William Eliot Morris Zborowski, Count de Montsaulvain was a racing driver. Born in Elizabethtown, New Jersey, USA, he was the son of Emma Morris. In 1892 he married a wealthy American heiress, born Margaret Laura Astor Carey, a granddaughter of William Backhouse Astor, Sr. of the prominent Astor family. She had been Madame de Stuers before her divorce from Chevalier de Stuers, they were the parents of the racing driver Louis Zborowski. Martin Zabriskie, Eliot’s father, left the country for the first time in his life in 1873, when he crossed the Atlantic to Paris with his family to be at the wedding of his daughter Anna to Count Charles de Montalbon, Baron de Fontenoy; the aristocratic world he saw in France made a deep impression and he thought back to stories passed down in the family. Martin’s brother, did not follow suit. Martin’s son William Eliot, now had a countess for a sister. Following his father’s death in 1878, William Eliot returned from Europe to take possession of his inherited fortune.
He adopted his second name, discarded William. Part of his inheritance was extensive estates near Central Park and along the banks of the Hudson River, he was indescribably rich. Around this time, when Eliot recrossed to Europe, he called himself Count Eliot Zborowski. An unattributed back-story began of being descended from the marriage of an American girl to a Polish count. Eliot was reported to have said that he adopted the title Count on his father's death in deference to the wishes of his grandfather. All that can be said now about the origin of the title is that in the contents of Martin Zborowski’s will in The New York Times there was no mention of it. Horses were a passion for Eliot, since his childhood he had a fine stable, he enjoyed the challenge of lengthy rides across rough country. His daring left him injured, but it was all part of living life to the fullest. In 1885, having heard about hunting in England, he visited, was welcomed with enthusiasm, was soon riding with the Quorn, his title seems to have been accepted from the first.
Eliot learnt the rules as he hunted and soon became known as someone well to the fore when a tall fence or broad ditch needed clearing. It became accepted that his riding employed superb hand control. Something attributed to the Count was the tradition of tying a red ribbon at the base of a horse's tail, to distinguish it as a kicker. Many kept hunting boxes in Melton Mowbray, Zborowski looked around for somewhere suitable. With a hunting box nearby one could be immersed in this society, his attention was drawn to Coventry Lodge, which had good stabling and was owned by Sir Fredric Johnstone, a close friend of the Prince of Wales. Put on the market in 1881, Johnstone must have been relieved when in 1886, the Count became its new owner. Being close to the station it was convenient for someone always restlessly on the move. Still crossing the Atlantic, Eliot did so in the Spring of 1888 for part holiday, part business. After resolving the demands of business, he played polo, found himself in a game reported as rough and bad-tempered.
His injuries kept him off a horse for the rest of the summer. Holidaying in Newport, he met Margaret de Stuers, aged 35 and, married, but unhappily. At first the friendship was platonic, in September, Eliot returned to Britain; the New Year of 1890 found him back in America. From this meeting, things became more serious and the end result was a messy divorce in 1892, their New England friends disapproved of their behaviour, which meant they spent more time in Britain, where few in their hunting set were troubled by the Countess being a divorcee. They resided in Melton Mowbray and he became a naturalised British citizen; such was the popularity of the couple, the Prince of Wales stayed at Coventry House. Their first child regrettably died soon after and was buried at Burton Lazars. In February 1895 a second son was born and this time the child was more healthy. Eliot had by now altered his business life such that he would not need to return to America much, he rented and bought property in London for after the hunting season ended.
Monday 10 March 1890, The Old Club, Burton St. Melton MowbrayLady Augusta Fane looked around the room at the 25 people dining with her, the men in red dining coats and white breeches; the hunting set. Latecomers stood around the walls, it was her birthday and she was now 33 and attractive. Everyone there was drawn by the thought of an different evening ahead. Last Friday the conversation had drifted around to the fact of her coming birthday. Augusta was pressed to choose a way of their celebrating this event with something novel – and fun, it was to be a full moon that Monday, so she suggested a Moonlight Steeplechase. The idea was seized upon and an outline of what was needed was decided. At about 9.30 a message was sent into the room that the sky had become overcast and clouds obscured the moon. This was a setback. Colonel Baldock slipped down to the Midland Railway’s station at the bottom of the street, having called for the stationmaster Mr Beddington on the way. Here they borrowed a horse-drawn van, with the help of a porter, a number of the station’s lamps were loaded inside.
