Britney Jean Spears|
December 2, 1981
McComb, Mississippi, U.S.
|Home town||Kentwood, Louisiana, U.S.|
Britney Jean Spears (born December 2, 1981) is an American singer, dancer, and actress. Born in McComb, Mississippi, and raised in Kentwood, Louisiana, she appeared in stage productions and television series, before signing with Jive Records in 1997. Spears's first two studio albums, ...Baby One More Time (1999) and Oops!... I Did It Again (2000), were global successes and made her the best-selling teenage artist of all-time. Referred to as the "Princess of Pop", Spears was credited with influencing the revival of teen pop during the late 1990s and early 2000s.
Spears adopted more mature and provocative themes for her next two studio albums, Britney (2001) and In the Zone (2003), and made her feature film debut in a starring role in Crossroads (2002). Following a series of heavily publicized personal struggles and erratic public behavior, Spears' career underwent a brief hiatus before the release of her fifth studio album Blackout (2007), which is often critically referred to as her best work. Her erratic behavior and hospitalizations led Spears to be placed on a still ongoing conservatorship. She returned to the top of record charts with her sixth and seventh studio albums, Circus (2008) and Femme Fatale (2011). In 2012, Forbes reported that Spears was the highest paid female musician of the year, with earnings of $58 million, having last topped the list in 2002. During the promotion of her eighth and ninth studio albums, Britney Jean (2013) and Glory (2016), Spears embarked on a four-year concert residency, Britney: Piece of Me, at Planet Hollywood Resort & Casino in Las Vegas.
Five of Spears' singles have reached number one in the United States: "...Baby One More Time", "Womanizer", "3", "Hold It Against Me" and "S&M". Other singles, "Oops!... I Did It Again" and "Toxic", topped Australian and Canadian charts. Spears has earned numerous awards and accolades, including a Grammy Award, six MTV Video Music Awards, including the Video Vanguard Award, seven Billboard Music Awards, including the Millennium Award and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Billboard ranked her as the eighth biggest artist of the 2000s decade. One of the world's best-selling music artists, Spears has sold over 100 million records worldwide. In the United States, Spears remains the fourth best-selling female album artist of the Nielsen SoundScan era, as well as the best-selling female albums artist of the 2000s. In 2004, she launched a perfume brand with Elizabeth Arden, Inc., from which sales exceeded US$1.5 billion, as of 2012.
- 1 Life and career
- 1.1 1981–1997: Early life and career beginnings
- 1.2 1998–2000: ...Baby One More Time and Oops!... I Did It Again
- 1.3 2001–2002: Britney and Crossroads
- 1.4 2003–2005: In the Zone and marriages
- 1.5 2006–2007: Personal struggles and Blackout
- 1.6 2008–2010: Circus
- 1.7 2011–2012: Femme Fatale and The X Factor
- 1.8 2013–2015: Britney Jean and Britney: Piece of Me
- 1.9 2016–2017: Glory and continued residency
- 1.10 2018: Piece of Me Tour and business ventures
- 2 Artistry
- 3 Influence
- 4 Other ventures
- 5 Discography
- 6 Filmography
- 7 Concerts
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Life and career
1981–1997: Early life and career beginnings
Spears was born in McComb, Mississippi, the second child of Lynne Irene Bridges and James Parnell Spears. Her maternal grandmother, Lillian Portell, was English (born in London), and one of Spears's maternal great-great-grandfathers was Maltese. Her siblings are Bryan James and Jamie Lynn. Britney was born in the Bible Belt, where socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a particularly strong religious influence. She was baptized into the Southern Baptist Convention, but later in life studied Kabbalist teachings. She sang in a Baptist church choir as a child.
At age three, she started attending dance lessons in her hometown of Kentwood, Louisiana, and was selected to perform as a solo artist at the annual recital. Spears made her local stage debut at age five, singing "What Child Is This?" at her kindergarten graduation. During her childhood, she also attended gymnastics and voice lessons, and won many state-level competitions and children's talent shows. She said about her ambition as a child, "I was in my own world, [...] I found out what I'm supposed to do at an early age".
At age eight, Spears and her mother Lynne traveled to Atlanta, Georgia to audition for the 1990s revival of The Mickey Mouse Club. Casting director Matt Casella rejected her as too young, but introduced her to Nancy Carson, a New York City talent agent. Carson was impressed with Spears's singing and suggested enrolling her at the Professional Performing Arts School; shortly after, Lynne and her daughters moved to a sublet apartment in New York. Spears was hired for her first professional role as the understudy for the lead role of Tina Denmark in the Off-Broadway musical Ruthless!. She also appeared as a contestant on the popular television show Star Search and was cast in a number of commercials. In December 1992, she was cast in The Mickey Mouse Club alongside Christina Aguilera, Justin Timberlake, Ryan Gosling, and Keri Russell. After the show was canceled in 1996, she returned to Mississippi and enrolled at McComb's Parklane Academy. Although she made friends with most of her classmates, she compared the school to "the opening scene in Clueless with all the cliques. [...] I was so bored. I was the point guard on the basketball team. I had my boyfriend, and I went to homecoming and Christmas formal. But I wanted more."
In June 1997, Spears was in talks with manager Lou Pearlman to join the female pop group Innosense. Lynne asked family friend and entertainment lawyer Larry Rudolph for his opinion and submitted a tape of Spears singing over a Whitney Houston karaoke song along with some pictures. Rudolph decided he wanted to pitch her to record labels, therefore she needed a professional demo. He sent Spears an unused song of Toni Braxton; she rehearsed for a week and recorded her vocals in a studio with a sound engineer. Spears traveled to New York with the demo and met with executives from four labels, returning to Kentwood the same day. Three of the labels rejected her, arguing that audiences wanted pop bands such as the Backstreet Boys and the Spice Girls, and "there wasn't going to be another Madonna, another Debbie Gibson, or another Tiffany."
Two weeks later, executives from Jive Records returned calls to Rudolph. Senior vice president of A&R Jeff Fenster stated about Spears's audition that "it's very rare to hear someone that age who can deliver emotional content and commercial appeal...For any artist, the motivation—the 'eye of the tiger'—is extremely important. And Britney had that." Spears then sang Houston's "I Have Nothing" (1992) for the executives, and was subsequently signed to the label. They appointed her to work with producer Eric Foster White for a month, who reportedly shaped her voice from "lower and less poppy" delivery to "distinctively, unmistakably Britney." After hearing the recorded material, president Clive Calder ordered a full album. Spears had originally envisioned "Sheryl Crow music, but younger; more adult contemporary" but felt secure with her label's appointment of producers, since "It made more sense to go pop, because I can dance to it—it's more me." She flew to Cheiron Studios in Stockholm, Sweden, where half of the album was recorded from March to April 1998, with producers Max Martin, Denniz Pop and Rami Yacoub, among others.
1998–2000: ...Baby One More Time and Oops!... I Did It Again
After Spears returned to the United States, she embarked on a shopping mall promotional tour to promote her upcoming debut album. Her show was a four-song set and she was accompanied by two back up dancers. Her first concert tour followed, as an opening act for NSYNC. Her debut studio album, ...Baby One More Time, was released on January 12, 1999. It debuted at number one on the U.S. Billboard 200 and was certified two-times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America after a month. Worldwide, the album topped the charts in fifteen countries and sold over 10 million copies in a year. It became the biggest selling album ever by a teenage artist.
The title track was released as the lead single from the album. Originally, Jive Records wanted its music video to be animated; however, Spears rejected it, and suggested the final idea of a Catholic schoolgirl. The single sold 500,000 copies on its first day, and peaked at number one on the Billboard Hot 100, topping the chart for two consecutive weeks. It has sold more than 10 million copies, making it one of the best-selling singles of all time. "...Baby One More Time" later received a Grammy nomination for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance. The title track also topped the singles chart for two weeks in the United Kingdom, and became the fastest-selling single ever by a female artist, shipping over 460,000 copies. It would later become the 25th-most successful song of all time in British chart history. Spears is also the youngest female artist to have a million seller in the country. "(You Drive Me) Crazy" was released as the third single from the album. It became a top-ten hit worldwide and further propelled the success of the ...Baby One More Time album. The album has sold 25 million copies worldwide, making it one of the best-selling albums of all time. It is also the best-selling debut album by any artist ever.
The April 1999 cover of Rolling Stone featured Spears lying on her bed, wearing a bra, shorts and an open top. The American Family Association (AFA) referred to the shoot as "a disturbing mix of childhood innocence and adult sexuality" and called to "God-loving Americans to boycott stores selling Britney's albums." Spears responded to the outcry commenting, "What's the big deal? I have strong morals. [...] I'd do it again. I thought the pictures were fine. And I was tired of being compared to Debbie Gibson and all of this bubblegum pop all the time." Shortly before, Spears had announced publicly she would remain a virgin until marriage. On June 28, 1999, Spears began her first headlining ...Baby One More Time Tour in North America, which was positively received by critics, but generated some controversy due to her racy outfits. An extension of the tour, titled Crazy 2k, followed in March 2000. Spears premiered songs from her upcoming second album during the show.
Oops!... I Did It Again, her second studio album, was released in May 2000. It debuted at number one in the US, selling 1.3 million copies, breaking the SoundScan record for the highest debut sales by any solo artist. The album sold over 20 million copies worldwide to date, making one of the best-selling albums of all time. Rob Sheffield of Rolling Stone said that "the great thing about Oops! – under the cheese surface, Britney's demand for satisfaction is complex, fierce and downright scary, making her a true child of rock & roll tradition." The album's lead single, "Oops!... I Did It Again", peaked at the top of the charts in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and many other European nations. The album as well as the title track received Grammy nominations for Best Pop Vocal Album and Best Female Pop Vocal Performance, respectively.
The same year, Spears embarked on the Oops!... I Did It Again Tour, which grossed $40.5 million; she also released her first book, Britney Spears' Heart to Heart, co-written with her mother. On September 7, 2000, Spears performed at the 2000 MTV Video Music Awards. Halfway through the performance, she ripped off her black suit to reveal a sequined flesh-colored bodysuit, followed by heavy dance routine. It is noted by critics as the moment that Spears showed signs of becoming a more provocative performer. Amidst media speculation, Spears confirmed she was dating NSYNC member Justin Timberlake. She also bought a home in Destin, Florida.
2001–2002: Britney and Crossroads
In February 2001, Spears signed a $7–8 million promotional deal with Pepsi, and released another book co-written with her mother, titled A Mother's Gift. Her self-titled third studio album, Britney, was released in November 2001. While on tour, she felt inspired by hip hop artists such as Jay-Z and The Neptunes and wanted to create a record with a funkier sound. The album debuted at number one in the Billboard 200 and reached top five positions in Australia, the United Kingdom and mainland Europe and sold over 12 million copies worldwide. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic called Britney "the record where she strives to deepen her persona, making it more adult while still recognizably Britney. [...] It does sound like the work of a star who has now found and refined her voice, resulting in her best record yet." The album was honored with two Grammy nominations—Best Pop Vocal Album and Best Female Pop Vocal Performance for "Overprotected"— and was listed in 2008 as one of Entertainment Weekly's "100 Best Albums from the Past 25 Years". The album's first single, "I'm a Slave 4 U", became a top-ten hit worldwide.
