Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but one using the electromagnetic spectrum, in a one-to-many model. Broadcasting began with AM radio, which came into popular use around 1920 with the spread of vacuum tube radio transmitters and receivers. Before this, all forms of electronic communication were one-to-one, with the message intended for a single recipient; the term broadcasting evolved from its use as the agricultural method of sowing seeds in a field by casting them broadly about. It was adopted for describing the widespread distribution of information by printed materials or by telegraph. Examples applying it to "one-to-many" radio transmissions of an individual station to multiple listeners appeared as early as 1898. Over the air broadcasting is associated with radio and television, though in recent years, both radio and television transmissions have begun to be distributed by cable; the receiving parties may include the general public or a small subset.
The field of broadcasting includes both government-managed services such as public radio, community radio and public television, private commercial radio and commercial television. The U. S. Code of Federal Regulations, title 47, part 97 defines "broadcasting" as "transmissions intended for reception by the general public, either direct or relayed". Private or two-way telecommunications transmissions do not qualify under this definition. For example and citizens band radio operators are not allowed to broadcast; as defined, "transmitting" and "broadcasting" are not the same. Transmission of radio and television programs from a radio or television station to home receivers by radio waves is referred to as "over the air" or terrestrial broadcasting and in most countries requires a broadcasting license. Transmissions using a wire or cable, like cable television, are considered broadcasts but do not require a license. In the 2000s, transmissions of television and radio programs via streaming digital technology have been referred to as broadcasting as well.
The earliest broadcasting consisted of sending telegraph signals over the airwaves, using Morse code, a system developed in the 1830s by Samuel F. B. Morse, physicist Joseph Henry and Alfred Vail, they developed an electrical telegraph system which sent pulses of electric current along wires which controlled an electromagnet, located at the receiving end of the telegraph system. A code was needed to transmit natural language using only these pulses, the silence between them. Morse therefore developed the forerunner to modern International Morse code; this was important for ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communication, but it became important for business and general news reporting, as an arena for personal communication by radio amateurs. Audio broadcasting began experimentally in the first decade of the 20th century. By the early 1920s radio broadcasting became a household medium, at first on the AM band and on FM. Television broadcasting started experimentally in the 1920s and became widespread after World War II, using VHF and UHF spectrum.
Satellite broadcasting was initiated in the 1960s and moved into general industry usage in the 1970s, with DBS emerging in the 1980s. All broadcasting was composed of analog signals using analog transmission techniques but in the 2000s, broadcasters have switched to digital signals using digital transmission. In general usage, broadcasting most refers to the transmission of information and entertainment programming from various sources to the general public. Analog audio vs. HD Radio Analog television vs. Digital television WirelessThe world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks more than quadrupled during the two decades from 1986 to 2007, from 432 exabytes of information, to 1.9 zettabytes. This is the information equivalent of 55 newspapers per person per day in 1986, 175 newspapers per person per day by 2007. There have been several methods used for broadcasting electronic media audio and video to the general public: Telephone broadcasting: the earliest form of electronic broadcasting.
Telephone broadcasting began with the advent of Théâtrophone systems, which were telephone-based distribution systems allowing subscribers to listen to live opera and theatre performances over telephone lines, created by French inventor Clément Ader in 1881. Telephone broadcasting grew to include telephone newspaper services for news and entertainment programming which were introduced in the 1890s located in large European cities; these telephone-based subscription services were the first examples of electrical/electronic broadcasting and offered a wide variety of programming. Radio broadcasting. Radio stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast common radio programs, either in broadcast syndication, simulcast or subchannels. Television broadcasting, experimentally from 1925, commercially from t
George Philip Wells FRS, son of the British science fiction author H. G. Wells, was a zoologist and author, he co-authored, with Julian Huxley, The Science of Life. A pupil at Oundle School, he was in the first class to learn Russian as a modern language in a British school, he accompanied his father to Soviet Russia in 1920, acting as his Russian translator and exchanging ideas with Russian zoology students. He won an entrance Exhibition to Trinity College, where he became Senior Scholar in his first year of residence. Wells, a comparative physiologist, worked on invertebrates of several phyla, he determined their tolerance for changes in the salinity and the ionic balance of the surrounding water, analysed the water relations of land gastropods. For the latter part of his career he was a member of staff in the Zoology Department of University College London as professor, his range of zoological knowledge was notably wide, his main research was on the behaviour of the lugworm Arenicola. He determined its habits by elegant experiments, showed that the rhythm which controls many of its activities arises in the oesophagus.
