 2016 until 2020 to construct the New Museum for WA, designed by OMA and Hassell. In late 2014, critical improvements to the Museum's Collection and Research Centre in Welshpool commenced; this site will continue to house the Museum's research laboratories and working collections throughout the construction phase. The upgrades to the CRC include new collection storage and workshops to support ongoing research and to ensure that collections can be adequately prepared and conserved.
The Western Museum has four collection facilities. The museum offers outreach services to all areas of Western Australia. On 9 September 1891, the Geological Museum was opened at the site of the Old Gaol and housed the state's first collection of geological samples; the Old Gaol still forms a significant part of the Western Australian Museum — Perth and is one of the oldest standing buildings in Western Australia. Shortly after the Geological Museum was opened, collections were expanded to include geological and biological specimens and in 1897, the Western Australian Museum and Art Gallery was declared. From 1971 to 2003, a greater part of the research and display collections were housed in a large building on Francis Street; this site was closed due to concerns with asbestos, demolition concluded in late 2011. Throughout the Western Australian Museum's history the prominent James Street location has remained central to the museum's identity and the location of many large permanent and touring exhibits.
Exhibitions on fashion, natural history, cultural heritage and history have attracted large numbers of visitors, including A Day in Pompeii which attracted more than 100,000 people. Perth Museum closed for major redevelopment in June 2016 with plans to re-open in 2020. Permanent exhibitions which were on display at the Western Australian Museum — Perth included: WA Land and People: This exhibition tells the story of Western Australia from prehistoric times of dinosaurs, to indigenous beginnings, through to environmental issues of the present day. Diamonds to Dinosaurs: An exhibition exploring 12 billion years of WA's history, featuring specimens such as rocks from the Moon and Mars, pre-solar diamonds and dinosaur skeleton casts. Katta Djinoong: This exhibition depicts the history and culture of the Aboriginal peoples of Western Australia from past to present. Dampier Marine Gallery: This exhibit explores the biodiversity of the waters around the Dampier Archipelago. Mammal and Butterfly Galleries: These galleries contain extensive collections of various animals.
The Western Australian Museum — Perth featured the Discovery Centre, designed to help children and adults interact and learn about the museum's collections and research. The Discovery Centre has re-located to a Discovery Zone in the State Library of Western Australia while the Perth Museum is closed for redevelopment; the Western Australian Museum has two branches in Fremantle: Shipwreck Galleries. The Western Australian Museum - Maritime is located on Victoria Quay, contains galleries with themes such as the Indian Ocean, the Swan River, maritime trade and naval defence. One of the museum's highlights is the yacht, Australia II, which won the America's Cup in 1983; the museum is located in the significant Maritime Heritage Precinct, which includes the entrance to Fremantle Inner Harbour and associated installations. Adjacent to the Western Australian Museum — Maritime on the WWII slipway is HMAS Ovens, an Oberon class submarine, open for guided tours and commemorates the World War II Fremantle allied submarine base, the largest submarine base in the southern hemisphere, with 170 submarines of the British, Dutch and US navies conducting patrols from there.
A carriage bolt, coach bolt or round head square neck bolt is a form of bolt used to fasten metal to wood. It is distinguished from other bolts by its shallow mushroom head and that the shank cross-section of the bolt is circular for most of its length, as usual, but the portion beneath the head is formed into a square section; this makes the bolt self-locking when placed through a square hole in a metal strap, or a round hole in most wood. This allows the fastener to be installed with only a single tool, a spanner or wrench, working from one side; the head of a carriage bolt is a shallow dome. The squared section is of the same size as the diameter of the bolt shank, with a plain unthreaded shank. Carriage bolts were developed for use through iron strengthening plates on either side of a wooden beam, the squared section fitting into a square hole in the ironwork, it is commonplace though to use them to bare timber, the squared section giving enough grip to prevent rotation. Carriage bolts are extensively used for security fixings, such as locks and hinges, where the bolt must only be removable from one side.