Off they all went to the proposed course, hung a lamp at each end of every fence. A further lamp was hung high in the tree at the hom
Olive is a dark yellowish-green color, like that of unripe or green olives. As a color word in the English language, it appears in late Middle English. Shaded toward gray, it becomes olive drab. Olivine is the typical color of the mineral olivine; the first recorded use of olivine as a color name in English was in 1912. Olive drab is variously described as a "dull olive-green colour", it was used as a camouflage color for uniforms and equipment in the armed forces by the U. S. Army during the Second World War; the first recorded use of olive drab as a color name in English was in 1892. Drab is an older color name, from the middle of the 16th century, it refers to the color of cloth made from undyed homespun wool. It took its name from the old French word for drap. Olive drab was the color of the standard fighting uniform for U. S. GIs and military vehicles during World War II. U. S. soldiers referred to their uniforms as "OD's" due to the color. The color used at the beginning of the war by the U. S. Army was called Olive Drab #3, replaced by Olive Drab #7 by 1944, and, again replaced by Olive Green 107 or OG-107 in 1952, continued as the official uniform color for combat fatigues through the Vietnam War until replaced in 1981 by M81 woodland camo fatigues as the primary U.
S. uniform pattern, which retained olive drab as one of the color swatches in the pattern. As a solid color, it is not as effective for camouflage as multiple-color camo schemes, though it is still used by the U. S. military to color webbing and accessories. The armies of Israel, Cuba and Austria wear solid-color olive drab uniforms. In the American novel A Separate Peace, Finny says to Gene, "...and in these times of war, we all see olive drab, we all know it is the patriotic color. All others aren't about the war. There are many variations of olive drab. Olive green is less green than dark olive green. An example is U. S. Army olive green 107: Displayed at right is the web color dark olive green. Black olive is a color in the RAL color matching system, it is designated as RAL 6015. The color "black olive" is a representation of the color of black olives; this is one of the colors in the RAL color matching system, a color system used in Europe. The RAL color list originated in 1927, it reached its present form in 1961.
EthnographyThe term "olive-skinned" is sometimes used to denote shades of medium-toned skin, darker than the average color for Caucasians in connection with a Mediterranean ethnicity. List of colors Pantone 448C
Darracq and Company London
A Darracq and Company Limited owned a French manufacturer of motor vehicles and aero engines in Suresnes, near Paris. The French enterprise, known at first as A. Darracq et Cie, was founded in 1896 by Alexandre Darracq after he sold his Gladiator Bicycle business. In 1902, it took effect in 1903, he sold his new business to a held English company named A Darracq and Company Limited, taking a substantial shareholding and a directorship himself. Alexandre Darracq continued to run the business from Paris but was obliged to retire to the Côte d'Azur in 1913 following years of difficulties that brought Darracq & Co into hazardous financial circumstances, he had introduced an unproven unorthodox engine in 1911 which proved a complete failure yet he neglected Suresnes' popular conventional products. France entered the first World War, he died in 1931 but long before that, in 1920, the name of A Darracq & Co 1905 was changed to S T D Motors Limited. In 1922 Darracq's name was dropped from all products, the Suresnes business was renamed Automobiles Talbot and the Suresnes products were branded just Talbot.
