The United Kingdom – United States of America Agreement is a multilateral agreement for cooperation in signals intelligence between Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States. The alliance of intelligence operations is known as the Five Eyes. In classification markings this is abbreviated as FVEY, with the individual countries being abbreviated as AUS, CAN, NZL, GBR, USA, respectively. Emerging from an informal agreement related to the 1941 Atlantic Charter, the secret treaty was renewed with the passage of the 1943 BRUSA Agreement, before being enacted on 5 March 1946 by the United Kingdom and the United States. In the following years, it was extended to encompass Canada and New Zealand. Other countries, known as "third parties", such as West Germany, the Philippines, several Nordic countries joined the UKUSA community in associate capacities, although they are not part of mechanism for automatic sharing of intelligence that exists between the Five Eyes. Much of the sharing of information is performed via the ultra-sensitive STONEGHOST network, claimed to contain "some of the Western world's most guarded secrets".
Besides laying down rules for intelligence sharing, the agreement formalized and cemented the "Special Relationship" between the UK and the US. Due to its status as a secret treaty, its existence was not known to the Prime Minister of Australia until 1973, it was not disclosed to the public until 2005. On 25 June 2010, for the first time in history, the full text of the agreement was publicly released by the United Kingdom and the United States, can now be viewed online. Shortly after its release, the seven-page UKUSA Agreement was recognized by Time magazine as one of the Cold War's most important documents, with immense historical significance; the global surveillance disclosure by Edward Snowden has shown that the intelligence-sharing activities between the First World allies of the Cold War are shifting into the digital realm of the Internet. The agreement originated from a ten-page 1943 British–U. S. Communication Intelligence Agreement, BRUSA, that connected the signal intercept networks of the U.
K. Government Communications Headquarters and the U. S. National Security Agency at the beginning of the Cold War; the document was signed on 5 March 1946 by Colonel Patrick Marr-Johnson for the U. K.'s London Signals Intelligence Board and Lieutenant General Hoyt Vandenberg for the U. S. State–Army–Navy Communication Intelligence Board. Although the original agreement states that the exchange would not be "prejudicial to national interests", the United States blocked information sharing from Commonwealth countries; the full text of the agreement was released to the public on 25 June 2010. The "Five Eyes" term has its origins as a shorthand for a "AUS/CAN/NZ/UK/US EYES ONLY" classification level. Under the agreement, the GCHQ and the NSA shared intelligence on the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, several eastern European countries; the network was expanded in the 1960s into the Echelon analysis network. The treaty was extended to include Canada and New Zealand. In 1955, the agreement was updated to designate Canada and New Zealand as "UKUSA-collaborating Commonwealth countries".
Other countries that joined as "third parties" were Norway and West Germany. In the aftermath of the 1973 Murphy raids on the headquarters of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation, the existence of the UKUSA Agreement was revealed to Australia's Prime Minister Gough Whitlam. After learning about the agreement, Whitlam discovered that Pine Gap, a secret surveillance station close to Alice Springs, had been operated by the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency. At the height of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, the use and control of Pine Gap by the CIA was opposed by Whitlam, who fired the chief of the ASIO before being dismissed as prime minister; the existence of several intelligence agencies of the Five Eyes was not revealed until the following years: 1970s In Canada, an investigative television report revealed the existence of the Communications Security Establishment Canada. 1975 In the United States, the Church Committee of the Senate revealed the existence of the National Security Agency.
1976 In Britain, an investigative article in Time Out magazine revealed the existence of the Government Communications Headquarters. 1977 In Australia, the Hope Commission revealed the existence of Australian Secret Intelligence Service and the Defence Signals Directorate. 1980 In New Zealand, the existence of the Government Communications Security Bureau was disclosed on a "limited basis". In 1999, the Australian government acknowledged that it "does co-operate with counterpart signals intelligence organisations overseas under the UKUSA relationship."The existence of the UKUSA Agreement, was not publicly revealed until 2005. The contents of the agreement were disclosed to the public on 25 June 2010. Four days the agreement was described by Time magazine as one of the "most important documents in the history of the Cold War." In July 2013, as part of the 2013 Edward Snowden revelations, it emerged that the NSA is paying GCHQ for its services, with at least £100 million of payments made between 2010 and 2013.