The smooth domed head and square nut below prevent the carriage bolt from being unlocked from the insecure side. Related to carriage bolts are timber bolts, meant for use with large wood planks and structures, they have a domed head, proportionally wider than that of a carriage bolt, instead of a square section of shank under the head, they have four sharp-cornered fillets that grip the edge of the hole in the wood to prevent rotation. They are known as mushroom head bolts or dome head bolts, they are used to fasten wood to wood, instead of metal to wood. Plough bolts are a flush-fitting carriage bolt, they were first developed to hold replaceable ploughshares onto the mouldboard of iron ploughs. The share is the most wearing part of the plough and would be replaced several times over the life of the plough; such bolts continue to be used to hold shovels onto cultivators. Coach screw or lag bolt, a square- or hex-headed screw with a tapered woodscrew thread
Meccano is a model construction system created in 1898 by Frank Hornby in Liverpool, United Kingdom. The system consists of reusable metal strips, angle girders, wheels and gears, plastic parts that are connected together using nuts and bolts, it enables the building of mechanical devices. Meccano maintains a manufacturing facility in France. In 1913, a similar construction set was introduced in the US under the brand name Erector. In 2000, Meccano unified its presence on all continents. In 1901 Frank Hornby, a clerk from Liverpool, England and patented a new toy called "Mechanics Made Easy", based on the principles of mechanical engineering, it was a model construction kit consisting of perforated metal strips and girders, with wheels, gears, shaft collars and axles for mechanisms and motion, nuts and bolts and set screws to connect the pieces. The perforations were at a standard ½ inch spacing, the axles were 8-gauge, the nuts and bolts used 5/32 inch BSW threads; the only tools required to assemble models were spanners.
It was more than just a toy: it was educational, teaching basic mechanical principles like levers and gearing. The parts for Hornby's new construction kit were supplied by outside manufacturers, but as demand began to exceed supply, Hornby set up his own factory in Duke Street, Liverpool; as the construction kits gained in popularity they soon became known as Meccano and went on sale across the world. In September 1907, Hornby registered the Meccano trade mark, in May 1908, he formed Meccano Ltd. To keep pace with demand, a new Meccano factory was built in Binns Road, Liverpool in 1914, which became Meccano Ltd's headquarters for the next 60 years. Hornby established Meccano factories in France and Argentina; the word "Meccano" was thought to have been derived from the phrase "Make and Know". The first construction sets had parts that were rather crudely made: the metal strips and plates had a tinplate finish, were not rounded at the ends and were not sturdy, but manufacturing methods were improving all the time and by 1907 the quality and appearance had improved considerably: the metal strips were now made of thicker steel with rounded ends and were nickel-plated, while the wheels and gears were machined from brass.
The first sets under the new Meccano name were numbered 1 to 6. In 1922 the No. 7 Meccano Outfit was introduced, the largest set of its day, the most sought after because of its model building capabilities and prestige. In 1926, to mark the 25th anniversary of his patent, Hornby introduced "Meccano in Colours" with the familiar red and green coloured Meccano pieces. Plates were a light red and items like the braced girders were a pea-green. However, the following year strips and girders were painted dark green, the plates Burgundy red, while the wheels and gears remained brass. In 1934 the Meccano pieces changed colour again: the strips and girders became gold while the plates were changed to blue with gold criss-cross lines on them, but only on one side, the reverse remaining plain blue; this new colour scheme was only available in the United Kingdom until the end of the Second World War in 1945. The old red and green sets were still produced for the export market and were re-introduced in the UK after the war.
In 1958 the colours were changed to what became known as'light red and green' but this incarnation had the shortest lifespan as the colours changed in 1964 to the black and yellow colour scheme. However, this light red and green period did see the introduction of about 90 new parts, more modern packaging, a new cabinet was introduced for the number 10 set, the first plastic parts were introduced, the "exploded diagram" instructions made their début. In 1934 the nine basic Meccano outfits were replaced by eleven outfits, labelled 0, A to H, K and L, the old No. 7 Outfit becoming the L Outfit. This L Outfit is regarded as the best of the largest Meccano outfits. In 1937 the alphabetical outfit series was replaced by a numeric series, 0 to 10, the L Outfit being replaced by the smaller No. 10 Outfit. Although having fewer pieces than the L Outfit, the No. 10 Outfit became Meccano's flagship set and remained unchanged until it was discontinued a half-century in 1992. Accessory sets were retained, numbered 1A to 9A, that converted a set to the next in the series.
