In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types. The medium can be optical fiber, radio or twisted pair. In the context of Internet access, broadband is used to mean any high-speed Internet access, always on and faster than dial-up access over traditional analog or ISDN PSTN services. Different criteria for "broad" have been applied at different times, its origin is in physics and radio systems engineering, where it had been used with a meaning similar to "wideband", or in the context of audio noise reduction systems, where it indicated a single-band rather than a multiple audio band system design of the compander. With the advent of digital telecommunications, the term was used for transmission over multiple channels. Whereas a passband signal is modulated so that it occupies higher frequencies, it is still occupying a single channel; the key difference is that what is considered a broadband signal in this sense is a signal that occupies multiple passbands, thus allowing for much higher throughput over a single medium but with additional complexity in the transmitter/receiver circuitry.
The term became popularized through the 1990s as a marketing term for Internet access, faster than dialup access, the original Internet access technology, limited to a maximum bandwidth of 56 kbit/s. This meaning is only distantly related to its original technical meaning. In telecommunications, a broadband signalling method is one. "Broadband" is a relative term, understood according to its context. The wider the bandwidth of a channel, the greater the data-carrying capacity, given the same channel quality. In radio, for example, a narrow band will carry Morse code, a broader band will carry speech, a still broader band will carry music without losing the high audio frequencies required for realistic sound reproduction; this broad band is divided into channels or "frequency bins" using passband techniques to allow frequency-division multiplexing instead of sending a higher-quality signal. In data communications, a 56k modem will transmit a data rate of 56 kilobits per second over a 4-kilohertz-wide telephone line.
In the late 1980s, the Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network used the term to refer to a broad range of bit rates, independent of physical modulation details. The various forms of digital subscriber line services are broadband in the sense that digital information is sent over multiple channels; each channel is at higher frequency than the baseband voice channel, so it can support plain old telephone service on a single pair of wires at the same time. However, when that same line is converted to a non-loaded twisted-pair wire, it becomes hundreds of kilohertz wide and can carry up to 100 megabits per second using very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line techniques. Many computer networks use a simple line code to transmit one type of signal using a medium's full bandwidth using its baseband. Most versions of the popular Ethernet family are given names such as the original 1980s 10BASE5 to indicate this. Networks that use cable modems on standard cable television infrastructure are called broadband to indicate the wide range of frequencies that can include multiple data users as well as traditional television channels on the same cable.
Broadband systems use a different radio frequency modulated by the data signal for each band. The total bandwidth of the medium is larger than the bandwidth of any channel; the 10BROAD36 broadband variant of Ethernet was standardized by 1985, but was not commercially successful. The DOCSIS standard became available to consumers in the late 1990s, to provide Internet access to cable television residential customers. Matters were further confused by the fact that the 10PASS-TS standard for Ethernet ratified in 2008 used DSL technology, both cable and DSL modems have Ethernet connectors on them. A television antenna may be described as "broadband" because it is capable of receiving a wide range of channels, while a single-frequency or Lo-VHF antenna is "narrowband" since it receives only 1 to 5 channels; the U. S. federal standard FS-1037C defines "broadband" as a synonym for wideband. "Broadband" in analog video distribution is traditionally used to refer to systems such as cable television, where the individual channels are modulated on carriers at fixed frequencies.
In this context, baseband is the term's antonym, referring to a single channel of analog video in composite form with separate baseband audio. The act of demodulating converts broadband video to baseband video. Fiber optic allows the signal to be transmitted farther without being repeated. Cable companies use a hybrid system using fiber to transmit the signal to neighborhoods and changes the signal from light to radio frequency to be transmitted over coaxial cable to homes. Doing so reduces the use of having multiple head ends. A head end gathers all the information from the local cable networks and movie channels and feeds the information into the system. However, "broadband video" in the context of streaming Internet video has come to mean video files that have bit-rates high enough to require broadband Internet access for viewing. "Broadband video" is sometimes used to describe IPTV Video on demand. Power lines have been used for various types of data communication. Although some systems for remote control are based on narrowband
Natalie Anne Coughlin Hall is an American competition swimmer and twelve-time Olympic medalist. While attending the University of California, she became the first woman to swim the 100-meter backstroke in less than one minute—ten days before her 20th birthday in 2002. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, she became the first U. S. female athlete in modern Olympic history to win six medals in one Olympiad, the first woman to win a 100-meter backstroke gold in two consecutive Olympics. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, she earned a bronze medal in the 4×100-meter freestyle relay, her total of twelve Olympic medals ties her with Jenny Thompson and Dara Torres for the most all-time medals by a female swimmer. Coughlin's success has earned her the World Swimmer of the Year Award once and American Swimmer of the Year Award three times, she has won a total of sixty medals in major international competition, twenty-five gold, twenty-two silver, thirteen bronze spanning the Olympics, the World, the Pan Pacific Championships, the Pan American Games.
Coughlin was born in Vallejo, the daughter of Jim and Zennie Coughlin. She is of Irish and one quarter Filipino ancestry. Coughlin first began swimming at Vallejo Aquatics Club when she was 8 years old, where she was coached by Tuffy Williams, she attended St. Catherine of Siena School in Vallejo, for kindergarten through eighth grade, Carondelet High School in Concord, California. While in high school in 1998, she became the first swimmer to qualify for the Summer National in all fourteen events. Coughlin broke two individual national high school records in the 200-yard individual medley and the 100-yard backstroke, she graduated from Carondelet High School in 2000. Coughlin attended the University of California, where she swam for coach Teri McKeever's California Golden Bears swimming and diving team in National Collegiate Athletic Association competition from 2001 to 2003. During her three years as a Cal Bears swimmer, she won eleven individual NCAA national championships, a twelfth NCAA relay title.