His Suresnes business was to continue, still under British control, under the name Talbot until 1935 when it was acquired by investors led by the Suresnes factory's managing director, Antonio Lago. S T D Motors Limited known until 1920 as A Darracq and Company Limited became insolvent and was liquidated during 1935 and 1936. Alexandre Darracq, using part of the substantial profit he had made from selling his Gladiator bicycle factory to Adolpe Clément, set up a plant in 1897 in the Paris suburb of Suresnes; the company to own the business was formed in 1897 and named A Darracq et Cie. Production began with a Millet motorcycle powered by a five-cylinder rotary engine, it was supplemented shortly after by an electric brougham. In 1898 Darracq et Cie made a Léon Bollée-designed voiturette tricar; the voiturette proved a débâcle: the steering was problematic, the five-speed belt drive "a masterpiece of bad design", the hot tube ignition crude, proving the £10,000 Darracq et Cie had paid for the design a mistake.
Darracq et Cie produced its first vehicle with an internal combustion engine in 1900. Designed by Ribeyrolles this was a 6.5 hp voiture legére powered by a single-cylinder engine of 785 cc and it featured shaft drive and three speed column gear change. While not as successful as hoped, one hundred were sold. In 1902 Darracq & Co signed a contract with Adam Opel to jointly produce, under licence, vehicles in the German Empire with the brand name "Opel Darracq". Opel soon moved on to building their own vehicles. A Darracq et Cie was sold as of 30 September 1902 to an English company, A Darracq and Company Limited; the attraction for the British venture capitalists was that French automobile technology and industry experience led the world. It was incorporated in England because French law made the necessary flotation processes more difficult than English law; the perception from across the Atlantic in USA was that French industry was "offloading" on British investors. The English financial group was headed by W B Avery of W & T Avery Limited, a Birmingham scales manufacturer, J S Smith-Winby a London lawyer and a retired army officer, Colonel A Rawlinson.
They bought A Darracq et Cie and sold it again to other investors for five times their purchase price. Darracq received less than 50 percent of the shares in the new company. There was no public offering, eight other investors took up the rest of the shares. Further capital was raised and large sums were spent on factory expansion; the Suresnes site was expanded to some four acres in extent, in England extensive premises were bought. The Darracq & Co automobile company prospered, such that, by 1903, four models were offered: a 1.1-litre single, a 1.3 l and 1.9 l twin, a 3.8 l four. The 1904 models abandoned flitch-plated wood chassis for pressed steel, the new Flying Fifteen, powered by a 3-litre four, had its chassis made from a single sheet of steel; this car was Alexandre Darracq's chef d'oeuvre. There was nothing outstanding in its design but "every part was in such perfect balance and harmony" it became an outstanding model, its exceptional quality helped the company capture a ten percent share of the French auto market.
In late 1904 the chairman reported sales were up by 20 per cent though increased costs meant the profit had risen more slowly. But what was more important was they had many more orders than they could fill and the only solution was to enlarge the factory by as much as 50 per cent. 75 per cent of 1904 output was exported. At the following Annual meeting, twelve months the chairman was able to tell shareholders all the six speed records of the automobile world were held by Darracq cars and they had all been held more than twelve months and yet another had been added by K Lee Guinness, he reported that during 1905 a large property had been bought in Lambeth for examining adjusting and stocking new cars ready for the peak sales period. An announcement followed two days of a scheme of reconstitution of the company to raise more capital for further expansion; the reconstituted company was named Company Limited. Paris resident Alexander Darracq remained managing director, Rawlinson was appointed managing director of the London branch.
The "reconstitution" was to circumvent some holders of the company's shares who were unwilling to share the prosperity and blocked proposed new issues. So the company was sold, they were obliged to buy new shares like anyone else. J S Smith-Winby continued as chairman. After this "reconstitution" over 80 per cent of the shares were held in England. Meanwhile th
HSL and HSV
HSL and HSV are alternative representations of the RGB color model, designed in the 1970s by computer graphics researchers to more align with the way human vision perceives color-making attributes. In these models, colors of each hue are arranged in a radial slice, around a central axis of neutral colors which ranges from black at the bottom to white at the top; the HSV representation models the way paints of different colors mix together, with the saturation dimension resembling various shades of brightly colored paint, the value dimension resembling the mixture of those paints with varying amounts of black or white paint. The HSL model attempts to resemble more perceptual color models such as the Natural Color System or Munsell color system, placing saturated colors around a circle at a lightness value of 1⁄2, where a lightness value of 0 or 1 is black or white, respectively. HSL and HSV are both cylindrical geometries, with hue, their angular dimension, starting at the red primary at 0°, passing through the green primary at 120° and the blue primary at 240°, wrapping back to red at 360°.