As had been the case from early days, Meccano Ltd would supply individual Meccano parts to complement existing sets. World War II interrupted the production of Meccano in England when the Binns Road factory converted to manufacturing for the war effort; the Korean War in 1950 disrupted production due to a metal shortage and it was not until the mid-1950s that Meccano production returned to normal with new parts being added to all the sets. In 1955 outfits 00 to 10 as well as conversion sets 00A to 9A were available. In 1961 a Mechanisms Outfit and a Gears Outfit were added to the range, in 1962 outfit 00 was withdrawn. In the early 1960s Meccano Ltd experienced financial problems and was purchased by Lines Bros Ltd in 1964. In an attempt to redefine Meccano's image, the colour scheme was changed again, this time to yellow and black plates, with silver strips and girders; the silver was soon replaced by zinc in 1967. The colours of yellow and black were chosen because they were the colours used by most large construction vehicles of the day.
In 1970 electronic parts were introduced, the current black-coloured plates w
Mass production known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch production, it is one of the three main production methods; the term mass production was popularized by a 1926 article in the Encyclopædia Britannica supplement, written based on correspondence with Ford Motor Company. The New York Times used the term in the title of an article that appeared before publication of the Britannica article; the concepts of mass production are applied to various kinds of products, from fluids and particulates handled in bulk to discrete solid parts to assemblies of such parts. Mass production is a diverse field, but it can be contrasted with craft production or distributed manufacturing; some mass production techniques, such as standardized sizes and production lines, predate the Industrial Revolution by many centuries. Mass production involves making many copies of products quickly, using assembly line techniques to send complete products to workers who each work on an individual step, rather than having a worker work on a whole product from start to finish.
Mass production of fluid matter involves pipes with centrifugal pumps or screw conveyors to transfer raw materials or complete products between vessels. Fluid flow processes such as oil refining and bulk materials such as wood chips and pulp are automated using a system of process control which uses various instruments to measure variables such as temperature, pressure and level, providing feedback man Bulk materials such as coal, ores and wood chips are handled by belt, slat, pneumatic or screw conveyors, bucket elevators and mobile equipment such as front-end loaders. Materials on pallets are handled with forklifts. Used for handling heavy items like reels of paper, steel or machinery are electric overhead cranes, sometimes called bridge cranes because they span large factory bays. Mass production is capital intensive and energy intensive, as it uses a high proportion of machinery and energy in relation to workers, it is usually automated while total expenditure per unit of product is decreased.
However, the machinery, needed to set up a mass production line is so expensive that there must be some assurance that the product is to be successful to attain profits. One of the descriptions of mass production is that "the skill is built into the tool", which means that the worker using the tool may not need the skill. For example, in the 19th or early 20th century, this could be expressed as "the craftsmanship is in the workbench itself". Rather than having a skilled worker measure every dimension of each part of the product against the plans or the other parts as it is being formed, there were jigs ready at hand to ensure that the part was made to fit this set-up, it had been checked that the finished part would be to specifications to fit all the other finished parts—and it would be made more with no time spent on finishing the parts to fit one another. Once computerized control came about, jigs were obviated, but it remained true that the skill was built into the tool rather than residing in the worker's head.
This is the specialized capital required for mass production. Standardized parts and sizes and factory production techniques were developed in pre-industrial times. Crossbows made with bronze parts were produced in China during the Warring States period; the Qin Emperor unified China at least in part by equipping large armies with these weapons, which were equipped with a sophisticated trigger mechanism made of interchangeable parts. Ships of war were produced on a large scale at a moderate cost by the Carthaginians in their excellent harbors, allowing them to efficiently maintain their control of the Mediterranean; the Venetians themselves produced ships using prefabricated parts and assembly lines many centuries later. The Venetian Arsenal produced nearly one ship every day, in what was the world's first factory which, at its height, employed 16,000 people. Mass production in the publishing industry has been commonplace since the Gutenberg Bible was published using a printing press in the mid-15th century.
In the Industrial Revolution simple mass production techniques were used at the Portsmouth Block Mills in England to make ships' pulley blocks for the Royal Navy in the Napoleonic Wars. It was achieved in 1803 by Marc Isambard Brunel in cooperation with Henry Maudslaym under the management of Sir Samuel Bentham; the first unmistakable examples of manufacturing operations designed to reduce production costs by specialized labour and the use of machines appeared in the 18th century in England. The Navy was in a state of expansion. Bentham had achieved remarkable efficiency at the docks by introducing power-driven machinery and reorganising the dockyard system. Brunel, a pioneering engineer, Maudslay, a pioneer of machine tool technology who had developed the f
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company known as Walt Disney or Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, ahead of NBCUniversal and WarnerMedia. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; the company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production and theme parks. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is associated with its flagship family-oriented brands; the company is known for its film studio division, Walt Disney Studios, which includes Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Blue Sky Studios. Disney's other main divisions are Disney Parks and Products, Disney Media Networks, Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International.
