Broca's area, or the Broca area, is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere the left, of the brain with functions linked to speech production. Language processing has been linked to Broca's area since Pierre Paul Broca reported impairments in two patients, they had lost the ability to speak after injury to the posterior inferior frontal gyrus of the brain. Since the approximate region he identified has become known as Broca's area, the deficit in language production as Broca's aphasia called expressive aphasia. Broca's area is now defined in terms of the pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, represented in Brodmann's cytoarchitectonic map as Brodmann area 44 and Brodmann area 45 of the dominant hemisphere. Functional magnetic resonance imaging has shown language processing to involve the third part of the inferior frontal gyrus the pars orbitalis, as well as the ventral part of BA6 and these are now included in a larger area called Broca's region.
Studies of chronic aphasia have implicated an essential role of Broca's area in various speech and language functions. Further, fMRI studies have identified activation patterns in Broca's area associated with various language tasks. However, slow destruction of the Broca's area by brain tumors can leave speech intact, suggesting its functions can shift to nearby areas in the brain. Broca's area is identified by visual inspection of the topography of the brain either by macrostructural landmarks such as sulci or by the specification of coordinates in a particular reference space; the used Talairach and Tournoux atlas projects Brodmann's cytoarchitectonic map onto a template brain. Because Brodmann's parcelation was based on subjective visual inspection of cytoarchitectonic borders and Brodmann analyzed only one hemisphere of one brain, the result is imprecise. Further, because of considerable variability across brains in terms of shape and position relative to sulcal and gyral structure, a resulting localization precision is limited.
Broca's area in the left hemisphere and its homologue in the right hemisphere are designations used to refer to the triangular part of inferior frontal gyrus and the opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus. The PTr and POp are defined by structural landmarks that only probabilistically divide the inferior frontal gyrus into anterior and posterior cytoarchitectonic areas of 45 and 44 by Brodmann's classification scheme. Area 45 receives more afferent connections from the prefrontal cortex, the superior temporal gyrus, the superior temporal sulcus, compared to area 44, which tends to receive more afferent connections from motor and inferior parietal regions; the differences between area 45 and 44 in cytoarchitecture and in connectivity suggest that these areas might perform different functions. Indeed, recent neuroimaging studies have shown that the PTr and Pop, corresponding to areas 45 and 44 play different functional roles in the human with respect to language comprehension and action recognition/understanding.
In women, Broca's area is about 20% larger than in men. For a long time, it was assumed that the role of Broca's area was more devoted to language production than language comprehension. However, there is evidence to demonstrate that Broca's area plays a significant role in language comprehension. Patients with lesions in Broca's area who exhibit agrammatical speech production show inability to use syntactic information to determine the meaning of sentences. A number of neuroimaging studies have implicated an involvement of Broca's area of the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, during the processing of complex sentences. Further, it has been found in functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments involving ambiguous sentences result in a more activated inferior frontal gyrus. Therefore, the activity level in the inferior frontal gyrus and the level of lexical ambiguity are directly proportional to each other, because of the increased retrieval demands associated with ambiguous content.
There is specialisation for particular aspects of comprehension within Broca's area. Work by Devlin et al. showed in a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study that there was an increase in reaction times when performing a semantic task under rTMS aimed at the pars triangularis. The increase in reaction times is indicative that that particular area is responsible for processing that cognitive function. Disrupting these areas via TMS disrupts computations performed in the areas leading to an increase in time needed to perform the computations. Work by Nixon et al. showed that when the pars opercularis was stimulated under rTMS there was an increase in reaction times in a phonological task. Gough et al. performed an experiment combining elements of these previous works in which both phonological and semantic tasks were performed with rTMS stimulation directed at either the anterior or the posterior part of Broca's area. The results from this experiment conclusively distinguished anatomical specialisation within Broca's area for different components of language comprehension.