On 11 September 2013, The Guardian released a leaked document provided by Edward Snowden which reveals a similar agreement between the NSA and Israel's Unit 8200. According to The Sydney Morning Herald, Australia operates clandestine surveillance facilities at its embassies "without the knowledge of most Australian diplomats". T
Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information. Spies help agencies uncover secret information. Any individual or spy ring, in the service of a government, company or independent operation, can commit espionage; the practice is clandestine, as it is by definition unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. Espionage is a method of intelligence gathering which includes information gathering from public sources. Espionage is part of an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term tends to be associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies for military purposes. Spying involving corporations is known as industrial espionage. One of the most effective ways to gather data and information about the enemy is by infiltrating the enemy's ranks; this is the job of the spy. Spies can return information concerning the strength of enemy forces, they can find dissidents within the enemy's forces and influence them to defect.
In times of crisis, spies sabotage the enemy in various ways. Counterintelligence is the practice of thwarting enemy intelligence-gathering. All nations have strict laws concerning espionage and the penalty for being caught is severe. However, the benefits gained through espionage are so great that most governments and many large corporations make use of it. Information collection techniques used in the conduct of clandestine human intelligence include operational techniques, asset recruiting, tradecraft. Today, espionage agencies target terrorists as well as state actors. Since 2008, the United States has charged at least 57 defendants for attempting to spy for China. Intelligence services value certain intelligence collection techniques over others; the former Soviet Union, for example, preferred human sources over research in open sources, while the United States has tended to emphasize technological methods such as SIGINT and IMINT. In the Soviet Union, both political and military intelligence officers were judged by the number of agents they recruited.
Espionage agents are trained experts in a targeted field so they can differentiate mundane information from targets of value to their own organizational development. Correct identification of the target at its execution is the sole purpose of the espionage operation. Broad areas of espionage targeting expertise include: Natural resources: strategic production identification and assessment. Agents are found among bureaucrats who administer these resources in their own countries Popular sentiment towards domestic and foreign policies. Agents recruited from field journalistic crews, exchange postgraduate students and sociology researchers Strategic economic strengths. Agents recruited from science and technology academia, commercial enterprises, more from among military technologists Military capability intelligence. Agents are trained by military espionage education facilities, posted to an area of operation with covert identities to minimize prosecution Counterintelligence operations targeting opponents' intelligence services themselves, such as breaching confidentiality of communications, recruiting defectors or moles Although the news media may speak of "spy satellites" and the like, espionage is not a synonym for all intelligence-gathering disciplines.
It is a specific form of human source intelligence. Codebreaking, aircraft or satellite photography, research in open publications are all intelligence gathering disciplines, but none of them is considered espionage. Many HUMINT activities, such as prisoner interrogation, reports from military reconnaissance patrols and from diplomats, etc. are not considered espionage. Espionage is the disclosure of sensitive information to people who are not cleared for that information or access to that sensitive information. Unlike other forms of intelligence collection disciplines, espionage involves accessing the place where the desired information is stored or accessing the people who know the information and will divulge it through some kind of subterfuge. There are exceptions to physical meetings, such as the Oslo Report, or the insistence of Robert Hanssen in never meeting the people who bought his information; the US defines espionage towards itself as "The act of obtaining, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation".