She was recognized as the NCAA Swimmer of the Year for three consecutive years, she was a two-time recipient of the Honda Sports Award for Swimming and Diving, recognizing her as the outstanding college female swimmer in 2001–02 and 2002–03. Sports Illustrated magazine named her its college Female Athlete of the Year. Coughlin was inducted into the Cal Athletic Hall of Fame in 2014. Coughlin graduated from Berkeley with a degree in psychology in the spring of 2005. At the ninth World Aquatics Championships in Fukuoka, Coughlin won three medals—one gold, one silver, one bronze, she won her gold medal in the 100-meter backstroke with Diana Mocanu taking the silver and Antje Buschschulte taking the bronze. Coughlin won her silver medal in the women's 4×100-meter medley relay, teaming up with Megan Quann, Mary Descenza, Erin Phenix. Coughlin won her bronze medal in the 50-meter backstroke. At the ninth Pan Pacific Championships in Yokohama, Coughlin won six medals—four golds and two silvers. Coughlin won one of her gold medals in the women's 100-meter backstroke with a time of 59.72, another in the women's 100-meter butterfly with a time of 57.88.
Coughlin won her third gold medal in the women's 100-meter freestyle with a time of 53.99. She won her fourth gold medal in the women's 4×200-meter freestyle relay with Elizabeth Hill, Diana Munz, Lindsay Benko, she won her silver medals as a member of the second-place U. S. relay teams in 4 × 100-meter medley events. At the tenth World Aquatics Championships in Barcelona, Coughlin won two medals, including a gold and a silver. Coughlin won her gold medal in the women's 4×100-meter freestyle relay and a silver medal in the 4×100-medley relay. Coughlin won the gold medal at the 2004 Olympics in the women's 100-meter backstroke event and won a silver medal as a member of the U. S. women's 4 × 100-meter freestyle relay team with Amanda Weir and Jenny Thompson. She broke a world record and won gold as a member of the 4×200-meter freestyle relay, a silver in the 4×100-meter medley relay, a bronze in the 100-meter freestyle. At the eleventh World Aquatics Championships in Montreal, Coughlin won five medals, including a gold and 2 silvers and 2 bronzes.
Coughlin won a gold medal in the women's 200 m freestyle relay and silver medals in the 100 meter medley relay and the 100 m freestyle. She won bronze medals in the 100 m backstroke and the 100m freestyle relay. Coughlin worked as an in-studio host for MSNBC during the 2006 Winter Olympics in Italy. At the 2007 World Aquatics Championships, Coughlin won five medals: two gold, two silver, one bronze. In her first event, the 4×100-meter freestyle relay, Coughlin won a silver medal along with Lacey Nymeyer, Amanda Weir, Kara Lynn Joyce; the following day, in the 100-meter butterfly, she placed third in the final with a time of 57.34, an American record. In the 100-meter backstroke final, held the following day, she broke her own world record set in 2002 with a time of 59.44. After a day of rest, Coughlin was back in the pool to swim the lead-off leg in the 4×200-meter freestyle relay. Swimming in lane eight, Coughlin set the American record with a time of 1:56.43, to break Katie Hoff's one-day-old record of 1:57.09.
Dana Vollmer, Lacey Nymeyer, Katie Hoff each extended the lead and the final time of 7:50.09 was a world record. The following day, Coughlin finished in 4th place in the 100-meter freestyle despite setting the championship record in the semi-finals. In her l
Lucy Cox born in Chard, Somerset, UK, is a British abstract artist and curator. Cox received a Foundation Degree in Art & Design from Kingston University London, a Bachelor of Arts with Honours in Fine Art from Wimbledon College of Arts, University of the Arts London, and a Master of Arts in Culture and Management from City, University of London. Cox has exhibited her paintings in the UK and internationally, including an exhibition of British painters in China, has curated exhibitions in London. Andy Parkinson wrote of her work, "Lucy Cox's playful geometric arrangements inhabiting a believable three dimensional space, seem to celebrate the ways in which colour creates spatial ambiguities and irregularities". Cox's abstract paintings are described as juxtaposing the autonomy of geometry with repetition and spontaneity, she is a member of Contemporary British Painting and on the advisory board of The Priseman Seabrook Collections. 2020 - Dear Christine, Arthouse 1, London 2019 - Dear Christine, Elysium Gallery, Swansea, UK 2019 - Made in Britain.
Art Bermondsey Project Space, London 2017 - Contemporary Masters from Britain, Yantai Art Museum, China 2017 - Colour A Kind Of Bliss, The Crypt, London 2016 - Summer Exhibition, The Quay Arts, Isle of White, UK 2015/16 - Piercing The Veil, Simmons Contemporary, Simmons & Simmons, London 2015 - Geometry: Wonky and Otherwise, Déda, Derby, UK 2017 - Colour A Kind Of Bliss, The Crypt, London 2016 - Multiple Choices, Simmons Contemporary, Simmons & Simmons, London The Priseman Seabrook Collection, UKJiangsu Provincial Art Museum, China 2019 - Dear Christine.