Here the results showed that under rTMS stimulation: Semantic tasks only showed a decrease in reaction times when stimulation was aimed at the anterior part of Broca's area Phonological tasks showed a decrease in reaction times when stimulation was aimed at the posterior
The 1985–86 season was Manchester United's 84th season in the Football League, their 11th consecutive season in the top division of English football. Despite having won the FA Cup the previous season, the team was unable to compete in the 1985–86 European Cup Winners' Cup due to the five-year ban on English clubs competing in European competitions, imposed following the Heysel Stadium disaster at the 1985 European Cup Final. Instead, the clubs who would have qualified for Europe all competed in the Football League Super Cup. With no European action to distract them, they got off to a 10-match winning start in the league, they were unbeaten from their first 15 games with 41 points as at 2nd November with 13 wins and 2 draws. The size of their lead at that point helped them stay top of the league until the beginning of February despite taking only 35 points from their last 27 games finishing fourth in the league on 76 points, 12 points behind champions Liverpool. There was no success in the cup competitions to fall back on, leading to doubts about the future of Ron Atkinson as manager.
He had completed five seasons as manager without them finishing outside the top four and had won two FA Cups, but the wait for a league title was now entering its 20th season. Media reports linked two managers with a move to Old Trafford: Terry Venables, who had just rejected an offer to return to England from Barcelona to take charge at Arsenal. Despite this speculation, Atkinson remained in charge of United into the following season, but the pressure on him to deliver success to the club remained intense; the ban on English clubs in European competitions was extended to a second season, meaning that United would not be able to compete in the 1986–87 UEFA Cup. Mark Hughes was once again United's top scorer, scoring 17 goals in the league and 18 in all competitions. However, he was less prolific during the second half of the season after scoring 11 times before Christmas, on 21 March 1986 it was announced that he would be leaving United at the end of the season to sign for FC Barcelona of Spain in a £2million deal.
United had signed Nottingham Forest striker Peter Davenport as his successor. United had signed another striker, Terry Gibson from Coventry City, just after the turn of the new year. United's title challenge was not helped by the fact that captain Bryan Robson was only available for half of the club's league games this season due to injuries. Pld = Matches played.
All Saints Sandy Hill is a former Anglican church in Ottawa, Canada. The building is slated to become a community hub for the neighbourhood; the Anglican Diocese of Ottawa was only two-years-old when on 15 April 1898, Mr Henry Newell Bate asked Bishop Charles Hamilton to form a new parish in Ottawa. By 24 June, all of the necessary preparations had been made. Bate laid the first stone himself on 2 April 1899; the chief cornerstone was laid by the Bishop on 7 June that same year. The first services were held in the church on 4 February 1900; the first Rector of All Saints’ was the Reverend A. W. Mackay, the former Curate of the old Saint John’s Anglican Church, on Sussex Street where the Connaught Building stands today, he held this post until his death in August 1919. The church, was not consecrated until the 1 February 1914; this was done following the decision by Henry Bate to give the church and land to the Rector and his wardens as a gift on 21 January. The church at Chapel Street at Laurier Avenue, designed 1898-99 by Alfred Merigon Calderon, is of Gothic revival design.