Spears's performance of the single at the 2001 MTV Video Music Awards featured a caged tiger and a large albino python draped over her shoulders. It was harshly received by animal rights organization PETA, who claimed the animals were mistreated and scrapped plans for an anti-fur billboard that was to feature Spears. To support the album, Spears embarked on the Dream Within a Dream Tour. The show was critically praised for its technical innovations, the pièce de résistance being a water screen that pumped two tons of water into the stage. The tour grossed $43.7 million, becoming the second highest grossing tour of 2002 by a female artist, behind Cher's Farewell Tour. Her career success was highlighted by Forbes in 2002, as Spears was ranked the world's most powerful celebrity. Spears also landed her first starring role in Crossroads, released in February 2002. Although the film was largely panned, critics praised Spears's acting and the film was a box office success. Crossroads, which had a $12 million budget, went on to gross over $61.1 million worldwide.
In June 2002, Spears opened her first restaurant, Nyla, in New York City, but terminated her relationship in November, citing mismanagement and "management's failure to keep her fully apprised". In July 2002, Spears announced she would take a six-month break from her career; however, she went back into the studio in November to record her new album. Spears's relationship with Justin Timberlake ended after three years. In December 2002, Timberlake released the song "Cry Me a River" as the second single from his solo debut album. The music video featured a Spears look-alike and fueled the rumors that she had been unfaithful to him. As a response, Spears wrote the ballad "Everytime" with her backing vocalist and friend Annet Artani. The same year, Limp Bizkit frontman Fred Durst said that he was in a relationship with Spears. However, Spears denied Durst's claims. In a 2009 interview, he explained that "I just guess at the time it was taboo for a guy like me to be associated with a gal like her."
2003–2005: In the Zone and marriages
In 2003 Spears opened the 2003 MTV Video Music Awards with Christina Aguilera, performing "Like a Virgin". Halfway through they were joined by Madonna, with whom they both kissed. The incident was highly publicized. Spears released her fourth studio album, In the Zone, in November 2003. She assumed more creative control by writing and co-producing most of the material. Vibe called it "A supremely confident dance record that also illustrates Spears's development as a songwriter." NPR listed the album as one of "The 50 Most Important Recording of the Decade", adding that "the decade's history of impeccably crafted pop is written on her body of work." In the Zone sold over 609,000 copies in the United States and debuted at the top of the charts, making Spears the first female artist in the SoundScan era to have her first four studio albums to debut at number one. It also debuted at the top of the charts in France and the top ten in Belgium, Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands. In the Zone sold over 10 million copies worldwide. The album produced the hit singles: "Me Against the Music", a collaboration with Madonna; "Toxic"—which won Spears her only Grammy for Best Dance Recording; "Everytime" and "Outrageous".
In January 2004, Spears married childhood friend Jason Allen Alexander at A Little White Wedding Chapel in Las Vegas, Nevada. The marriage was annulled 55 hours later, following a petition to the court that stated that Spears "lacked understanding of her actions". In March 2004, she embarked on The Onyx Hotel Tour in support of In the Zone. In June 2004, Spears fell and injured her left knee during the music video shoot for "Outrageous". Spears underwent arthroscopic surgery. She was forced to remain six weeks with a thigh brace, followed by eight to twelve weeks of rehabilitation, which caused The Onyx Hotel Tour to be canceled. During 2004, Spears became involved in the Kabbalah Centre through her friendship with Madonna.
In July 2004, Spears became engaged to American dancer Kevin Federline, whom she had met three months before. The romance received intense attention from the media, since Federline had recently broken up with actress Shar Jackson, who was still pregnant with their second child at the time. The stages of their relationship were chronicled in Spears's first reality show Britney & Kevin: Chaotic. They held a wedding ceremony on September 18, 2004, but were not legally married until three weeks later on October 6 due to a delay finalizing the couple's prenuptial agreement. Shortly after, she released her first perfume with Elizabeth Arden, Curious, which broke the company's first-week gross for a perfume. In October 2004, Spears took a career break to start a family. Greatest Hits: My Prerogative, her first greatest hits compilation album, was released in November 2004. Spears's cover version of Bobby Brown's "My Prerogative" was released as the lead single from the album, reaching the top of the charts in Finland, Ireland, Italy and Norway. The second single, "Do Somethin'", was a top ten hit in Australia, the United Kingdom and other countries of mainland Europe. In August 2005, Spears released "Someday (I Will Understand)", which was dedicated to her first child, a son, who was born the following month. In November 2005, she released her first remix compilation, B in the Mix: The Remixes, which consists of eleven remixes. It has sold over 1 million copies worldwide.
2006–2007: Personal struggles and Blackout
In February 2006, pictures surfaced of Spears driving with her son, Sean, on her lap instead of in a car seat. Child advocates were horrified by the photos of her holding the wheel with one hand and Sean with the other. Spears claimed that the situation happened because of a frightening encounter with paparazzi, and that it was a mistake on her part. The following month, she guest-starred on the Will & Grace episode "Buy, Buy Baby" as closeted lesbian Amber Louise. She announced she no longer studied Kabbalah in June 2006, explaining, "my baby is my religion." Two months later, Spears posed nude for the cover of Harper's Bazaar. The picture was heavily compared to Demi Moore's August 1991 Vanity Fair cover. In September 2006, she gave birth to her second child, a son. In November 2006, Spears filed for divorce from Federline, citing irreconcilable differences. Their divorce was finalized in July 2007, when the couple reached a global settlement and agreed to share joint custody of their children.
Spears's aunt Sandra Bridges Covington, with whom she had been very close, died of ovarian cancer in January 2007. In February, Spears stayed in a drug rehabilitation facility in Antigua for less than a day. The following night, she shaved her head with electric clippers at a hair salon in Tarzana, Los Angeles. She admitted herself to other treatment facilities during the following weeks. In May 2007, she produced a series of promotional concerts at House of Blues venues, titled The M+M's Tour. In October 2007, Spears lost physical custody of her children to Federline. The reasons of the court ruling were not revealed to the public. Spears was also sued by Louis Vuitton over her 2005 music video "Do Somethin'" for upholstering her Hummer interior in counterfeit Louis Vuitton cherry blossom fabric, which resulted in the video being banned on European TV stations.
In October 2007, Spears released her fifth studio album, Blackout. The album debuted at the top of charts in Canada and Ireland, number two in the U.S. Billboard 200, France, Japan, Mexico and the United Kingdom and the top ten in Australia, Korea, New Zealand and many European nations. In the United States, Spears became the only female artist to have her first five studio albums debut at the two top slots of the chart. The album received positive reviews from critics and has sold over 3 million copies worldwide. Blackout won Album of the Year at MTV Europe Music Awards 2008 and was listed as the fifth Best Pop Album of the Decade by The Times. Spears performed the lead single "Gimme More" at the 2007 MTV Video Music Awards. The performance was panned by many critics. Despite the backlash, the single rocketed to worldwide success, peaking at number one in Canada and the top ten in almost every country it charted. The second single "Piece of Me" reached the top of the charts in Ireland and reached the top five in Australia, Canada, Denmark, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The third single "Break the Ice" was released the following year and had moderate success due to Spears not being able to promote it properly. In December 2007, Spears began a relationship with paparazzo Adnan Ghalib.
In January 2008, Spears refused to relinquish custody of her sons to Federline's representatives. She was hospitalized at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center after police that arrived at her house noted she appeared to be under the influence of an unidentified substance. The following day, Spears's visitation rights were suspended at an emergency court hearing, and Federline was given sole physical and legal custody of the children. She was committed to the psychiatric ward of Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center and put on 5150 involuntary psychiatric hold. The court placed her under temporary, and later, permanent conservatorship of her father James Spears and attorney Andrew Wallet, giving them complete control of her assets. She was released five days later.
The following month, Spears guest-starred on the How I Met Your Mother episode "Ten Sessions" as receptionist Abby. She received positive reviews for her performance, as well as bringing the series its highest ratings ever. In July 2008, Spears regained some visitation rights after coming to an agreement with Federline and his counsel. In September 2008, Spears opened the MTV Video Music Awards with a pre-taped comedy sketch with Jonah Hill and an introduction speech. She won Best Female Video, Best Pop Video and Video of the Year for "Piece of Me". A 60-minute introspective documentary, Britney: For the Record, was produced to chronicle Spears's return to the recording industry. Directed by Phil Griffin, For the Record was shot in Beverly Hills, Hollywood, and New York City during the third quarter of 2008. The documentary was broadcast on MTV to 5.6 million viewers for the two airings on the premiere night. It was the highest rating in its Sunday night timeslot and in the network's history.
In December 2008, Spears's sixth studio album Circus was released. It received positive reviews from critics and debuted at number one in Canada, Czech Republic and the United States, and inside the top ten in many European nations. In the United States, Spears became the youngest female artist to have five albums debut at number one, earning a place in Guinness World Records. She also became the only act in the Soundscan era to have four albums debut with 500,000 or more copies sold. The album was one of the fastest-selling albums of the year, and has sold 4 million copies worldwide. Its lead single, "Womanizer", became Spears's first number one in the Billboard Hot 100 since "...Baby One More Time". The single also topped the charts in Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Norway and Sweden. It was also nominated for a Grammy in the category of Best Dance Recording. In January 2009, Spears and her father James obtained a restraining order against her former manager Sam Lutfi, ex-boyfriend Adnan Ghalib and attorney Jon Eardley — all of whom, court documents claim, had been conspiring to gain control of Spears's affairs. The restraining order forbids Lutfi and Ghalib from contacting Spears or coming within 250 yards of her, her property or family members. Spears embarked on The Circus Starring Britney Spears in March 2009. With a gross of U.S. $131.8 million, it became the fifth highest grossing tour of the year.
In November 2009, Spears released her second greatest hits album, The Singles Collection. The album's lead and only single, "3" became her third number one single in the U.S. In May 2010, Spears's representatives confirmed she was dating her agent Jason Trawick, and that they had decided to end their professional relationship to focus on their personal relationship. Spears designed a limited edition clothing line for Candie's, which was released in stores in July 2010. In September 2010, she made a cameo appearance on a Spears-themed tribute episode of American TV show Glee, titled "Britney/Brittany". The episode drew Glee's highest ratings ever.
2011–2012: Femme Fatale and The X Factor
In March 2011, Spears released her seventh studio album Femme Fatale. The album peaked at number one in the United States, Canada, and Australia, and peaked inside the top ten on nearly every other chart. Its peak in the United States ties Britney with Mariah Carey and Janet Jackson for the third-most number ones among women. It has sold 1,000,000 copies in the United States, and has been certified platinum by the RIAA.
The album's lead single "Hold It Against Me" debuted at number-one on the Billboard Hot 100, becoming Spears's fourth number-one single on the chart and making her the second artist in history to have two consecutive singles debut at number one, after Mariah Carey. The second single "Till the World Ends" peaked at number three on the Billboard Hot 100 in May, while the third single "I Wanna Go" reached number seven in August. Femme Fatale became Spears's first album in which three of its songs reached the top ten of the chart. The fourth and final single "Criminal" was released in September 2011. The music video caused controversy when British politicians criticized Spears for using replica guns while filming the video in an area of London that had been badly affected by the 2011 England riots. Spears's management briefly responded, stating, "The video is a fantasy story featuring Britney's boyfriend, Jason Trawick, which literally plays out the lyrics of a song written three years before the riots ever happened." In April 2011, Spears appeared in a remix of Rihanna's song "S&M". It reached number one in the US later in the month, giving Spears her fifth number one on the chart. On Billboard's 2011 Year-End list, Spears was ranked number fourteen on the Artists of the Year, thirty-two on Billboard 200 artists and ten on Billboard Hot 100 artists.