Such spontaneous rhythmic activity was shown to occur in many polychaetes. He was known to all by his nickname and appears by this name in his father's fictional story "The Magic Shop", he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1955. Wells published the 1971 edition of his father's The Outline of History in the wake of Raymond Postgate's death in March of that year. Postgate had revised four previous editions following H. G. Wells' death in 1946, published in 1949, 1956, 1961 and 1969, he edited and published H. G. Wells in Love, his father's account of his main extramarital love affairs
Corson County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,050, its county seat is McIntosh. The county was named for Dighton Corson, a native of Maine, who came to the Black Hills in 1876, in 1877 began practicing law at Deadwood; the county is encompassed within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, which extends into North Dakota. The Lakota people reside in the South Dakota part of the reservation; the Grand River, a tributary of the Missouri River, runs through the reservation. Corson County lies on the north line of South Dakota, its north boundary line abuts the south boundary line of the state of North Dakota. The Missouri River flows south-southeastward along its eastern boundary line; the county terrain consists of semi-arid rolling hills. A portion of the land is dedicated to agriculture; the Grand River flows eastward through the central part of the county to discharge into the river, Standing Cloud Creek flows eastward through the county's lower SW area.
The terrain slopes to the east and south. Corson County has a total area of 2,530 square miles, of which 2,470 square miles is land and 60 square miles is water, it is the fifth-largest county in South Dakota by area. The entire county lies within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, which includes Sioux and Dewey counties; the eastern portion of South Dakota's counties observe Central Time. Corson County is the easternmost of the SD counties to observe Mountain Time. Grand River National Grassland C. C. Lee State Game Production Area As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 4,181 people, 1,271 households, 949 families in the county; the population density was 1.7 people per square mile. There were 1,536 housing units at an average density of 0.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 60.80% Native American, 37.19% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.05% Asian, 0.22% from other races, 1.65% from two or more races. 2.13 % of the population were Latino of any race. 27.3% were of German ancestry.
There were 1,271 households out of which 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.3% were non-families. 22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.29 and the average family size was 3.82. The county population contained 36.9% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $20,654, the median income for a family was $23,889. Males had a median income of $22,717 versus $19,609 for females; the per capita income for the county was $8,615. About 32.80% of families and 41.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 48.60% of those under age 18 and 32.70% of those age 65 or over.
The county's per-capita income makes it one of the poorest counties in the United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,050 people, 1,260 households, 939 families in the county; the population density was 1.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,540 housing units at an average density of 0.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 67.0% American Indian, 29.7% white, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% black or African American, 0.3% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry,Of the 1,260 households, 45.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 21.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.5% were non-families, 22.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 3.21 and the average family size was 3.73. The median age was 29.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $30,877 and the median income for a family was $36,500.
Males had a median income of $32,037 versus $23,167 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,359. About 24.1% of families and 35.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 46.7% of those under age 18 and 16.9% of those age 65 or over. McIntosh McLaughlin Morristown Bullhead Little Eagle Like Ziebach County, unlike the arch-Republican white West River counties, Corson is a competitive, fluctuating swing county, it voted Democratic in the three elections from 2004 to 2012 – doing so by over twenty percentage points for Barack Obama in 2008 – but as with most Native American counties there was a substantial swing against Hillary Clinton in 2016. National Register of Historic Places listings in Corson County, South Dakota