The church features a crenellated tower with a nine-bell chime, no fewer than fourteen stained glass windows. Commemorated by memorial windows, are MacKay, Sir Robert Laird Borden, Prime Minister from 1911 to 1920, several other former members of the congregation. In 1934, Bate Memorial Hall was added by Thomas Cameron Bate in honour of the church’s founder; the church held the state funeral for Sir Robert Borden, in 1937. In 2014, the church community merged with St. Margaret's Anglican Church and the historic building was put up for sale; the site was purchased in December 2015 by All Saints Development Inc. who plan to turn the site into a community hub containing a wedding venue, a conference centre, other amenities. The space will be an interpretive centre for Prime Minister's Row, an improvement initiative for the historical neighbourhood. "All Saints' Church, Sandy Hill, Anglican Diocese of Ottawa, Canada". Archived from the original on June 7, 2008. Retrieved August 23, 2016
Johannes Thoft Krogh was the Registrar of the nation's first University, the Senate of Serampore College, in office from 1975 through 1978. As a missionary of the Northern Evangelical Lutheran Church, Krogh was one of the Editors of the weekly, Pera Hoor published since 1922 in Santali language. Krogh was educated at the State School in Horsens where he studied until 1937 and at the Copenhagen University where he took his graduation in 1944 as a Candidate of Theology. Krogh first came to India in 1947 as a Missionary of the Danish Lutheran Church and was Rector of the Kaerabani Santal High School in Benagaria, now under Dumka District in Jharkhand, he was assigned to Assam from where he returned in 1953 to build up the Santal Theological Seminary and was Principal till 1972. Krogh made significant contribution to the Seminary ensuring affiliation of the Seminary sometime between 1963 and 1965 to the Senate of Serampore College. Krogh's efforts at the College fructified and many of his students have made significant contribution to the Church in India.
Timotheas Hembrom, who happened to be one of Krogh's students, became an Old Testament Scholar. During 1948-1953, Krogh was Missionary in Gauranga, Kokrajhar district, as well as Bongaigaon in Assam and returned in academics when he went back to Jharkhand to take up the Principalship of the Santal Theological College. From 1972 onwards, Krogh was made Associate Registrar of the Senate of Serampore College where he worked along with C. Devasahayam Registrar and in the ensuing years', Krogh was made full charge of the Registrarship as C. Devasahayam went on leave from 1975 to 1978 as Pastor of the Lower Circular Road Baptist Chapel founded by William Carey in Kolkata. In 1968, Krogh was made a Council Member of the Senate of Serampore College along with C. D. Jathanna. On Krogh's departure from India in 1978, the Senate of Serampore College conferred an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree by honoris causa. Further readingSantal Mission of the Northern Churches. "The 81st Annual Report of the Santal Mission of the Northern Churches for the year 1947".
Santal Mission of the Northern Churches, Dumka. Agnes Margarethe Siersted. Teologisk stat. O. Lohses forlag eftf. Paul Nedergaard. Personalhistoriske, sognehistoriske og statistiske bidrag til en dansk præste og sognehistorie: kirkelig geografi, 1849-1949. I. komission, O. Lohse. Santal Mission of the Northern Churches. "The 87th Annual Report of the Santal Mission of the Northern Churches for the year 1953 and the fourth year of the Ebesener Evangelical Lutheran Church". Santal Mission of the Northern Churches, Dumka. I Kommission hos Munksgaard. Historisk-filosofiske meddelelser. I Kommission hos Munksgaard. "The 93rd Annual Report of the Santal Mission of the Northern Churches for the year 1959 and the 10th year of the Northern Evangelical Lutheran Church". Santal Mission of the Northern Churches, Benagaria. 1960. Edith Bender. Fakta om Santalmissionen. Dansk Santalmission, Nørregade. Olav Hodne; the Seed Bore Fruit: A Short History of the Santal Mission of the Northern Churches 1867-1967. Santal Mission of the Northern Churches, Dumka.
Timotheas Hembrom. "The Santals: Anthropological-Theological reflections on Santali and Biblical Creation Traditions". Adivani, Kolkata. ISBN 978-81-925541-5-0; the story of Serampore and its College. 2005. Gyldendal. "Dansk Biografisk Leksikon". Gyldendal
Christy O'Sullivan is a former Irish Fianna Fáil politician. He was a Teachta Dála for the Cork South-West constituency from 2007 to 2011. From Clonakilty in County Cork, O'Sullivan first stood for public office at the 1999 local elections, when he stood as independent in the Skibbereen local electoral area and won a seat on Cork County Council, he contested the 2002 general election in Cork South-West as an independent, when he won over 10% of the votes but was not elected. He was re-elected to the County Council at the 2004 local elections, in January 2007 he joined Fianna Fáil, was imposed as a Fianna Fáil candidate for the 2007 general election, without a selection conference, his popularity as a local councillor was hoped to strengthen the party's hopes of retaining the two seats which it had won in the three-seat constituency in 2002, O'Sullivan was seen as a strong candidate to succeed Joe Walsh, retiring after 30 years in Dáil Éireann. The strategy worked. Fianna Fáil increased its share of the vote, with O'Sullivan topping the poll, he was the first candidate to win a seat.