In June 2011, Spears embarked on the Femme Fatale Tour. The first ten dates of the tour grossed $6.2 million, landing the fifty-fifth spot on Pollstar's Top 100 North American Tours list for the half-way point of the year. The tour ended on December 10, 2011 in Puerto Rico after 79 performances. A DVD of the tour was released in November 2011. In August 2011, Spears received the MTV Video Vanguard Award at the 2011 MTV Video Music Awards. The next month, she released her second remix album, B in the Mix: The Remixes Vol. 2. In December, Spears became engaged to her long-time boyfriend Jason Trawick, who had formerly been her agent. Trawick became a co-conservator of Spears, alongside her father, in April 2012. In January 2013, Spears and Trawick ended their engagement. Trawick was also removed as Spears's co-conservator, restoring her father as the sole conservator.
In May 2012, Spears was hired to replace Nicole Scherzinger as a judge for the second season of the U.S. version of The X Factor, joining Simon Cowell, L.A. Reid and fellow new judge Demi Lovato, who replaced Paula Abdul. With a reported salary of $15 million, she became the highest-paid judge on a singing competition series in television history. She mentored the Teens category; her final act, Carly Rose Sonenclar, was named the runner-up of the season. Spears did not return for the show's third season and her spot was filled by Kelly Rowland. Spears was featured on will.i.am's "Scream & Shout", which was released as a single from his fourth studio album, #willpower (2013). The song later became Spears's sixth number one single on the UK Singles Chart and peaked at #3 on US Billboard Hot 100. Scream & Shout was among the best selling songs of 2012 and 2013 with denoting sales of over 8.1 million worldwide, the accompanying music video was the third-most viewed video in 2013 on VEVO despite the video being released in 2012.[not in citation given] In December, Forbes magazine named her music's top-earning woman of 2012, with estimated earnings of $58 million.
2013–2015: Britney Jean and Britney: Piece of Me
Spears began work on her eighth studio album, Britney Jean, in December 2012, and enlisted will.i.am as its executive producer in May 2013. During the production of Britney Jean, Spears recorded the song "Ooh La La" for the soundtrack of The Smurfs 2, which was released in June 2013. On September 17, 2013, she appeared on Good Morning America to announce her two-year concert residency at Planet Hollywood Resort & Casino in Las Vegas, titled Britney: Piece of Me. It began on December 27, 2013, and included a total of 100 shows throughout 2014 and 2015. During the same appearance, Spears announced that Britney Jean would be released on December 3, 2013, in the United States. It was released through RCA Records due to the disbandment of Jive Records in 2011, which had formed the joint RCA/Jive Label Group (initially known as BMG Label Group) between 2007 and 2011. Britney Jean became Spears's final project under her original recording contract with Jive, which had guaranteed the release of eight studio albums. The record received a low amount of promotion and had little commercial impact, reportedly due to time conflicts involving preparations for Britney: Piece of Me. Upon its release, the record debuted at number four on the U.S. Billboard 200 with first-week sales of 107,000 copies, becoming her lowest-peaking and lowest-selling album in the United States. Britney Jean debuted at number 34 on the UK Albums Chart, selling 12,959 copies in its first week. In doing so, it became Spears's lowest-charting and lowest-selling album in the country.
"Work Bitch" was released as the lead single from Britney Jean on September 16, 2013, one day earlier than expected after being leaked online. It debuted and peaked at number 12 on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 marking Spears's 31st song on the chart and the fifth highest debut of her career on the chart, and her seventh in the top 20. It also marked Spears's 19th top 20 hit and overall her 23rd top 40 hit. The song marked Spears's highest sales debut since her 2011 number one hit "Hold It Against Me". "Work Bitch" also had commercial success in the UK debuting and peaking at number 7 on the UK Singles Chart. The song also charted well in several other countries, peaking within the top ten of the charts in Brazil, Canada, France, Italy, Mexico, Spain and South Korea.
The second single "Perfume" premiered on November 3, 2013, two days earlier than originally announced. It debuted and peaked at number 76 on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100. In October 2013, she was featured as a guest vocalist on Miley Cyrus's track "SMS (Bangerz)", taken from her fourth studio album Bangerz (2013). On January 8, 2014, Spears won Favorite Pop Artist at the 40th People's Choice Awards at the Microsoft Theater in Los Angeles. In August 2014, Spears confirmed she had renewed her contract with RCA and that she was writing and recording new music for her next album. Spears announced through her Twitter account in August 2014 that she would be releasing an intimate apparel line called "The Intimate Britney Spears". It was available to be purchased beginning on September 9, 2014 in the United States and Canada through Spears's Intimate Collection website. It was later available on September 25 for purchase in Europe. The company now ships to over 200 countries including Australia and New Zealand. On September 25, 2014, Spears confirmed on Good Morning Britain that she had extended her contract with The AXIS and Planet Hollywood Resort & Casino, to continue Britney: Piece of Me for two additional years.
In March 2015, it was confirmed by People magazine that Spears would release a new single, "Pretty Girls", with Iggy Azalea, on May 4, 2015. The song debuted and peaked at number 29 on the Billboard Hot 100 and charted moderately in international territories. Spears and Azalea performed the track live at the 2015 Billboard Music Awards from The AXIS, the home of Spears's residency, to positive critical response. Entertainment Weekly praised the performance, noting "Spears gave one of her most energetic televised performances in years." On June 16, 2015, Giorgio Moroder released his album, Deja Vu, that featured Spears on "Tom's Diner". The song was released as the fourth single from the album on October 9. In an interview, Moroder praised Spears's vocals and said that she did a "good job" with the song and also stated that Spears "sounds so good that you would hardly recognize her." At the 2015 Teen Choice Awards, Spears received the Candie's Style Icon Award, her ninth Teen Choice Award. In November, Spears guest starred as a fictionalized version of herself on The CW series, Jane the Virgin. On the show, she danced to "Toxic" with Gina Rodriguez's character.
2016–2017: Glory and continued residency
In 2016, Spears confirmed via social media that she had begun recording her ninth studio album. On March 1, 2016, V magazine announced that Spears would appear on the cover of its 100th issue, dated March 8, 2016, in addition to revealing three different covers shot by photographer Mario Testino for the milestone publication. Editor-in-chief of the magazine, Stephen Gan, revealed that Spears was selected for the "V100" issue because of her status as an icon in the industry. On the decision, Gan stated, "who in our world did not grow up listening to her music?" In May 2016, Spears launched a casual role-play gaming application titled Britney Spears: American Dream. The app, created by Glu Mobile, was made available through both iOS and Google Play. On May 22, 2016, Spears performed a medley of her past singles at the 2016 Billboard Music Awards. In addition to opening the show, Spears was honored with the Billboard Millennium Award. On July 14, 2016, Spears released the lead single, "Make Me...", from her ninth studio album, featuring guest vocals from American rapper G-Eazy. The album, Glory, was formally released on August 26, 2016. On August 16, 2016, MTV and Spears announced that she would perform at the 2016 MTV Video Music Awards. The performance marked Spears's first time returning to the VMA stage after her widely controversial performance of "Gimme More" at the 2007 show nine years earlier. Along with "Make Me...", Spears and G-Eazy also performed the latter's hit song "Me, Myself & I".
Spears appeared on the cover of Marie Claire UK for the October 2016 issue. In the publication, Spears revealed that she had suffered from crippling anxiety in the past, and that motherhood played a major role in helping her overcome it. "My boys don't care if everything isn't perfect. They don't judge me," Spears said in the issue. In November 2016, during an interview with Las Vegas Blog, Spears confirmed she had already begun work on her next album, stating: "I'm not sure what I want the next album to sound like. [...] I just know that I'm excited to get into the studio again and actually have already been back recording." In January 2017, Spears received four wins out of four nominations at the 43rd People's Choice Awards, including Favorite Pop Artist, Female Artist, Social Media celebrity as well as Comedic Collaboration for a skit with Ellen DeGeneres for The Ellen DeGeneres Show. In March 2017, Spears announced that her residency concert would be performed abroad as a world tour, Britney: Live in Concert, with dates in select Asian cities. In April 2017, the Israeli Labor Party announced that it would reschedule its July primary election to avoid conflict with Spears's sold-out Tel Aviv concert, citing traffic and security concerns.
Spears's manager Larry Rudolph also announced the residency would not be extended following her contract expiration with Caesars Entertainment at the end of 2017. On April 29, 2017, Spears became the first recipient of the Icon Award at the 2017 Radio Disney Music Awards. On November 4, 2017, Spears attended the grand opening of the Nevada Childhood Cancer Foundation Britney Spears Campus in Las Vegas. Later that month, Forbes announced that Spears was the 8th highest earning female musician, earning $34 million in 2017. On December 31, 2017, Spears performed the final show of Britney: Piece of Me. The final performance reportedly brought in $1.172 million, setting a new box office record for a single show in Las Vegas, and breaking the record previously held by Jennifer Lopez. The last show was broadcast live with performances of "Toxic" and "Work Bitch" airing on ABC's Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin' Eve to a record audience of 25.6 million.
2018: Piece of Me Tour and business ventures
On January 8, 2018, Spears announced her 24th perfume with Elizabeth Arden, Sunset Fantasy. On January 23, 2018, Spears revealed that she will bring her Las Vegas residency show abroad once again as a summer world tour. The Britney Spears: Piece of Me Tour is scheduled to begin in July 2018, with shows in North America and Europe. Tickets for the show sold out within minutes in major cities, prompting additional dates to be announced due to overwhelming demand. It was also announced that Pitbull would serve as the supporting act for the European leg. On March 20, 2018, Spears was announced as the new face of the contemporary French luxury fashion house KENZO. The company said it aimed to shake up the 'jungle' world of fashion with Spears's 'La Collection Memento No. 2' campaign. On April 12, 2018, Spears was honored with the 2018 GLAAD Vanguard Award at the GLAAD Media Awards for her role in "accelerating acceptance for the LGBTQ community".
In April 2018, Epic Rights announced a new partnership with Spears to debut her own fashion line in 2019, which would include clothing, fitness apparel, accessories, and electronics. It was also announced that Spears is slated to perform at the Formula One Grand Prix in Austin in October 2018.
Following her debut, Spears was credited with leading the revival of teen pop in the late 1990s. The Daily Yomiuri reported that "[m]usic critics have hailed her as the most gifted teenage pop idol for many years, but Spears has set her sights a little higher-she is aiming for the level of superstardom that has been achieved by Madonna and Janet Jackson." Rob Sheffield of Rolling Stone wrote: "Britney Spears carries on the classic archetype of the rock & roll teen queen, the dungaree doll, the angel baby who just has to make a scene." Following the release of her debut album, Chuck Taylor of Billboard observed, "Spears has become a consummate performer, with snappy dance moves, a clearly real-albeit young-and funkdified voice ... "(You Drive Me) Crazy", her third single ... demonstrates Spears's own development, proving that the 17-year-old is finding her own vocal personality after so many months of steadfast practice." Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic referred to her music as a "blend of infectious, rap-inflected dance-pop and smooth balladry."