Disney owns and operates the ABC broadcast network. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is one of the world's most recognizable characters, serves as the company's official mascot. In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a short film entitled Alice's Wonderland, which featured child actress Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother, Roy O. Disney. Film distributor Margaret J. Winkler of M. J. Winkler Productions contacted Disney with plans to distribute a whole series of Alice Comedies purchased for $1,500 per reel with Disney as a production partner. Walt and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice. In January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studio's name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio.
After the demise of the Alice comedies, Disney developed an all-cartoon series starring his first original character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, distributed by Winkler Pictures through Universal Pictures. The distributor owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars. Disney completed 26 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in February 1928, due to a legal loophole, when Winkler's husband Charles Mintz took over their distribution company. After failing to take over the Disney Studio, Mintz hired away four of Disney's primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a mouse character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California, drawing up a few simple drawings; the mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films. Ub Iwerks refined Disney's initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disney's first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18, 1928 through Pat Powers' distribution company.
It was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho. Steamboat Willie was an immediate smash hit, its initial success was attributed not just to Mickey's appeal as a character, but to the fact that it was the first cartoon to feature synchronized sound. Disney used Pat Powers' Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee de Forest's Phonofilm system. Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Moss's Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disney's Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks and re-released in 1929. Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, began the Silly Symphony series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929. In September 1929, theater manager Harry Woodin requested permission to start a Mickey Mouse Club which Walt approved. In November, test comics strips were sent to King Features, who requested additional samples to show to the publisher, William Randolph Hearst.
On December 16, the Walt Disney Studios partnership was reorganized as a corporation with the name of Walt Disney Productions, Limited with a merchandising division, Walt Disney Enterprises, two subsidiaries, Disney Film Recording Company and Liled Realty and Investment Company for real estate holdings. Walt and his wife held Roy owned 40 % of WD Productions. On December 30, King Features signed its first newspaper, New York Mirror, to publish the Mickey Mouse comic strip with Walt's permission. In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and Trees. Disney released cartoons through Powers' Celebrity Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists; the popularity of the Mickey Mouse series allowed Disney to plan for his first feature-length animation. The feature film Walt
Hotchkiss were luxury cars made between 1903 and 1955 by the French company Hotchkiss et Cie in Saint-Denis, Paris. The badge for the marque showed a pair of crossed cannons, evoking the company's history as an arms manufacturer; the company's first entry into car making came from orders for engine components such as crankshafts which were supplied to Panhard et Levassor, De Dion-Bouton and other pioneering companies and in 1903 they went on to make complete engines. Encouraged by two major car distributors, Mann & Overton of London and Fournier of Paris, Hotchkiss decided to start making their own range of cars and purchased a Mercedes Simplex for inspiration and Georges Terasse of Mors, was taken on as designer; the first Hotchkiss car, a 17 CV four-cylinder model, appeared in 1903. The engine of the 20 CV type C was based on the Mercedes Simplex except that wherever possible it used ball bearings rather than plain ones and except the Hotchkiss drive. Six-cylinder models, the types L and O followed in 1907.
The ball bearing engines lasted until the 30CV type X of 1910. In that same year Hotchkiss moved into a smaller car market with the 2212cc type Z. With the outbreak of World War I, the factory turned to war production and a subsidiary plant was opened in Coventry, England. Car production resumed in France 1919 with the pre war types AD, AD6, AF and AG. During World War I, they tested them from the factory roof. After an attempt to enter the luxury market with the AK, which did not get beyond the prototype stage, the company decided on a one model policy and introduced the Coventry designed AM in 1923; that year the Coventry plant was sold to Morris. Henry Mann Ainsworth and Alfred Herbert Wilde who had run it, moved to Paris to become general manager and chief engineer of the car division respectively. In 1926 construction of the new factory in the Boulevard Ornano was completed and in 1929 Hotchkiss got hold of a steel press allowing in-house manufacture of steel bodies; the one model policy lasted until 1929 when the six-cylinder AM80 models were announced.