In each geometry, the central vertical axis comprises the neutral, achromatic, or gray colors, ranging from black at lightness 0 or value 0, the bottom, to white at lightness 1 or value 1, the top. In both geometries, the additive primary and secondary colors—red, green, cyan and magenta—and linear mixtures between adjacent pairs of them, sometimes called pure colors, are arranged around the outside edge of the cylinder with saturation 1; these saturated colors have lightness 0.5 in HSL, while in HSV they have value 1. Mixing these pure colors with black—producing so-called shades—leaves saturation unchanged. In HSL, saturation is unchanged by tinting with white, only mixtures with both black and white—called tones—have saturation less than 1. In HSV, tinting alone reduces saturation; because these definitions of saturation—in which dark or light near-neutral colors are considered saturated —conflict with the intuitive notion of color purity a conic or biconic solid is drawn instead, with what this article calls chroma as its radial dimension, instead of saturation.
Confusingly, such diagrams label this radial dimension "saturation", blurring or erasing the distinction between saturation and chroma. As described below, computing chroma is a helpful step in the derivation of each model; because such an intermediate model—with dimensions hue, HSV value or HSL lightness—takes the shape of a cone or bicone, HSV is called the "hexcone model" while HSL is called the "bi-hexcone model". The HSL color space was invented in 1938 by Georges Valensi as a method to add color encoding to existing monochrome broadcasts, allowing existing receivers to receive new color broadcasts without modification as the luminance signal is broadcast unmodified, it has been used in all major analog broadcast television encoding including NTSC, PAL and SECAM and all major digital broadcast systems and is the basis for composite video. Most televisions, computer displays, projectors produce colors by combining red and blue light in varying intensities—the so-called RGB additive primary colors.
The resulting mixtures in RGB color space can reproduce a wide variety of colors. Furthermore, neither additive nor subtractive color models define color relationships the same way the human eye does. For example, imagine we have an RGB display whose color is controlled by three sliders ranging from 0–255, one controlling the intensity of each of the red and blue primaries. If we begin with a colorful orange , with sRGB values R = 217, G = 118, B = 33, want to reduce its colorfulness by half to a less saturated orange , we would need to drag the sliders to decrease R by 31, increase G by 24, increase B by 59, as pictured below. In an attempt to accommodate more traditional and intuitive color mixing models, computer graphics pioneers at PARC and NYIT developed the HSV model in the mid-1970s, formally described by Alvy Ray Smith in the August 1978 issue of Computer Graphics. In the same issue and Greenberg described the HSL model—whose dimensions they labeled hue, relative chroma, intensity—and compared it to HSV.
Their model was based more upon how colors are organized and conceptualized in human vision in terms of other color-making attributes, such as hue and chroma. The following year, 1979, at SIGGRAPH, Tektronix introduced graphics terminals using HSL for color designation, the Computer Graphics Standards Committee recommended it in their annual status report; these models were useful not only because they were more intuitive than raw RGB values, but because the conversions to and from RGB were fast to compute: they could run in real time on the hardware of the 1970s. These models and similar ones have become ubiquito
Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then-German city of Molsheim, Alsace by the Italian-born industrial designer Ettore Bugatti. The cars were known for their many race victories. Famous Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type 41 "Royale", the Type 57 "Atlantic" and the Type 55 sports car; the death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end for the marque, the death of his son Jean Bugatti in 1939 ensured there was not a successor to lead the factory. No more than about 8,000 cars were made; the company struggled financially, released one last model in the 1950s, before being purchased for its airplane parts business in 1963. In the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of limited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name is owned by the Volkswagen Group. Founder Ettore Bugatti was born in Milan and the automobile company that bears his name was founded in 1909 in Molsheim located in the Alsace region, part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1919.