Oops!...I Did It Again and subsequent albums saw Spears working with several contemporary R&B producers, leading to "a combination of bubblegum, urban soul, and raga." Her third studio album, Britney derived from the teen pop niche, "[r]hythmically and melodically ... sharper, tougher than what came before. What used to be unabashedly frothy has some disco grit, underpinned by Spears' spunky self-determination that helps sell hooks that are already catchier, by and large, than those that populated her previous two albums."
Spears has explored and heavily incorporated the genres of electropop and dance music in her albums, as well as influences of urban and hip hop music which are most present in In the Zone and Blackout. She has also experimented with genres such as dubstep, first on Blackout's "Freakshow" and again on "Hold It Against Me" from Femme Fatale. Spears' music also has been described as dance-pop.
The neutrality of this section is disputed. (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Problems playing these files? See media help.
Spears is a soprano. Prior to her breakthrough success, she is described as having sung "much deeper than her highly recognizable trademark voice of today", with Eric Foster White, who worked with Spears for her debut album ...Baby One More Time, being cited as "[shaping] her voice over the course of a month" upon being signed to Jive Records "to where it is today—distinctively, unmistakably Britney". Rami Yacoub who co-produced Spears's debut album with lyricist Max Martin, commented, "I know from Denniz Pop and Max's previous productions, when we do songs, there's kind of a nasal thing. With N' Sync and the Backstreet Boys, we had to push for that mid-nasal voice. When Britney did that, she got this kind of raspy, sexy voice."
Guy Blackman of The Age wrote that "[t]he thing about Spears, though, is that her biggest songs, no matter how committee-created or impossibly polished, have always been convincing because of her delivery, her commitment and her presence. [...] Spears expresses perfectly the conflicting urges of adolescence, the tension between chastity and sexual experience, between hedonism and responsibility, between confidence and vulnerability." Producer William Orbit, who collaborated with Spears on her album Britney Jean, stated regarding her vocals: "[Britney] didn't get so big just because [she] put on great shows; [she] got to be that way because [her voice is] unique: you hear two words and you know who is singing". Spears has also been criticised for her reliance on auto tune.
Spears has cited her major influences in her career as being Madonna, Janet Jackson, and Whitney Houston, her "three favorite artists" as a child whom she would "sing along to [...] day and night in [her] living room"; Houston's "I Have Nothing" was the song she auditioned to that landed her record deal with Jive Records. Throughout her career, Spears has drawn frequent comparisons to Madonna and Jackson in particular, in terms of vocals, choreography and stage presence. According to Spears: "I know when I was younger, I looked up to people... like, you know, Janet Jackson and Madonna. And they were major inspirations for me. But I also had my own identity and I knew who I was." In the 2002 book Madonnastyle by Carol Clerk, she is quoted saying: "I have been a huge fan of Madonna since I was a little girl. She's the person that I've really looked up to. I would really, really like to be a legend like Madonna."
After meeting Spears face to face, Janet Jackson stated: "she said to me, 'I'm such a big fan; I really admire you.' That's so flattering. Everyone gets inspiration from some place. And it's awesome to see someone else coming up who's dancing and singing, and seeing how all these kids relate to her. A lot of people put it down, but what she does is a positive thing." Madonna said of Spears in the documentary Britney: For the Record: "I admire her talent as an artist [...] There are aspects about her that I recognize in myself when I first started out in my career". She has also named Michael Jackson, Mariah Carey, Sheryl Crow, Otis Redding, Shania Twain, Brandy, Beyoncé, Justin Timberlake, Natalie Imbruglia, Cher and Prince as sources of inspiration.
This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Rolling Stone magazine wrote about Spears: "One of the most controversial and successful female vocalists of the 21st century," she "spearheaded the rise of post-millennial teen pop ... Spears early on cultivated a mixture of innocence and experience that generated lots of cash." She is listed by the Guinness World Records as having the "Best-selling album by a teenage solo artist" for her debut album ...Baby One More Time which sold over thirteen million copies in the United States. Melissa Ruggieri of the Richmond Times-Dispatch reported: "She's also marked for being the best-selling teenage artist. Before she turned 20 in 2001, Spears sold more than 37 million albums worldwide".
As of 2014, she has sold over 100 million records worldwide, making her one of the best-selling music artists of all time. She was also ranked as the fourth VH1's "50 Greatest Women of the Video Era" show list, ahead of most of her contemporaries and only behind veterans Madonna, Janet Jackson, and Whitney Houston. Spears is also recognized as the best-selling female albums artist of the 2000s, as well as the fifth overall. In December 2009, Billboard magazine ranked Spears the 8th Artist of the 2000s decade in the United States.
Spears is known for her performances and music videos. The music video for her debut single, "...Baby One More Time", was ranked number one on TRL's Final Countdown of the "most iconic music videos." Jocelyn Vena of MTV summarized Spears' performance of her single "I'm a Slave 4 U" at the 2001 MTV Video Music Awards, saying, "draping herself in a white python and slithering around a steamy garden setting – surrounded by dancers in zebra and tiger outfits – Spears created one of the most striking visuals in the 27-year history of the show." The kiss between Spears and Madonna at the 2003 MTV Video Music Awards generated strong reaction from the media. This performance was listed by Blender magazine as one of the twenty-five sexiest music moments on television history. MTV listed the performance as the number-one opening moments in the history of MTV Video Music Awards.
Barbara Ellen of The Observer wrote: "Spears is famously one of the 'oldest' teenagers pop has ever produced, almost middle aged in terms of focus and determination. Many 19-year-olds haven't even started working by that age, whereas Britney, a former Mouseketeer, was that most unusual and volatile of American phenomena — a child with a full-time career. While other little girls were putting posters on their walls, Britney was wanting to be the poster on the wall. Whereas other children develop at their own pace, Britney was developing at a pace set by the ferociously competitive American entertainment industry".
In 2011, Adam Markovitz of Entertainment Weekly commented on Spears's voice and music: "We don't ask a whole lot from Britney Spears as an entertainer...we'll still send her straight up the charts simply because she's Britney. She's an American institution, as deeply sacred and messed up as pro wrestling or the filibuster. Musically, though, Spears will always have to measure up to her own gold standards of pop euphony: the operatic slither of 2004's 'Toxic' and the candied funk of 2000's 'Oops!...I Did It Again.' Spears is no technical singer, that's for sure. But backed by Martin and Dr. Luke's wall of pound, her vocals melt into a mix of babytalk coo and coital panting that is, in its own overprocessed way, just as iconic and propulsive as Michael Jackson's yips or Eminem's snarls." 'Britney Spears' was Yahoo!'s most popular search term between 2005 and 2008, and has been in a total of seven different years. Spears was named as Most Searched Person in the Guinness World Records book edition 2007 and 2009. She was later named as the most searched person of the decade 2000–2009.
Spears has been cited as a musical inspiration by contemporary artists. Gwyneth Paltrow's character in 2010 drama film Country Strong was inspired by the singer's treatment by the media. According to film director Shana Fest, "that's where this movie came from. I mean, I was seeing what was happening in the media to Britney Spears. I think it's tragic how we treat people who give us so much, and we love to see them knocked down to build them back up again, to knock them down again." Nicki Minaj has cited Spears' comeback after her much-publicized personal issues as an inspiration, and commented, "... I feel like my whole career I've been the underdog... a lot of my fans feel like they are the underdog and feel like they are the people who aren't ever accepted for themselves, or who are laughed at or poked fun at forever. It just goes to show that once you keep at whatever it is you're doing, people may not like you, people may not love you, but they will have to respect you at the end of the day. And that respect is all that matters." Lana Del Rey has said that the music video for "Toxic" inspires her.
During the 2011 MTV Video Music Awards, Lady Gaga said that Spears "taught us all how to be fearless, and the industry wouldn't be the same without her." Gaga has also cited Spears as an influence, calling her "the most provocative performer of my time". Miley Cyrus credits Spears as one of her influences, and has referenced the singer in her song "Party in the U.S.A." (2009). Spears's hounding by paparazzi and personal breakdown contributed to inspiring Barry Manilow's album 15 Minutes.
Spears has also influenced many other contemporary artists, including Katy Perry, Meghan Trainor, Demi Lovato, Kelly Key, Kristinia DeBarge, Little Boots, Charli XCX, Marina and the Diamonds, Tegan and Sara, Pixie Lott, Grimes, Selena Gomez, Hailee Steinfeld, Tinashe, Victoria Justice, Cassie, and The Saturdays. Before Spears joined The X Factor, Simon Cowell explained that he is "fascinated by [Britney]. The fact that she's one of the most talked about – not just pop stars – but people in the world today, means that you've got this star power. [...] She's still hot, she's still having hit records and she's still controversial, there's a reason for that." Marina and the Diamonds named Spears as the main influence behind her album Electra Heart.
Spears has had a direct influence on singer Porcelain Black's work after growing up around her music as a child. Black describes her music as a "love child between" Marilyn Manson and Spears. Bebo Norman wrote a song about Spears, called "Britney". Boy band Busted also wrote a song about Spears called "Britney", which was on their debut album. South Korean singer, BoA has also spoken of Spears's influence on her. First meeting in 2003 while Spears was promoting In The Zone – Britney would later provide a writing credit to the song "Look Who's Talking" on BoA's eponymous debut English album. Spears's version of the song leaked in 2012.
Product and endorsements
In 2000, the singer released a limited edition of glasses titled Shades of Britney. In 2001, Spears signed a deal with shoe company Skechers, and a $7–8 million promotional deal with Pepsi, their biggest entertainment deal at the time. Aside from numerous commercials with the latter during that year, she also appeared in a 2004 Pepsi television commercial in the theme of "Gladiators" with singers Beyoncé, Pink, and Enrique Iglesias. On June 19, 2002, she released her first multi-platform video game, Britney's Dance Beat, which received positive reviews. In March 2009, Spears was announced as the new face of clothing brand Candie's. Dari Marder, chief marketing officer for the brand, explained why they choose the singer, saying, "everybody loves a comeback and nobody's doing it better than Britney. She's just poised for even greater success." In 2010, Spears designed a limited edition line for the brand, which was released in stores in July 2010. In 2011, she teamed up with Sony, Make Up For Ever and PlentyofFish to release her music video for "Hold It Against Me", earning her $500,000 for the product placement. Spears also teamed up with Hasbro in 2012 to release an exclusive version of Twister Dance, which includes a remix of "Till the World Ends". The singer was also featured on a commercial, which was directed by Ray Kay, to promote the game. Spears was also featured on the commercial of "Twister Rave" and the game included a Twister remix of "Circus". In March, 2018, it was revealed that Spears would be the face of KENZO, a contemporary French luxury clothing house.