"73" and "80" stood for the bore of the engines used, a naming theme picked up again in 1936 after a brief hiatus. Although most cars had bodies that were factory built, Hotchkiss still was a luxury car brand, so coachbuilder Veth and Sons built a small number of bodies for the AM80; the AM models were replaced by a new range in 1933 with a new naming system. The 411 was an 11CV model with four-cylinder engine, the 413 a 13CV four and the 615, 617 and 620 were similar six-cylinder types; the 1936 686, which replaced the 620, was available as the high-performance Grand Sport and 1937 Paris-Nice with twin carburettors and these allowed Hotchkiss to win the Monte Carlo Rally in 1932, 1933, 1934, 1939, 1949 and 1950. The new naming scheme introduced in 1936 consisted of the number of cylinders, followed by the bore of the engine; the armament side of the company and the body stamping plant were nationalised in 1936 by the Front Populaire government. The car company in 1937 took over Amilcar. With re-armament speeding up they started making military vehicles and light tanks.
When France declared war, in September 1939, Hotchkiss were sitting on an army order for 1,900 H35 and H39 tanks powered by six-cylinder motors of 3.5 and 6 litres capacity, at the time of the German invasion in May 1940 they were still working through the order. However, as the military situation deteriorated the decision was taken, on 20 May 1940, to abandon the Saint-Denis plant which by now was concentrated on war production. There was a disorderly evacuation towards Auxerre and Moulins and further towards the south, as employees tried to keep information on the military production out of the hands of the Germans. However, the national capitulation implicit in the signing of the armistice on 22 June left these efforts looking somewhat irrelevant, most of the employees drifted back in the ensuing weeks. Two exceptions were the Commercial Director, Jacques Jacobsen and the English born General Director, Henry Ainsworth, both of whom managed to avoid capture and to leave France. During the war, like many businesses in the occupied zone, the company was obliged to work for the occupiers and was engaged in the repair of military vehicles.
In 1941 François Lehideux a leading member of the government’s economic team, called Jean-Pierre Peugeot and his General Director Maurice Jordan to a meeting, invited them to study the possibility of taking a controlling share in the Hotchkiss business. The suggestion from Lehideux derived from a German law dated 18 October 1940 authorising the confiscation of businesses controlled by Jews; the Peugeot business itself had been operating, under overall German control since the summer of 1940. In any event, in July 1942 Peugeot took a controlling share in the Hotchkiss business and towards the end of 1942 the names of Peugeot and Jordan were listed as members of the Hotchkiss board. There is no evidence of any attempt to combine the operations of the two businesses, however: after the war Peugeot would in due course relinquish their holding in Hotchkiss. With liberation in 1944, Ainsworth returned and production restarted in 1946 with the pre-war cars, a light truck and a tractor. After the war, car production resumed only with fewer than 100 cars produced in each of 1946 and 1947, but by 1948 things were moving a little more with 460 Hotchkiss cars produced that year.
This volume of output was wholly insufficient to carry the company, although truck production was a little more successful with more than 2,300 produced in 1948, it was support from the truc
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788; the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, have only had common ownership since 1967. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite: For much more than a century The Times has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain, its news and its editorial comment have in general been coordinated, have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain.
To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street. The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India and The New York Times. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution; the Times is the originator of the used Times Roman typeface developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in Times Modern; the Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet; the Times had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006.
It has been used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning; the Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. Henry Johnson had invented the logography, a new typography, reputedly faster and more precise. Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce a daily advertising sheet; the first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785. Unhappy because the word Universal was omitted from the name, Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. In 1803, Walter handed editorship to his son of the same name.
In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in Newgate Prison for libel printed in The Times, his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers. The Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times were large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig. In 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson. Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights in politics and amongst the City of London.
Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname'The Thunderer'. The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence; the Times was the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England. In other events of the nineteenth century, The Times opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws until the number of demonstrations convinced the editorial board otherwise, only reluctantly supported aid to victims of the Irish Potato Famine, it enthusiastically supported the Great Reform Bill of 1832, which reduced corruption and increased the electorate from 400,000 people to 800,000 people.
During the American Civil War, The Times represented the view of the wealthy classes, favouring the secessionists, but it was not a supporter of slavery. The third John Walter, the founder's grandson, succeeded his father in 1847; the paper continued as more or less independent, but from t