The company was known both for the level of detail of its engineering in its automobiles, for the artistic manner in which the designs were executed, given the artistic nature of Ettore's family. During the war Ettore Bugatti was sent away to Milan and to Paris, but as soon as hostilities had been concluded he returned to his factory at Molsheim. Less than four months after the Versailles Treaty formalised the transfer of Alsace from Germany to France, Bugatti was able to obtain, at the last minute, a stand at the 15th Paris motor show in October 1919, he exhibited three light cars, all of them based on their pre-war equivalents, each fitted with the same overhead camshaft 4-cylinder 1,368cc engine with four valves per cylinder. Smallest of the three was a "Type 13" with a racing body and using a chassis with a 2,000 mm wheelbase; the others were a "Type 22" and a "Type 23" with wheelbases of 2,400 mm respectively. The company enjoyed great success in early Grand Prix motor racing: in 1929 a entered Bugatti won the first Monaco Grand Prix.
Racing success culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice. Bugatti cars were successful in racing; the little Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first race. The 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is one of the most successful racing cars; the Type 35 was developed by Bugatti with master engineer and racing driver Jean Chassagne who drove it in the car’s first Grand Prix in 1924 Lyon. Bugattis swept to victory in the Targa Florio for five years straight from 1925 through 1929. Louis Chiron held the most podiums in Bugatti cars, the modern marque revival Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. named the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car in his honour. But it was the final racing success at Le Mans, most remembered—Jean-Pierre Wimille and Pierre Veyron won the 1939 race with just one car and meagre resources. In the 1930s, Ettore Bugatti got involved in the creation of a racer airplane, hoping to beat the Germans in the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize; this would be the Bugatti 100P.
It was designed by Belgian engineer Louis de Monge who had applied Bugatti Brescia engines in his "Type 7.5" lifting body. Ettore Bugatti designed a successful motorised railcar, the Autorail Bugatti; the death of Ettore Bugatti's son, Jean Bugatti, on 11 August 1939 marked a turning point in the company's fortunes. Jean died. World War II left the Molsheim factory in the company lost control of the property. During the war, Bugatti planned a new factory at a northwestern suburb of Paris. After the war, Bugatti designed and planned to build a series of new cars, including the Type 73 road car and Type 73C single seat racing car, but in all Bugatti built only five Type 73 cars. Development of a 375 cc supercharged car was stopped when Ettore Bugatti died on 21 August 1947. Following Ettore Bugatti's death, the business declined further and made its last appearance as a business in its own right at a Paris Motor Show in October 1952. After a long decline, the original incarnation of Bugatti ceased operations in 1952.
Bugattis are noticeably focused on design. Engine blocks were hand scraped to ensure that the surfaces were so flat that gaskets were not required for sealing, many of the exposed surfaces of the engine compartment featured guilloché finishes on them, safety wires had been threaded through every fastener in intricately laced patterns. Rather than bolt the springs to the axles as most manufacturers did, Bugatti's axles were forged such that the spring passed through a sized opening in the axle, a much more elegant solution requiring fewer parts, he famously described his arch competitor Bentley's cars as "the world's fastest lorries" for focusing on durability. According to Bugatti, "weight was the enemy". Relatives of Harold Carr found a rare 1937 Bugatti Type 57S Atalante when cataloguing the doctor's belongings after his death in 2009. Carr's Type 57S is notable because it was owned by British race car driver Earl Howe; because much of the car's original equipment is intact, it can be restored without relying on replacement parts.
On 10 July 2009, a 1925 Bugatti Brescia Type 22 which had lain at the bottom of Lake Maggiore on the border of Switzerland and Italy for 75 years was recovered from the lake. The Mullin Mu
Colorfulness and saturation are attributes of perceived color relating to chromatic intensity. As defined formally by the International Commission on Illumination they describe three different aspects of chromatic intensity, but the terms are used loosely and interchangeably in contexts where these aspects are not distinguished. Colorfulness is the "attribute of a visual perception according to which the perceived color of an area appears to be more or less chromatic". A note accompanying this definition in effect implies that the perception of colorfulness evoked by an object depends not only on its spectral reflectance but on the strength of the illumination, increases with the latter unless the brightness is high. Chroma is the "colorfulness of an area judged as a proportion of the brightness of a illuminated area that appears white or transmitting". A note accompanying this definition in effect implies that an object with a given spectral reflectance exhibits constant chroma for all levels of illumination, unless the brightness is high.