Spears's range of commercial deals and products also includes beauty care products and perfumes. She released her first perfume with Elizabeth Arden, Curious in 2004, which broke the company's first-week gross for a perfume. By 2009, she had released seven more perfumes including Fantasy. In 2010, Spears released her eighth fragrance, Radiance. In March 2011, company Brand Sense filed a lawsuit against Spears and Elizabeth Arden seeking $10 million in damages, claiming that the singer and her father, Jamie, stopped paying their thirty-five percent commission that was agreed as part of the contract terms. In July 2011, a Los Angeles judge denied the request by the company lawyers, claiming the fact that Spears is still under conservatorship. Brand Sense, however, stated that they would appeal the decision. In 2011, Radiance was re-issued as a new perfume titled Cosmic Radiance. Worldwide, Spears sold over one million bottles in the first five years, with gross receipts of $1.5 billion. In 2016, Spears contacted Glu Mobile to create her own role-playing game, Britney Spears: American Dream. The app officially launched in May 2016 and is compatible with IOS and Android. On June 17, 2016, Spears announced the release of her twentieth fragrance, Private Show. As of January 2018, Spears has released 24 fragrances through Elizabeth Arden. In July, 2018, Britney launched her gender neutral fragrance named 'Prerogative'.
The singer founded The Britney Spears Foundation, a charitable entity set up to help children in need. The philosophy behind the Foundation was that music and entertainment has a healing quality that can benefit children. The Foundation also supported the annual Britney Spears Camp for the Performing Arts, where campers had the opportunity to explore and develop their talents. In April 2002, through the efforts of Spears and The Britney Spears Foundation, a grant of $1 million was made to the Twin Towers Fund to support the children of uniformed service heroes affected by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, including New York City Fire Department and its Emergency Medical Services Command, the New York City Police Department, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the New York State Office of court Administration and other government offices. However, it was reported in 2008 that the Foundation had a deficit of $200,000. After the singer went through conservatorship, her father and lawyer Andrew Wallet zeroed out the effort, leading to its closure in 2011.
On October 30, 2001, Spears, alongside Bono and other popular recording artists under the name "Artists Against AIDS Worldwide", released a single titled "What's Going On", with the intention to benefit AIDS programs in Africa and other impoverished regions. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina in 2006, Spears donated $350,000 to Music Rising. Later in 2011, the singer raised $200,000 during An Evening of Southern Style at a private residence in Beverly Hills to benefit the St. Bernard Project, with the help of several celebrities, including Hilary Duff, Selena Gomez, Kelly Osbourne, Kellan Lutz and Kim Kardashian. Spears has also helped several charities during her career, including Madonna's Kabbalah-based Spirituality for Kids, cancer charity Gilda's Club Worldwide, Promises Foundation, and United Way, with the latter two focused on giving families from various disadvantaged situations new hope and stable foundations for the future.
On October 24, 2015, Spears donated $120,000 to the Nevada Childhood Cancer Foundation. In addition, $1 of each ticket sale for her Las Vegas residency, Britney: Piece of Me, was donated to the nonprofit organization. Spears also fundraised for the charity through social media, in addition to selling limited edition merchandise, with all proceeds going to the NCCF. On October 27, 2016, Spears partnered with Zappos and XCYCLE to host the Britney Spears Piece of Me Charity Ride in Boca Park, Las Vegas to raise additional money toward her goal of $1 million for the NCCF, with $450,000 having already been raised from Spears's ticket sales and merchandise. Participants were entered for a chance to win a spin class with Spears herself. The event ultimately went on to raise $553,130. The fundraising ultimately led to the development of the NCCF Britney Spears Campus in Las Vegas, which saw its grand opening on November 4, 2017. Spears also regularly participates in Spirit Day to combat bullying of LGBTQ youth and bullying.
- ...Baby One More Time (1999)
- Oops!... I Did It Again (2000)
- Britney (2001)
- In the Zone (2003)
- Blackout (2007)
- Circus (2008)
- Femme Fatale (2011)
- Britney Jean (2013)
- Glory (2016)
- Longshot (2001)
- Crossroads (2002)
- Austin Powers in Goldmember (2002)
- Pauly Shore Is Dead (2003)
- Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004)
- ...Baby One More Time Tour (1999–2000)
- Crazy 2k Tour (2000)
- Oops!... I Did It Again Tour (2000–2001)
- Dream Within a Dream Tour (2001–2002)
- The Onyx Hotel Tour (2004)
- The M+M's Tour (2007)
- The Circus Starring Britney Spears (2009)
- The Femme Fatale Tour (2011)
- Piece of Me Tour (2018)
- Britney: Piece of Me (2013–2017)
- Honorific nicknames in popular music
- List of best-selling music artists
- List of best-selling music artists in the United States
- Artists with the most number-one European singles
- List of artists who reached number one in the United States
- List of best-selling singles worldwide
- List of highest-grossing concert tours
- "Britney Spears Is The Highest-Paid Woman In Music For 2012; Full List". International Business Times. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "Britney Spears to Perform Hits Medley at Billboard Music Awards".
- "Artists of the Decade". Billboard. 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- Schwarz, Hunter (November 6, 2014). "Finally, our elected officials are giving Britney Spears the respect she deserves". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
- "Ask Billboard: Britney Spears's Career Sales".
- Grein, Paul (May 29, 2009). "Chart Watch Extra: The Top 20 Album Sellers Of The 2000s". Yahoo! Music. Archived from the original on January 15, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "Britney Spears 'X Factor' Deal: By The Numbers". MTV. October 5, 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-06-27. Retrieved 2014-06-26.
- Spears, Lynne (September 16, 2008). "Chapter 2: Kentwood – From Malta to Louisiana". Through the Storm: A Real Story of Fame and Family in a Tabloid World (1st ed.). Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson, Inc. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-4185-6735-4. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
But on my mama's side, the family tree is a little more colorful and glamorous. Her father, my grandfather, was Anthony Portelli, who came from the island of Malta.
- Spears & Craker 2008, p. 4
- Spears & Craker 2008, p. 211
- Soper, Matt (October 1, 2010). "Raising Up a Testimony". Xulon Press – via Google Books.
- Lofton, Kathryn (September 12, 2017). "Consuming Religion". University of Chicago Press – via Google Books.
- Smit, Christopher R. (December 29, 2017). "The Exile of Britney Spears: A Tale of 21st Century Consumption". Intellect Books – via Google Books.
- Spears & Craker 2008, p. 56
- Daly, Steven (April 15, 1999). "Cover Story: Britney Spears: Britney Spears : Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. ISSN 0035-791X.
- Reporter, Staff (July 31, 2008). "Britney Spears' Biography". Fox News Channel. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- Spears & Craker 2008, p. 75
- Laufenberg 2005, p. 616
- Mundy, Chris (May 25, 2000). "Cover Story: The Girl Can't Help It". Rolling Stone. ISSN 0035-791X.
- Hughes 2005, p. 145
- Taylor, Chuck (October 24, 1998). "Air Waves: Jive's Britney Spears Sets Top 40 Abuzz With Rhythm-Leaning 'Baby One More Time'". Billboard. 110 (43). ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
- Hughes 2005, p. 147
- Blandford 2002, p. 28
- "Britney Spears, Teen Queen: Rolling Stone's 1999 Cover Story". Rolling Stone. 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
- Blandford 2002, p. 30
- Blandford 2002, p. 29
- Bronson 2003, p. 377
- "Rock On The Net: 42nd Annual Grammy Awards – 2000". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. RockOntheNet.com. 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
- "Record-Breakers and Trivia". Everyhit.com. 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
- "Best Selling Singles Of All Time". Everyhit.com. 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
- "Britney Spears". The Official Charts Company. 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
- "The Curious Case Of Britney Spears: 5 Reasons Why The Princess of Pop Rules". VIBE. February 14, 2011. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
- Blandford 2002, p. 36
- Stevenson, Jane (July 10, 1999). "Spears takes aim at fame". Jam!. Quebecor Inc. Archived from the original on October 13, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
- Blandford 2002, p. 38
- Skanse, Richard (May 25, 2000). "Oops!...She Sold 1.3 Million Albums: Britney Spears". Rolling Stone. ISSN 0035-791X.
- Strecker, Erin (May 15, 2015). "Britney Spears' 'Oops!...I Did It Again': 15 Best Moments for 15th Anniversary". Billboard.
- Sheffield, Rob (June 8, 2000). "Britney Spears: Oops!...I Did It Again : Music Reviews : Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. ISSN 0035-791X.
- "ultratop.be — Britney Spears — Oops!... I Did It Again:". Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
- "Rock On The Net: 43rd Annual Grammy Awards – 2001". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. RockOntheNet.com. 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- Spears, Britney (May 9, 2000). Britney Spears' Heart to Heart (three rivers press ed.). New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-609-80701-9.
- Montgomery, James (September 6, 2007). "Britney Spears' Greatest VMA Hits: Barely There Costumes, Giant Snakes And A Scandalous Lip-Lock". MTV. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
- "Guess Which Celebrities Vacation in Destin, Florida?". TripShock. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- Moss, Corey (October 25, 2001). "Britney Says Britney Reflects Who Britney Is". MTV. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
- "Britney sold over 12 million copies worldwide". Live Nation. 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- "ultratop.be — Britney Spears — Britney". Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (2001). "Britney – Overview". Retrieved June 5, 2010.
- "Rock On The Net: 45th Annual Grammy Awards – 2001". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. RockOntheNet.com. 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- "The New Classics: Music". Entertainment Weekly. 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- "ultratop.be — Britney Spears — I'm a Slave 4 U". Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- McHugh, Catherine (July 1, 2002). "Britney's Big Splash". Live Design. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- Singlerland, Amy L. (August 1, 2002). "Singin' in the Rain". Live Design. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- "McCartney Notches Year's Highest-Grossing Tour". Billboard. Nielsen Company. 2002. Retrieved January 26, 2010.
- "Forbes Celebrity 100 2002". Forbes. 2002. Archived from the original on December 2, 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- "Crossroads Movie Reviews, Pictures — Rotten Tomatoes". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. 2002. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- "Crossroads Film Review — Crossroads Film Pictures, Crossroads Film Trailer". View London. 2 View Group Ltd. April 2, 2002. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- Hughes 2005, p. 152
- Moss, Corey (November 27, 2002). "Britney Spears Bails On Her New York Restaurant, Nyla". MTV. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- Moss, Corey (November 5, 2002). "Britney Spears' Hiatus Is History". MTV. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- Sanchez, Rowena Joy A. (October 4, 2009). "'This one's for you': Ex-music couples sing of their love woes". Manila Bulletin. Manila Bulletin Publishing Corp. Archived from the original on October 29, 2009. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- Sawyer, Diane (November 23, 2003). "Britney revealed". ninemsn. PBL Media / Microsoft. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- Stern, Bradley (February 2010). "Annet Artani: From "Everytime" to "Alive"". MuuMuse.com. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- Jacks, Brian (March 19, 2009). "Fred Durst Looks Back At His Relationship With Britney Spears". MTV. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- "In The Zone reviews at Metacritic.com:". Metacritic. 2003. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- "The 50 Most Important Recordings: S-Z : NPR". NPR.com. November 16, 2009. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- "ultratop.be — Britney Spears — In the Zone". Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- "In the Zone sold over 10 million copies worldwide". Live Nation. 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- "Judge dissolves Britney's 'joke' wedding ". NBCUniversal / Microsoft. Associated Press. April 6, 2004. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- Vineyard, Jennifer (March 2, 2004). "Britney Checking Into Onyx Hotel Wearing Rubberlike Outfit". MTV. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- Silverman, Stephen M. (June 16, 2004). "Britney Cancels Tour Due to Bad Knee". People. Retrieved December 27, 2009.