However, his colleague Denis O'Donovan, who had won a seat from Fine Gael in 2002, was defeated after just one term in the Dáil. Under the Local Government Act 2001, O'Sullivan vacated his council seat, his son Christopher was co-opted to the County Council in his place. He was arrested on suspicion of drink driving on 2 June 2008, he has apologised after failing a breath test near Clonakilty. On 4 November 2008, he was banned for driving for 1 year and fined €300 after pleading guilty to a charge of drink driving, he lost his seat at the 2011 general election. His son Christopher O'Sullivan was elected as a TD for Cork South-West in at the 2020 general election. Families in the Oireachtas
Gideon Gela-Mosby is an Australian professional rugby league footballer who last played for the North Queensland Cowboys in the NRL. Born in Cairns and of Torres Strait Islander descent, Gela-Mosby grew up on the tiny Darnley Island in the Torres Strait. Gela-Mosby had never played rugby league. While in Cairns he played his junior rugby league for the Cairns Kangaroos and Edmonton Storm. Gela-Mosby may be eligible for the Papua New Guinean national team through his parents' connection to Daru Island, a PNG-administered island of the Torres Strait. In 2012, Gela-Mosby played for the Northern Pride's Cyril Connell Cup side, scoring 9 tries. In 2013, he moved up to the Pride's Mal Meninga Cup team. Gela-Mosby moved to Townsville in 2014, attending Kirwan State High School and playing for the Townsville Stingers Mal Meninga Cup side, he scored 7 tries in the side's premiership winning season and scored a try in the National Under-18 Championship final against the Sydney Roosters. That season he was selected for Australian Schoolboys sides.
While attending Kirwan State High, Gela-Mosby won the Queensland Schoolboys 100 metre sprint title with a time of 10.95 seconds. In 2015, Gela-Mosby joined the North Queensland Cowboys; that season he broke the NYC record for most tries in a season, scoring 39 tries in 25 games. He was selected for the Queensland under-20 side, scoring a try, was named in the NYC Team of the Year. In August 2015, he re-signed with the Cowboys on a 2-year contract until the end of 2017. In 2016, Gela-Mosby was selected in the Cowboys' Auckland Nines squad, scoring 4 tries in the tournament, he spent the season playing for the Cowboys' NYC side, again being named in the NYC Team of the Year and representing the Queensland under-20 side. He finished his NYC career with 53 tries in 44 games. In 2017, Gela-Mosby joined the Cowboys' NRL squad and was a member of their Auckland Nines squad, where he scored 6 tries and was named in the Team of the Tournament, he started the season playing for the Cowboys' feeder club the Northern Pride in the Queensland Cup.
In Round 4 of the 2017 NRL season, Gela-Mosby made his NRL debut, scoring a try in the Cowboys win against the Gold Coast Titans. On 30 August, he re-signed with the Cowboys until the end of the 2019 season. Gela-Mosby started the season playing for the Northern Pride, although he missed the opening five rounds due to a shoulder charge suspension picked up at the end of the 2017 season. After scoring 10 tries in 11 games for the Pride, Gela-Mosby returned to the Cowboys' NRL side, playing in the final four games of the season, scoring three tries. Gela-Mosby played just three games for the Cowboys in 2019, spending the majority of the season playing for the Northern Pride. In Round 12, he broke his collarbone in the Cowboys' win over the Gold Coast Titans. On 13 September, it was announced. Auckland Nines Team of the Tournament: 2017 NYC Team of the Year: 2015, 2016 Statistics are correct to the end of the 2019 season North Queensland Cowboys profile NRL profile