Thus if a uniformly colored object is unevenly lit, it will exhibit greater colorfulness where it is most lit, but will be perceived to have the same chroma over its entire surface. While colorfulness is an attribute of the color of the light reflected from different parts of the object, chroma is an attribute of the color seen as belonging to the object itself,and describes how different from a grey of the same lightness such an object color appears to be. Saturation is the "colorfulness of an area judged in proportion to its brightness", which in effect is the perceived freedom from whitishness of the light coming from the area. A note accompanying this definition in effect indicates that an object with a given spectral reflectance exhibits constant saturation for all levels of illumination, unless the brightness is high. Since the chroma and lightness of an object are its colorfulness and brightness judged in proportion to the same thing, the saturation of the light coming from that object is in effect the chroma of the object judged in proportion to its lightness.
On a Munsell hue page, lines of uniform saturation thus tend to radiate from near the black point, while lines of uniform chroma are vertical. As colorfulness and saturation are defined as attributes of perception they can not be physically measured as such, but they can be quantified in relation to psychometric scales intended to be perceptually for example the chroma scales of the Munsell system; the saturation of a color is determined by a combination of light intensity and how much it is distributed across the spectrum of different wavelengths. The purest color is achieved by using just one wavelength at a high intensity, such as in laser light. If the intensity drops as a result the saturation drops. To desaturate a color of given intensity in a subtractive system, one can add white, gray, or the hue's complement. Various correlates of saturation follow. CIELUV and CIELABIn CIELUV, saturation is equal to the chroma normalized by the lightness: s u v = C u v ∗ L ∗ = 13 2 + 2 where is the chromaticity of the white point, chroma is defined below.
By analogy, in CIELAB this would yield: s a b = C a b ∗ L ∗ = a ∗ 2 + b ∗ 2 L ∗ The CIE has not formally recommended this equation since CIELAB has no chromaticity diagram, this definition therefore lacks direct connection with older concepts of saturation. This equation provides a reasonable predictor of saturation, demonstrates that adjusting the lightness in CIELAB while holding fixed does affect the saturation, but the following formula is in agreement with the human perception of saturation: The formula proposed by Eva Lübbe is in agreement with the verbal definition of Manfred Richter: Saturation is the proportion of pure chromatic color in the total color sensation. S a b = C a b ∗ C a b ∗ 2 + L ∗ 2 100 % where Sab is the saturation, L* the lightness and C*ab is the chroma of the color. CIECAM02In CIECAM02, saturation equals the square root of the colorfulness divided by the brightness: s = M / Q This definition is inspired by experimental work done with the intention of
Designed to win the Le Mans 24-hour race, the slippery D-Type was produced by Jaguar Cars Ltd. between 1954 and 1957. Sharing the straight-6 XK engine and many mechanical components with its C-Type predecessor its structure however was radically different. Innovative monocoque construction and aerodynamic efficiency integrated aviation technology in a sports racing car, some examples including a renowned vertical stabilizer. Engine displacement began at 3.4 litres, was enlarged to 3.8 L in 1957, reduced to 3.0 L in 1958 when Le Mans rules limited engines for sports racing cars to that maximum. D-Types won Le Mans in 1955, 1956 and 1957. After Jaguar temporarily retired from racing as a factory team, the company offered the remaining unfinished D-Types as XKSS versions whose extra road-going equipment made them eligible for production sports car races in America. In 1957 25 of these cars were in various stages of completion when a factory fire destroyed nine of them. Total production is thought to have included 18 factory team D-Types, 53 customer cars and 16 XKSS versions.