- Walls, Jeannette (June 1, 2004). "Forget Kabbalah, Britney's baby is her religion — Entertainment — msnbc.com". NBC Universal / Microsoft. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- Heller 2007, p. 80[citation not found]
- Vineyard, Jennifer (October 16, 2004). "Britney Spears Announces She's Taking A Break From Her Career". MTV. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- Vineyard, Jennifer (August 13, 2004). "Britney Covers Bobby Brown's 'My Prerogative' For Forthcoming LP". MTV. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- "Britney Spears — My Prerogative (song)". Ultratop. Hung Medien. 2004. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- "UK Singles Chart". Official Charts Company. aCharts. March 7, 2005. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- "Britney Spears – Do Somethin' (song)". UltratopHung Medien. 2005. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- "Britney Welcomes Home Sean Preston". People. September 21, 2005. Archived from the original on January 16, 2007. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- Vineyard, Jennifer (October 6, 2010). "Surprise: Britney's Releasing An Album In Just Two Weeks". MTV. Retrieved November 8, 2005.
- Daniel, Mike (November 6, 2007). "Britney Spears' recordings find art imitating life". Denton Record-Chronicle. A. H. Belo. Archived from the original on June 9, 2007. Retrieved September 10, 2011.
- Thomas, Karen (October 6, 2010). "USATODAY.com — Britney maybe one more time". USA Today. Retrieved March 29, 2006.
- "Britney's Baby Name: Jayden James Federline — Britney Spears". People. October 24, 2006. Archived from the original on July 16, 2007. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- "Britney Spears Files for Divorce — Divorced, Britney Spears, Kevin Federline". People. November 7, 2006. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- Hall, Sarah (July 30, 2007). "Britney, Kevin Back to Being Single — E! Online". E!. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- "Lynne Spears Visits Sister's Grave Amid Crisis — Britney Spears, Lynne Spears". People. January 5, 2008. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- Marikar, Sheila (February 19, 2007). "Bald and Broken: Inside Britney's Shaved Head ". ABC News. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- Van Horn, Teri (May 2, 2007). "Britney's Back! Spears Returns To The Stage With Five-Song Dirty Dance Party". MTV. Archived from the original on February 27, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- "Spears will lose custody of children". CNN. October 2, 2007. Retrieved June 11, 2010.
- Hollyscope Team, "Louis Vuitton Sues Britney Spears", hollyscoop.com, November 19, 2007
- "Britney Spears Debuts No. 1 on European Albums Chart and Debuts No. 1 on..." PR Newswire. November 8, 2007. Retrieved June 11, 2010.
- Petridis, Alexis (November 28, 2008). "CD review: Britney Spears: Circus". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved June 11, 2010.
- Robinson, Peter (November 11, 2007). "CDs: Britney Spears, Blackout and Kylie Minogue, X". The Observer. UK. Retrieved June 11, 2010.
- Lyons, Bev; Sutherland, Laura (November 7, 2008). "Britney Spears seals comeback with two gongs at MTV Europe Music Awards ". Daily Record. Scotland. Retrieved June 11, 2010.
- Asthana, Anushka (November 21, 2009). "The 100 best pop albums of the Noughties ". The Times. UK. Retrieved June 11, 2010.
- Willis, David (September 10, 2007). "Britney's MTV comeback falls flat". BBC. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- "Canada Singles Top 100". Billboard. acharts.us. October 13, 2007. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
- "Britney Spears – Gimme More (song)". Ultratop. Hung Medien. 2007. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
- "Australian Singles Chart". acharts.us. March 1, 2008. Retrieved February 6, 2010.
- "UK Singles Chart". The Official Charts Company. December 23, 2007. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
- "Britney Spears – Piece of Me(song)". Ultratop 50. Hung Medien. 2008. Archived from the original on December 26, 2008. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
- "Britney Pap-Happy with Her New Guy — Britney Spears". People. January 3, 2008. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- McKay, Holly (October 28, 2008). "Britney Spears Under Permanent Conservatorship". Fox News Channel. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
- Blankstein, Andrew; Winton, Richard (February 7, 2008). "Spears is released from UCLA hospital psychiatric ward — Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- Hinckley, D. (March 25, 2008). "Britney Spears begins rehab of image with wacky cameo on CBS sitcom". Daily News. New York. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- Hibberd, James (March 25, 2008). "Spears delivers 'Mother's' highest ratings". The Hollywood Reporter. e5 Global Media. Archived from the original on June 6, 2008. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- Lee, Ken (July 18, 2008). "It's Over: Britney & Kevin Reach a Custody Settlement — Scandals & Feuds, Britney Spears, Kevin Federline". People. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- "Highlights, Winners, Performers and Photos from the 2008 MTV Video Music Awards". MTV. 2008. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- Vena, Jocelyn (October 9, 2008). "Britney Spears 'Sets The Record Straight' In Documentary Airing November 30 On MTV". MTV. Retrieved January 1, 2011.
- ""Britney: For the Record" scores staggering 3.54 P12–34 rating in Sunday debut on MTVh". MTV. December 2, 2008. Archived from the original on January 3, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2011.
- "Circus reviews at Metacritic.com". Metacritic. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- Hasty, Katie (December 10, 2008). "Britney's 'Circus' Debuts Atop Album Chart". Billboard. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- "Britney Earns (Another) Guinness World Record". Britney.com. September 27, 2009. Archived from the original on December 24, 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- Reporter, Staff (March 6, 2009). "#13 Britney Spears — The 2009 Celebrity 100". Forbes. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- "Britney Spears' Singles Collection". HMV Store Japan. June 1, 2010. Retrieved June 1, 2010.
- Reporter, Billboard (October 15, 2008). "Spears Scores Record-Setting Hot 100 Jump". Billboard. Nielsen Company. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- "Britney Spears — Womanizer (song)". Ultratop. Hung Medien. 2008. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- "Nominees list for the 52nd Grammy Awards". Los Angeles Times. December 2, 2009. Archived from the original on September 27, 2010. Retrieved December 3, 2009.
- Mitovich, Matt (January 31, 2009). "Britney Gets Restraining Order Against Former Manager, Ex-Beau and Attorney". TV Guide. OpenGate Capital. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- "2009 Year End Top 50 Worldwide Concert Tours" (PDF). Pollstar. 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
- Pietroluongo, Silvio (October 14, 2009). "'3' To 1: Britney Beats Odds To Debut Atop Hot 100". Billboard. Nielsen Company. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- Jordan, Julie (May 11, 2010). "Britney Spears and Jason Trawick Split – Professionally — Britney Spears". People. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- Vena, Jocelyn (June 30, 2010). "Britney Spears To Design Clothing For Candie's". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
- Porter, Rick (September 29, 2010). "'Glee' ratings: Britney is bigger than Madonna". Zap2it. Tribune Media Services. Archived from the original on October 2, 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- Gorman, Bill (September 29, 2010). "Tuesday Finals: Glee, No Ordinary Family, NCIS, Dancing Up; Raising Hope, Detroit 1–8–7, Running Wilde Down". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- "7th Britney Spears Album 'Femme Fatale' Set for March 29th Release". Jive Records. August 2, 2011. Archived from the original on May 16, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2011.
- "Britney Spears Snares Sixth No. 1 on Billboard 200 with 'Femme Fatale'". Billboard. September 14, 2009. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
- "American album certifications – Britney Spears". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH.
- "Britney Spears' 'Hold It Against Me' Single Premieres". Billboard. January 10, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- "Listen: Britney Spears, Nicki Minaj and Ke$ha's 'Till the World Ends' Remix". Billboard. September 14, 2009. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
- Copsey, Robert (October 31, 2011). "Britney Spears angers MPs over 'Criminal' video shoot". Digital Spy. Hachette Filipacchi (UK) Ltd. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
- Montgomery, James (September 26, 2011). "Britney Spears Responds To 'Criminal' Video Controversy". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
- Vena, Jocelyn (April 11, 2011). "Rihanna Says Britney Spears' 'S&M' Remix 'Had To Be Major'". MTV. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
- Trust, Gary (April 20, 2011). "Rihanna's 'S&M' Reigns on Hot 100, Lady Gaga's 'Judas' Debuts". Billboard. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- "Best of 2011: The Artists". Billboard. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
- "Best of 2011: Billboard 200 Artists". Billboard. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
- "Best of 2011: Hot 100 Artists". Billboard. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
- Live Nation (April 12, 2011). "Pop Superstar Britney Spears Announces Special Guest Nicki Minaj to Join the Highly Anticipated All Female Femme Fatale Tour" (Press release). PR Newswire. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
- "Top 100 North American Tours" (PDF). Pollstar. June 30, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
- "Britney Spears Wraps Femme Fatale Tour". MTVdate=2011-12-12. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
- "Britney Spears Live: The Femme Fatale Tour (2011)". Amazon.com. October 25, 2011. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- Mitchell, John (August 28, 2011). "Britney Spears Accepts Video Vanguard VMA – And A Kiss From Lady Gaga". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Bain, Becky (September 9, 2011). "Britney Spears Reveals 'B In The Mix: The Remixes Vol. 2' Track Listing". Idolator. Buzz Media. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
- Vena, Jocelyn (December 19, 2011). "Britney Spears' Engagement Ring: How Does It Stack Up?". MTV News. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
- Eggenberger, Nicole (April 25, 2012). "Britney Spears' Fiance Jason Trawick Approved as Co-Conservator". Us Weekly. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- Laudadio, Marisa (January 11, 2013). "Britney Spears and Jason Trawick Split". People. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- "Britney Spears and Jason Trawick – SPLIT". TMZ. January 11, 2013. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- Bromley, Melanie (April 12, 2012). "Britney Spears Will Get Record $15 Million Payday to Be X Factor Judge". E!. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- "Britney Spears Officially Leaving 'The X Factor'". ABC News. January 11, 2013. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- Kitchener, Shaun (January 30, 2012). "will.i.am Teases Britney Spears, Shakira, Alicia Keys Collaborations". Entertainment Wise. Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- "Britney Spears Is Music's Top Earning Woman of 2012". ABC News. December 12, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "Britney Spears begins work on eighth studio album – Music News". Digital Spy. December 12, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- Lipshutz, Jason (May 1, 2013). "Will.i.am Executive Producing New Britney Spears Album". Billboard. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- "Britney Spears Records New Song For 'Smurfs 2' Soundtrack". Billboard. April 17, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Williott, Carl (September 17, 2013). "Britney Spears Announces 2-Year 'Piece Of Me' Vegas Residency, December 3 Album Release". Idolator. Buzz Media. Retrieved September 17, 2013.
- "Britney Spears: Las Vegas Show Will Be 'A Massive Party From Start To Finish'". Billboard. May 8, 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- Joannou, Andy (October 15, 2013). "Britney Spears names new album 'Britney Jean'". Digital Spy. Retrieved October 15, 2013.