Black's Law Dictionary defines espionage as: "... gathering, transmitting, or losing... information related to the national defense". Espionage is a violation of United States law, 18 U. S. C. §§ 792–798 and Article 106a of the Uniform Code of Military Justice". The United States, like most nations, conducts espionage against other nations, under the control of the National Clandestine Service. Britain's espionage activities are controlled by the Secret Intelligence Service. A spy is a person employed to seek out top secret information from a source. Within the United States Intelligence Community, "asset" is a more common usage. A case officer or Special Agent, who may have diplomatic status and directs the human collector. Cutouts are couriers who do not know the case officer but transfer messages. A
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
The Lorenz SZ40, SZ42a and SZ42b were German rotor stream cipher machines used by the German Army during World War II. They were developed by C. Lorenz AG in Berlin; the model name SZ was derived from Schlüssel-Zusatz. The instruments implemented a Vernam stream cipher. British cryptanalysts, who referred to encrypted German teleprinter traffic as Fish, dubbed the machine and its traffic Tunny and deduced its logical structure three years before they saw such a machine; the SZ machines were in-line attachments to standard teleprinters. An experimental link using SZ40 machines was started in June 1941; the enhanced SZ42 machines were brought into substantial use from mid-1942 onwards for high-level communications between the German High Command in Wünsdorf close to Berlin, Army Commands throughout occupied Europe. The more advanced SZ42A came into routine use in February 1943 and the SZ42B in June 1944. Radioteletype rather than land-line circuits was used for this traffic; these non-Morse messages were picked up by Britain's Y-stations at Knockholt and Denmark Hill and sent to Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park.
Some were deciphered using hand methods before the process was automated, first with Robinson machines and with the Colossus computers. The deciphered Lorenz messages made one of the most significant contributions to British Ultra military intelligence and to Allied victory in Europe, due to the high-level strategic nature of the information, gained from Lorenz decrypts. After the Second World War a group of British and US cryptanalysts entered Germany with the front-line troops to capture the documents and personnel of the various German signal intelligence organizations before these secrets could be destroyed, looted, or captured by the Soviets, they were called the Target Intelligence Committee TICOM. From captured German cryptographers Drs Huttenhain and Fricke they learnt of the development of the SZ40 and SZ42 a/b; the design was for a machine. The first machine was referred to as the SZ40, it was recognised. The definitive SZ40 had twelve rotors with movable cams; the rightmost five rotors were named the Chi wheels by Bill Tutte.
The leftmost five were named Psi wheels to Tutte. The middle two Vorgeleger rotors were called motor wheels by Tutte; the five data bits of each ITA2-coded telegraph character were processed first by the five chi wheels and further processed by the five psi wheels. The cams on the wheels reversed the value of a bit if in the raised position, but left it unchanged if in the lowered position. Gilbert Vernam was an AT&T Bell Labs research engineer who, in 1917, invented a cipher system that used the Boolean "exclusive or" function, symbolised by ⊕; this is represented by the following "truth table", where 1 represents "true" and 0 represents "false". Other names for this function are: modulo 2 addition and modulo 2 subtraction. Vernam's cipher is a Symmetric-key algorithm, i.e. the same key is used both to encipher plaintext to produce the ciphertext and to decipher ciphertext to yield the original plaintext: plaintext ⊕ key = ciphertextand: ciphertext ⊕ key = plaintextThis produces the essential reciprocity that allows the same machine with the same settings to be used for both enciphering and deciphering.
Vernam's idea was to use conventional telegraphy practice with a paper tape of the plaintext combined with a paper tape of the key. Each key tape would have been unique, but generating and distributing such tapes presented considerable practical difficulties. In the 1920s four men in different countries invented rotor cipher machines to produce a key stream to act instead of a tape; the 1940 Lorenz SZ40/42 was one of these. The logical functioning of the Tunny system was worked out well before the Bletchley Park cryptanalysts saw one of the machines—which only happened in 1945, shortly before the allied victory in Europe; the SZ machine served as an in-line attachment to a standard Lorenz teleprinter. It was 17 in high; the teleprinter characters consisted of five data bits, encoded in the International Telegraphy Alphabet No. 2. The machine generated a stream of pseudorandom characters; these formed the key, combined with the plaintext input characters to form the ciphertext output characters.