The structural design, by Jaguar's William Heynes Technical Director and Chief Engineer was revolutionary at the time, applied aeronautical technology. The "tub", or cockpit section, was of monocoque construction comprising sheets of aluminium alloy, its elliptical shape and comparatively small cross-section provided torsional rigidity and reduced drag. To the front bulkhead was attached an aluminium tubing subframe for the engine, steering assembly, front suspension. Rear suspension and final drive were mounted to the rear bulkhead. Fuel was carried in the tail and the designers followed aviation practice by specifying a deformable Marston Aviation Division bag in place of a conventional tank; the aerodynamic bodywork was the work of Malcolm Sayer, who had joined Jaguar following a stint with the Bristol Aeroplane Company during the Second World War and worked on the C-Type. The D-Type required a minimal frontal area. To reduce the XK engine's height, Chief Engineer William Heynes, responsible for the C and D type overall design, developed dry sump lubrication, it has been said that the car's frontal area was a consideration in canting the engine at 8½° from the vertical.
Philip Porter, in his book Jaguar Sports Racing Cars, says that " more reason was to provide extra space for the ram pipes feeding the three twin-choke Weber carburettors." Reducing underbody drag contributed to the car's high top speed. For the 1955 season, factory cars were fitted with a longer nose, which lengthened the car by 7½ inches and further increased maximum speed. Mechanically, many features were shared with the outgoing C-Type, its front and rear suspension and innovative all-round disc brakes were retained, as was the XK engine. Apart from the new lubrication system, the engine was further revised as development progressed during the D-Type's competition life. Notably in 1955 larger valves were introduced, together with asymmetrical cylinder heads to accommodate them. Elements of the body shape and many construction details were used in the Jaguar E-Type1961-1969. Jaguar D-Types fielded by a team under the leadership of Jaguar's racing manager Lofty England were expected to perform well in their debut at the 1954 24 Hours of Le Mans race.
In the event, the cars were hampered by fuel starvation caused by problems with the fuel filters, necessitating pit stops for their removal, after which the entry driven by Duncan Hamilton and Tony Rolt speeded up to finish less than a lap behind the winning Ferrari. The D-Type's aerodynamic superiority is evident from its maximum speed of 172.8 mph on the Mulsanne Straight compared with the 4.9 litre Ferrari's 160.1 mph. Three weeks the D Type won the Rheims 12 hour endurance race. For 1955 the cars were modified with long-nose bodywork and engines uprated with larger valves. At Le Mans, they proved competitive with the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLRs, expected to win. Mike Hawthorn's D-Type had a narrow lead over Juan Manuel Fangio's Mercedes when another Mercedes team car was involved in the most catastrophic accident in motorsport history. Driver Pierre Levegh and more than 80 spectators lost their lives. Mercedes withdrew from the race. Jaguar opted to continue, the D-Type driven by Hawthorn and Ivor Bueb went on to win.
Mercedes withdrew from motorsport at the end of the 1955 season, Jaguar again entered Le Mans in 1956. Although only one of the three factory-entered cars finished, in sixth place, the race was won by a D-Type entered by the small Edinburgh-based team Ecurie Ecosse and driven by Ron Flockhart and Ninian Sanderson, beating works teams from Aston Martin and Scuderia Ferrari. In America, the Cunningham team raced several D-Types. In 1955, for example, a 1954 works car on loan to Cunningham won the Sebring 12 Hours in the hands of Mike Hawthorn and Phil Walters, in May 1956 the team's entries for Maryland's Cumberland national championship sports car race included four D-Types in Cunningham's white and blue racing colors. Driven by John Fitch, John Gordon Benett, Sherwood Johnston and team owner Briggs Cunningham, they finished fourth, fifth and eighth, respectively. Although Jaguar withdrew from motorsport at the end of the 1956 season, 1957 proved to be the D-Type's most successful year. 3.8-litre engine Jaguar D-Types took five of the top six places at Le Mans, Ecurie Ecosse, with considerable support from Jaguar, finished first and second, the best result in the D-Type's racing h