- "Britney Spears' Album Release Date Announced As Dec. 3 On 'Good Morning America'". The Huffington Post. September 17, 2013. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
- Christman, Ed (August 23, 2011). "RCA's New Executive Team Named Under CEO Peter Edge Amid Layoffs". Billboard. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Daily B: Britney's Record Deal is Ready to Be Renewed And Everyone Wants A Piece of B". MuuMuse. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
- Jake Pearlman (November 25, 2013). "Britney Spears' new album 'Britney Jean' now streaming on iTunes". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
- Gil Kaufman (December 11, 2013). "Britney Spears Has Lowest Chart Debut With Britney Jean". MTV News. Viacom. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- "You Better Work, Britney: 'Britney Jean' Debuts at No. 34 in UK". The Honesty Hour. December 8, 2013. Archived from the original on December 14, 2013. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "Britney Spears Debuts 'Work Bitch' Following Leak By 'One Bad Apple': Listen". Billboard. September 15, 2013. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- Grein, Paul (September 25, 2013). "Week Ending Sept. 22, 2013. Songs: The Brit Is Back". Yahoo! Music. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- Lansky, Sam (October 25, 2013). "Britney Spears Unveils 'Britney Jean' Album Cover, Pens Emotional Letter To Fans". Idolator.com. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- Busis, Hillary (November 3, 2013). "Britney Spears spritzes fans with new single 'Perfume' – LISTEN". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- ""Britney Spears Album & Song Chart History" Billboard Hot 100 for Britney Spears". Billboard. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- "Miley Cyrus Reveals 'Bangerz' Tracklist as 'Wrecking Ball' Breaks VEVO Record". Billboard. September 10, 2013. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "People's Choice Awards 2014 Nominees". PeoplesChoice.com. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
- Barker, Andrew. "Britney Spears: Popstar Directs Clear Vision of Her Billion-Dollar Empire". Variety. Retrieved August 29, 2014.
- "My Blog – My WordPress Blog". www.intimatebritneyspears.com.
- Rigby, Sam (September 25, 2014). "Britney Spears confirms 2-year Las Vegas residency extension". Digital Spy. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
- Corner, Lewis (March 25, 2015). "Britney Spears dates new single 'Pretty Girls' for May". Digital Spy. United Kingdom: Hearst Corporation. Archived from the original on April 5, 2015. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- O'Donnell, Kevin (May 17, 2015). "Britney Spears & Iggy Azalea perform 'Pretty Girls' live for the first time at Billboard Music Awards". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
- "Disco Godfather Giorgio Moroder Goes Back to the Future on Déjà Vu". Vulture. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- "Shuffle: Britney Spears and Giorgio Moroder drone on in Tom's Diner". Retrieved October 16, 2015.
- "Giorgio Moroder: Britney Spears "did a good job" with collab". Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- "EDM Godfather Giorgio Moroder Raves About Recording With Britney Spears: 'She Sounds So Good'". Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- "Britney Spears wins Teen Choice Award 2015 choice style icon, shows off cleavage in plunging dress". Retrieved August 17, 2015.
- "Britney Spears Is Ruffling Feathers in This 'Jane The Virgin' Promo". Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- VanArendonk, Kathryn (November 10, 2015). "Jane the Virgin Recap: The Writing on the Wall". Retrieved March 12, 2017.
- "Britney Spears Confirms She's 'Working Hard' on a New Album". Billboard. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "Britney Spears sizzles on 3 covers for the 100th issue of 'V Magazine'".
- V100 Starring Britney Spears | V Magazine Archived May 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Britney Spears Helps You Chase the 'American Dream' in New Mobile Game". Billboard. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- "Find Out When and Where Adele's New Video Will Debut". E! Online. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
- "Britney Spears Opened The Billboard Music Awards With a Sexy Performance of Her Biggest Hits". Retrieved 2017-11-04.
- "Britney Spears to receive Billboard Millennium Award". USA TODAY. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- "Britney Spears' "Make Me" Receiving Hourly Airplay On July 15; Officially Impacts July 19". July 14, 2016.
- CNN, Frank Pallotta,. "Britney Spears to perform at MTV VMAs".
- Marcus, Stephanie (August 16, 2016). "Britney Spears Is Ready To Make History At The VMAs 9 Years After Disastrous Performance" – via Huff Post.
- "Britney Spears Absolutely Slays VMAs Performance".
- "Britney Spears is Marie Claire's October cover star". September 13, 2016.
- Williams, Cat (August 31, 2016). "Britney Spears On Having A Bad Date: 'Being Famous Doesn't Make You Different'". Retrieved March 12, 2017.
- Slattery, Ryan (November 17, 2016). "Glory: With A New Album And A Record-Breaking Hit Show In Las Vegas, Britney Spears Finds Her Energy And Her Peace". Las Vegas Blog. United States: Caesar Palace. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
- "People's Choice Awards 2017: See the Full List of Winners". Billboard. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
- REVIEW-JOURNAL, ROBIN LEACH NICHE DIVISION OF LAS VEGAS (March 28, 2017). "Red Carpet Report: Britney Spears announces shows in Israel, The Philippines; Diplo's Raider Nation at XS". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- "Britney Spears to make first tour of Japan since 2002". Japan Today. April 2, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- News, ABS-CBN. "Britney Spears announces Manila concert". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- CNN, Delaney Strunk. "Israel postpones vote due to Britney Spears concert". CNN. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- "Hailee Steinfeld, Sofia Carson & Kelsea Ballerini to Perform Britney Spears Medley at Radio Disney Music Awards". Billboard. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- "Britney Spears Opens Children's Cancer Foundation Campus in Vegas After Donating $1 Million". PEOPLE.com. Retrieved 2017-11-25.
- "Beyoncé has replaced Taylor Swift as the richest woman in music". The FADER. Retrieved 2017-11-25.
- "Britney Spears Ends 'Piece Of Me' Vegas Residency With Box Office Record – iHeartRadio".
- "Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin' Eve With Ryan Seacrest Bests Grammys as 2017's Top Music Special".
- "Britney Spears Unveils New Fragrance 'Sunset Fantasy'". January 8, 2018.
- "Pop queen Britney Spears announces world tour dates for 2018". Time Out United States. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
- Flook, Harriet (2018-02-13). "Britney Spears adds extra dates to UK 2018 tour due to overwhelming demand". mirror. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
- "Britney Spears adds new dates to 'Piece Of Me' UK tour and announces support act". NME. 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
- "BRITNEY SPEARS JUST LANDED A MAJOR FASHION CAMPAIGN WITH KENZO". www.harpersbazaar.com.au. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- "Kenzo". LVMH.
- "Britney Spears to be Honored at 29th Annual GLAAD Media Awards". Billboard. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
- Lieber, Chavie (April 27, 2018). "Now Is the Perfect Moment for a Britney Spears Fashion Line." Racked.com. Retrieved June 24, 2018
- "Britney Spears and Bruno Mars "Look to Boost the US Grand Prix in Austin" (April 26, 2018). ESPN.com. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
- "Teen pop idols stage comeback". Yomiuri Shimbun. November 25, 1999. p. 1.
- Sheffield, Rob (June 9, 2004). "Oops!...I Did It Again – Album Review". Rolling Stone. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
- Taylor, Chuck (August 28, 1999). "Britney Spears: (You Drive Me) Crazy". Billboard. 111 (35). p. 27.
- Erlewine, Stephen (1999). "...Baby One More Time". Retrieved October 8, 2009.
- Erlewine, Stephen (2000). "Oops!...I Did It Again". Retrieved October 8, 2009.
- Erlewine, Stephen (2001). "Britney". Retrieved October 8, 2009.
- Rosa, Christopher (May 4, 2015). "Twitter Reacts to Britney Spears and Iggy Azalea's "Pretty Girls"". VH1. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- Kennedy, Gerrick D. (September 7, 2016). "Why Britney Spears and her team opted for tradition with the release of 'Glory'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
- Lim, Dennis (October 30, 2007). "Blackout — Blender". Blender. ISSN 1534-0554.
- "New Music: Britney Spears f/ will.i.am – 'Big Fat Bass'". Rap-Up. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- "'Hold It Against Me' Is Primo Britney". Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- Marikar, Sheila. "Britney Spears Drops 'Till the World Ends,' Mimics Ke$ha". ABC News. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- Lipshutz, Jason. "Britney Spears, Till the World Ends". Billboard. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- Ganz, Caryn. "Spears at her most daring and innovative — really! Dark, dangerous, fascinating". eMusic. Archived from the original on July 14, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- Shuker 2012, p. 99.
- Appell & Hemphill 2006, "Dance Pop".
- "The way he moved: Jackson leaves dance world void". The Philippine Star. Associated Press. July 21, 2009. Archived from the original on October 15, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
- Knopper 2009, pp. 92[citation not found]
- "...Baby One More Time – Album Review". CD Universe. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- Ewing, Tom (November 20, 2007). "Poptimist #10: Britney in the Black Lodge (Damn Fine Album)". Pitchfork. Ryan Schreiber. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
- Petridis, Alexis (October 26, 2007). "Britney Spears, Blackout". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
- Cragg, Michael (January 10, 2011). "New music: Britney Spears – Hold It Against Me". The Guardian. London.
- "Britney Spears – Blackout Review". IGN. October 23, 2007. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- Rhys-Evans, Tim. "Soprano to bass: Can you find your voice?". BBC. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- Armstrong, Jennifer Keishin (26 August 2016). "Britney Spears' 2016 VMAs Performance: An Effective, But Not Entirely Glorious, Bid to Regain Pop Superstardom". Billboard. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- Riggs, Jonathan (29 August 2016). "Britney Spears' 'Glory': Album Review". Idolator. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- Bronson, Fred (2003). The Billboard book of number 1 hits. Billboard Books. p. 377. ISBN 978-0-8230-7677-2.
- Blackman, Guy (August 25, 2009). "Musical Spears". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
- "The Interview: William Orbit". Hunger TV. June 20, 2014. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
- "Unedited Britney Spears Song Without Auto-Tune Leaks And It's Painful". Business Insider. 1 July 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- Horvitz, Louis J. (Director) (November 16, 2012). We Will Always Love You: A Grammy Salute to Whitney Houston (TV special). United States: CBS.
- Masley, Ed (November 2, 2001). "The State of Britneydom: Teen-pop Queen declares 'I'm on the verge of being a woman'". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. W.22. ISSN 1068-624X.
- Clerk, Carol (2002). Madonnastyle. Omnibus Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-7119-8874-3.
- Gardner, Elysa (July 28, 2000). "Luscious Jackson". USA Today. p. 1.E. ISSN 0734-7456.
- Griffin, Phil (Director) (November 30, 2008). Britney: For the Record (Documentary). United States: MTV.
- Harrison, Shane (November 6, 2001). "'Britney' strengthens claim to pop tiara". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. p. C.1.
- "Britney Spears flashback – March 1999". YouTube. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- "Exclusive Interview: Britney Spears On Tabloid Fame and Vegas Takeover". Vegas Player. November 12, 2013. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
- "Britney Spears 1998 first interview". YouTube. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
- Cava, Marco (December 29, 2013). "Who inspires Britney? Beyonce, Bruno and her ex JT". USA Today. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
- "Britney Spears 'comeback' album inspired by Selena Gomez". Francais Express. September 28, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
- "Britney Spears revela que Selena Gomez e Ariana Grande são "inspirações"". Vagalume (in Portuguese). September 28, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
- "Britney Spears: Biography: Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
- Folkard, Claire (2003). Guinness World Records 2003. Bantam Books. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-553-58636-7.
- Ruggieri, Melissa (December 19, 2000). "Music Notes". Richmond Times-Dispatch. pp. D.13.