The combination was by means of the XOR process. The key stream consisted of two component parts; these were generated by two sets of five wheels. The Bletchley Park cryptanalyst Bill Tutte called these the χ wheels, the ψ wheels; each wheel had a series of cams around their circumference. These cams could be set in a lowered position. In the raised position they generated a'1' which reversed the value of a bit, in the lowered position they generated a'0' which left the bit unchanged; the number of cams on each wheel equalled the number of impulses needed to cause them to complete a full rotation. These numbers are all co-prime with each other, giving the longest possible time before the pattern repeated; this is the product of the number of positions of the wheels. For the set of χ wheels it was 41 × 31 × 29 × 26 × 23 = 22,041,682 and for the ψ wheels it was 43 × 47 × 51 × 53 × 59 = 3,223,303,017; the set of five χ wheels all moved on one position. The five ψ wheels, advanced intermittently, their movemen
Resistance during World War II
Resistance movements during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation and propaganda, to hiding crashed pilots and to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns. In many countries, resistance movements were sometimes referred to as The Underground. Among the most notable resistance movements were the Polish Resistance, including the Polish Home Army, Leśni, the whole Polish Underground State. Many countries had resistance movements dedicated to fighting the Axis invaders, Nazi Germany itself had an anti-Nazi movement. Although Britain was not occupied during the war, the British made complex preparations for a British resistance movement; the main organisation was created by the Secret Intelligence Service and is now known as Section VII. In addition there was a short-term secret commando force called the Auxiliary Units. Various organizations were formed to establish foreign resistance cells or support existing resistance movements, like the British Special Operations Executive and the American Office of Strategic Services.
There were resistance movements fighting against the Allied invaders. In Italian East Africa, after the Italian forces were defeated during the East African Campaign, some Italians participated in a guerrilla war against the British; the German Nazi resistance movement never amounted to much. The "Forest Brothers" of Estonia and Lithuania included many fighters who operated against the Soviet occupation of the Baltic States into the 1960s. During or after the war, similar anti-Soviet resistance rose up in places like Romania, Bulgaria and Chechnya. While the Japanese were famous for "fighting to the last man", Japanese holdouts tended to be individually motivated and there is little indication that there was any organized Japanese resistance after the war. After the first shock following the Blitzkrieg, people started to get organized, both locally and on a larger scale when Jews and other groups were starting to be deported and used for the Arbeitseinsatz. Organization was dangerous, so much resistance was done by individuals.
The possibilities depended much on the terrain. This favoured in particular the Soviet partisans in Eastern Europe. In the much more densely populated Netherlands, the Biesbosch wilderness could be used to go into hiding. In northern Italy, both the Alps and the Apennines offered shelter to partisan brigades, though many groups operated directly inside the major cities. There were many different types of groups, ranging in activity from humanitarian aid to armed resistance, sometimes cooperating to a varying degree. Resistance arose spontaneously, but was encouraged and helped from London and Moscow; the five largest resistance movements in Europe were the Dutch, the French, the Polish, the Soviet and the Yugoslav. A number of sources note that the Polish Home Army was the largest resistance movement in Nazi-occupied Europe. Norman Davies writes that the "Armia Krajowa, the AK... could claim to be the largest of European resistance." Gregor Dallas writes that the "Home Army in late 1943 numbered around 400,000, making it the largest resistance organization in Europe."
Mark Wyman writes that the "Armia Krajowa was considered the largest underground resistance unit in wartime Europe." However, the numbers of Soviet partisans were similar to those of the Polish resistance as were the numbers of Yugoslav partisans. For the French Resistance, François Marcot ventured an estimate of 200,000 activists and a further 300,000 with substantial involvement in Resistance operations. Laffont, Robert. Dictionnaire historique de la Résistance. Paris: Bouquins. P. 339. ISBN 978-2-221-09997-1. Various forms of resistance were: Non-violent Sabotage – the Arbeitseinsatz forced locals to work for the Germans, but work was done or intentionally badly Strikes and demonstrations Based on existing organizations, such as the churches, students and doctors Armed raids on distribution offices to get food coupons or various documents such as Ausweise or on birth registry offices to get rid of information about Jews and others to whom the Nazis paid special attention temporary liberation of areas, such as in Yugoslavia and northern Italy in cooperation with the Allied forces uprisings such as in Warsaw in 1943 and 1944, in extermination camps such as in Sobibor in 1943 and Auschwitz in 1944 continuing battle and guerrilla warfare, such as the partisans in the USSR and Yugoslavia and the Maquis in France Espionage, including sending reports of military importance Illegal press to counter Nazi propaganda Anti-Nazi propaganda including movies for example anti-Nazi color film Calling Mr. Smith about current Nazi crimes in German-occupied Poland.