- "The Greatest: 50 Greatest Women of the Video Era". VH1. MTV Networks. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2009.
- Graham, Mark; George, Kat (December 2, 2011). "The 30 Greatest Britney Spears Songs (In Honor Of Her 30th Birthday)". Archived from the original on December 5, 2011. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Lloyd, Robert (November 17, 2008). "Show Tracker". Los Angeles Times.
- Vena, Jocelyn (August 25, 2011). "Britney Spears' Iconic VMA History: Snakes, Stripteases And Smooches". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Paglia, Camille (December 8, 2006). "Camille Paglia says Madonna Gave Britney the 'Kiss of Death'". Us Weekly. Archived from the original on April 20, 2011. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- Collis, Jonah; Weiner (February 15, 2004). "The 25 Sexiest Music Moments in TV History!". Blender. ISSN 1534-0554.
- Vera, Jocelyn (August 24, 2008). "The Top 10 Opening Moments In VMA History: From Madonna To The Present". Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- Ellen, Barbara (December 10, 2000). "Comment: Britney Spears: Growing up is hard to do: America's apple- pie cheerleader is feeling the pressure as she tries to break free from her clean teen image. So is it all proving too much for Britney Inc, as she pulls out of tonight's Smash Hits Poll Winners' party and takes to her bed: The Observer Profile: Britney Spears". The Observer. p. 27. ISSN 0029-7712.
- Markovitz, Adam (March 23, 2011). "Music Review: Femme Fatale". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
- "Britney Spears Tops Yahoo Searches". NBC Washington. December 1, 2008. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
- "Angelina, Brad & Britney Set Guinness World Records". NBC Chicago. September 15, 2008. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Lynch, Gerald (December 21, 2009). "Britney Spears is the most searched for celebrity of the decade". techdigest.tv. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- Ziegbe, Mawuse (December 16, 2010). "Britney Spears Inspired 'Country Strong' Lead, Director Says". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Michelson, Noah (September 5, 2011). "Catching Up With Nicki Minaj". Out. Joe Landry. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Anitai, Tamar (January 11, 2012). "Lana Del Rey Visits MTV, Talks Britney & Bruce, We All Collectively Fall In Love Even Harder (PHOTO)". MTV. MTV Networks. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. Retrieved February 24, 2012.
- "Britney Spears Accepts Video Vanguard VMA – And A Kiss From Lady Gaga". MTV. MTV Networks. August 28, 2011. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- "Lady GaGa: I don't have time for dating". Now. February 9, 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- Vena, Jocelyn (August 11, 2009). "Miley Cyrus On Britney Spears: 'I'm Proud Of Her'". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- "Miley Cyrus — Party in the USA — Review of Party in the USA by Miley Cyrus". About.com. Rovi Corporation. June 19, 2010. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- Lacher, Irene (June 5, 2011). "The Sunday Conversation: Barry Manilow". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
- Boyce, Shannon (September 1, 2011). "SHE DID IT AGAIN: BRITNEY SPEARS LANDS BACK ON TOP". Young Hollywood. Archived from the original on October 20, 2012. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
- Copsey, Rob (April 19, 2016). "Meghan Trainor talks new album Thank You, Grammys backlash and working with her mum – Interview". The Official UK Charts Company. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
- "Kelly Key busca o sucesso de Christina Aguilera, Jennifer Lopez, Britney Spears, Madonna e Janet Jackson". Universo Musical. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
- "Kristinia DeBarge — Rhapsody Music". Rhapsody.com. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- "Artist to Watch 2009: Little Boots: Little Boots". Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- Van Nguyen, Dean (September 12, 2014). "Charli XCX reveals she would 'love' to write a song with Britney Spears". NME. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- Crowley, Gary (June 9, 2009). "Marina and The Diamonds in the BBC Introducing hotseat". BBC Music. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- Daniels, Colin (January 15, 2013). "Tegan and Sara unveil new song 'I Was a Fool' – listen". Digital Spy. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
- Lott, Pixie (August 27, 2009). "Pixie Lott's diary: 'After the single hit No 1, it went crazy'". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- Sanneh, Kelefa (September 28, 2015). "Pop for Misfits". The New Yorker. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
- Gomez, Selena (May 7, 2013). "Selena Gomez's Evolution Mirrors Britney Spears'". USA: MTV. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
- Vain, Madison (July 26, 2016). "How Justin Bieber and Britney Spears inspired Hailee Steinfeld's tour". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- "Tinashe Video Interview: On Bringing More Females Into the Mainstream & The Success of '2 On' – Billboard". Billboard. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- Harp, Justin (December 13, 2010). "Victoria Justice 'reveals musical influences'". Digital Spy. Retrieved June 8, 2015.
- "Cassie Ventura Profile and Biography". Celebrity Days. Archived from the original on October 14, 2011. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- King, Mollie (May 2010). "The Saturdays influences". The Saturdays official website. London. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011.
- Blickley, Leigh (February 28, 2012). "Simon Cowell Wants Britney Spears on 'The X Factor': "I'm Fascinated By Her"". OK!. Northern & Shell. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
- Stern, Bradley (April 27, 2012). "DAILY B: MARINA AND THE DIAMONDS TALKS BRITNEY TO Q MAGAZINE". muumuse.com. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
- Kennedy, Gerrick. "Porcelain Black knows she's rock and roll, and doesn't care who says otherwise". Pop & Hiss: The L.A. Times music blog. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
- "BoA's profile" (in Japanese). Avex Marketing Inc. Archived from the original on July 14, 2013. Retrieved August 30, 2008.
- "Story Behind The Song: Bebo Norman's "Britney"". Ccmmagazine.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- "Britney Brands, Inc". Everything2 Media, LLC. June 18, 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "Britney Spears to Promote Pepsi". American Broadcasting Company. February 7, 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "Britney joins the Pepsi generation". BBC. February 7, 2001. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "Britney, Beyoncé, Pink star in Pepsi ad". USA Today. January 27, 2004. Archived from the original on February 2, 2012.
- "Britney's Dance Beat". Game Spot. June 19, 2002. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- Miller, Korin (March 3, 2009). "Britney Spears, Candie's Girl?! Jr. brand banks on pop star's future – not her past". Daily News. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- Roberts, Soraya (January 22, 2011). "Britney Spears 'Hold It Against Me' video earns her $500,000; Katy Perry slams product placement". Daily News. Archived from the original on February 25, 2011. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
- Catarinella, Alex (April 12, 2012). "Britney Spears Looks Amazing In $20,000 Bra". MTV. MTV Networks. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- Hinant, Cindy (2012). Britney Spears Fantasy Fantasy Britney Spears (1 ed.). New York: Cindy Hinant. pp. 2–33.
- "BRITNEY'S PERFUME LINE ON TOP". BritneySpears.com. May 21, 2009. Archived from the original on May 25, 2009.[dead link]
- "Britney Spears Facing $10 Million Lawsuit In Connection With Fragrance Deal". x17 Online. March 30, 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "Britney Spears Doesn't Have To Be Deposed In Lawsuit, Judge Rules". Radar Online. July 11, 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "Cosmic Radiance Britney Spears perfume – a new fragrance for women 2011". Fragantica. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
- Willis, Jackie (June 17, 2016). "Britney Spears Unveils Her 20th Perfume 'Private Show,' Scent Inspired in Part by Singer's Love of Iced Coffee". Entertainment Tonight. United States: CBS Television Distribution. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
- "NEW Women Fragrance December 2017 – Britney Spears Sunset Fantasy The Luxury Perfumes At Your Door".
- Amatulli, Jenna (2018-07-16). "Britney Spears Releases Trailer For 'Prerogative,' A Gender-Neutral Fragrance". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
- "THE BRITNEY SPEARS FOUNDATION: HELPING CHILDREN IN NEED". BritneySpears.com. Archived from the original on November 2, 2004. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "THE BRITNEY SPEARS CAMP FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS". BritneySpears.com. Archived from the original on October 25, 2004. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "THE BRITNEY SPEARS FOUNDATION: MISSION STATEMENT". BritneySpears.com. Archived from the original on October 18, 2004. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- Friedman, Roger (July 22, 2008). "Britney Spears' $200G Deficit". Fox News Channel. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- Friedman, Roger (July 21, 2011). "Britney Spears Zeroes Out Her Charitable Foundation: It's Over". Showbiz 411. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "Artists Against AIDS Worldwide's New Superstar Version of Marvin Gaye's 'What's Going On' in Stores Tuesday, October 30". Hope for African Children. October 29, 2001. Archived from the original on August 25, 2003. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "Britney Spears Charity Work, Events and Causes". Look to the Stars. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "Britney Spears Raises $200,000 For Hurricane Katrina Charity". Starpulse. May 13, 2011. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- Friedman, Roger (June 19, 2008). "Britney Spears' Charity in the Red". Fox News Channel. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "Britney Spears Donates $50,000 To Cancer Charity". Softpedia. July 14, 2005. Archived from the original on September 10, 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "Britney donates to childhood cancer charity". Digital Spy. October 27, 2015. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- "Britney Spears donates $120,000 to Nevada Childhood Cancer Foundation". LasVegasSun.com. October 26, 2015. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- "Limited Edition Piece Of Me Tank Tops On Sale To Benefit Nevada Childhood Cancer Foundation". Britney Spears. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- "Want to Spin With Britney Spears? Check Out Her Charity Cycling Class". Billboard. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- "Britney Spears Leads Charity Spin Class for Nevada Childhood Cancer Foundation: See Pics". Billboard. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- "Britney Spears Campus – Grand opening". nvccf.org. Retrieved 2017-11-25.
- "#SpiritDay 2016: Entertainers, Performers and Celebrities – GLAAD".
- Appell, Glenn; Hemphill, David (2006). American Popular Music: A Multicultural History. Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN 0-15-506229-8.
- Blandford, James R. (2002). Britney. Music Sales Group. ISBN 978-0-7119-9419-5.
- Bronson, Fred (2003). The Billboard book of number 1 hits. Billboard Books. ISBN 978-0-8230-7677-2.
- Dennis, Steve (2009). Britney: Inside the Dream. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-731751-6.
- Hughes, Mark (2005). Buzzmarketing: get people to talk about your stuff. Penguin Group. ISBN 978-1-59184-092-3.
- Knopper, Steve (2009). Appetite for self-destruction: the spectacular crash of the record industry in the digital age. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-5215-4.
- Laufenberg, Norbert B. (2005). Entertainment Celebrities. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4120-5335-8.
- Peters, Beth (1999). True Brit: The Story of Singing Sensation Britney Spears. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-43687-0.
- Scott, Kieran (2001). I was a Mouseketeer!. Disney Press. ISBN 978-0-7868-4470-8.
- Shuker, Roy (2012). Understanding Popular Music Culture (4th ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-51713-3.
- Smith, Sean (2006). Britney: The Unauthorized Biography of Britney Spears. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-330-44077-6.
- Spears, Britney (2000). Britney Spears' Heart to Heart. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-609-80701-9.
- Spears, Lynne; Craker, Lorilee (2008). Through the Storm: A Real Story of Fame and Family in a Tabloid World. Thomas Nelson Inc. ISBN 978-1-59555-156-6.
- Stevens, Amanda (2001). Britney Spears: The Illustrated Story. Billboard Books. ISBN 978-0-8230-7867-7.