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park. Ultra became the standard designation among the western Allies for all such intelligence; the name arose because the intelligence thus obtained was considered more important than that designated by the highest British security classification used and so was regarded as being Ultra secret. Several other cryptonyms had been used for such intelligence; the code name Boniface was used as a cover name for Ultra. In order to ensure that the successful code-breaking did not become apparent to the Germans, British intelligence created a fictional MI6 master spy, who controlled a fictional series of agents throughout Germany. Information obtained through code-breaking was attributed to the human intelligence from the Boniface network; the U. S. used the codename Magic for its decrypts from Japanese sources including the so-called "Purple" cipher.
Much of the German cipher traffic was encrypted on the Enigma machine. Used properly, the German military Enigma would have been unbreakable; the term "Ultra" has been used synonymously with "Enigma decrypts". However, Ultra encompassed decrypts of the German Lorenz SZ 40/42 machines that were used by the German High Command, the Hagelin machine. Many observers, at the time and regarded Ultra as immensely valuable to the Allies. Winston Churchill was reported to have told King George VI, when presenting to him Stewart Menzies: "It is thanks to the secret weapon of General Menzies, put into use on all the fronts, that we won the war!" F. W. Winterbotham quoted the western Supreme Allied Commander, Dwight D. Eisenhower, at war's end describing Ultra as having been "decisive" to Allied victory. Sir Harry Hinsley, Bletchley Park veteran and official historian of British Intelligence in World War II, made a similar assessment of Ultra, saying that while the Allies would have won the war without it, "the war would have been something like two years longer three years longer four years longer than it was."
However and others have emphasized the difficulties of counterfactual history in attempting such conclusions, some historians have said the shortening might have been as little as the three months it took the United States to deploy the atomic bomb. The existence of Ultra was kept secret for many years after the war. After it was revealed in the middle 1970s, historians have altered the historiography of World War II. For example, Andrew Roberts, writing in the 21st century, states, "Because he had the invaluable advantage of being able to read Rommel's Enigma communications, Montgomery knew how short the Germans were of men, ammunition and above all fuel; when he put Rommel's picture up in his caravan he wanted to be seen to be reading his opponent's mind. In fact he was reading his mail." Over time, Ultra has become embedded in the public consciousness and Bletchley Park has become a significant visitor attraction. As stated by historian Thomas Haigh, "The British code-breaking effort of the Second World War secret, is now one of the most celebrated aspects of modern British history, an inspiring story in which a free society mobilized its intellectual resources against a terrible enemy."
Most Ultra intelligence was derived from reading radio messages, encrypted with cipher machines, complemented by material from radio communications using traffic analysis and direction finding. In the early phases of the war during the eight-month Phoney War, the Germans could transmit most of their messages using land lines and so had no need to use radio; this meant that those at Bletchley Park had some time to build up experience of collecting and starting to decrypt messages on the various radio networks. German Enigma messages were the main source, with those of the Luftwaffe predominating, as they used radio more and their operators were ill-disciplined. "Enigma" refers to a family of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines. These produced a polyalphabetic substitution cipher and were thought to be unbreakable in the 1920s, when a variant of the commercial Model D was first used by the Reichswehr; the German Army, Air Force, Nazi party and German diplomats used Enigma machines in several variants.
Abwehr used a four-rotor machine without a plugboard and Naval Enigma used different key management from that of the army or air force, making its traffic far more difficult to cryptanalyse. The commercial versions were not as secure and Dilly Knox of GC&CS, is said to have broken one before the war. German military Enigma was first broken in December 1932 by the Polish Cipher Bureau, using a combination of brilliant mathematics, the services of a spy in the German office responsible for administering encrypted communications, good luck; the Poles read Enigma in France. At the turn of 1939, the Germans made the systems ten times more complex, which required a tenfold increase in Polish decryption equipment, which they could not meet. On 25 July 1939, the Polish Cipher Bureau handed reconstructed Enigma machines and their techniques for decrypting ciphers to the French and British. Gordon Welchman wrote, Ultra would never have got off the ground if we had not