Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev was a Russian chemist and inventor. He formulated the Periodic Law, created a farsighted version of the periodic table of elements, used it to correct the properties of some discovered elements and to predict the properties of eight elements yet to be discovered. Mendeleev was born in the village of Verkhnie Aremzyani, near Tobolsk in Siberia, to Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleev and Maria Dmitrievna Mendeleeva, his paternal grandfather Pavel Maximovich Sokolov was a Russian Orthodox priest from the Tver region. Ivan, along with his brothers and sisters, obtained new family names while attending the theological seminary, he worked as a school principal and a teacher of fine arts and philosophy at the Tambov and Saratov gymnasiums. Maria Kornilieva came from a well-known dynasty of Tobolsk merchants, founders of the first Siberian printing house who traced their ancestry to Yakov Korniliev, a 17th-century posad man turned a wealthy merchant. In 1889 a local librarian published an article in the Tobolsk newspaper where he claimed that Yakov was a baptized Teleut, an ethnic minority known as "white Kalmyks" at the time.
Since no sources were provided and no documented facts of Yakov's life were revealed, biographers dismiss it as a myth. In 1908, shortly after Mendeleev's death, one of his nieces published Family Chronicles. Memories about D. I. Mendeleev where she voiced "a family legend" about Maria's grandfather who married "a Kyrgyz or Tatar beauty whom he loved so much that when she died, he died from grief". This, contradicts the documented family chronicles, neither of those legends is supported by Mendeleev's autobiography, his daughter's or his wife's memoirs, yet some Western scholars still refer to Mendeleev's supposed "Mongol", "Tatar", "Tartarian" or "Asian" ancestry as a fact. Mendeleev was raised as an Orthodox Christian, his mother encouraging him to "patiently search divine and scientific truth", his son would inform that he departed from the Church and embraced a form of "romanticized deism". Mendeleev was the youngest of 17 siblings, of whom "only 14 stayed alive to be baptized" according to Mendeleev's brother Pavel, meaning the others died soon after their birth.
The exact number of Mendeleev's siblings differs among sources and is still a matter of some historical dispute. For the family's financial well being, his father became blind and lost his teaching position, his mother was forced to work and she restarted her family's abandoned glass factory. At the age of 13, after the passing of his father and the destruction of his mother's factory by fire, Mendeleev attended the Gymnasium in Tobolsk. In 1849, his mother took Mendeleev across Russia from Siberia to Moscow with the aim of getting Mendeleev a higher education; the university in Moscow did not accept him. The mother and son continued to Saint Petersburg to the father's alma mater; the now poor Mendeleev family relocated to Saint Petersburg, where he entered the Main Pedagogical Institute in 1850. After graduation, he contracted tuberculosis, causing him to move to the Crimean Peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in 1855. While there, he became a science master of the 1st Simferopol Gymnasium.
In 1857, he returned to Saint Petersburg with restored health. Between 1859 and 1861, he worked on the capillarity of liquids and the workings of the spectroscope in Heidelberg. In 1861, he published a textbook named Organic Chemistry; this won him the Demidov Prize of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. On 4 April 1862 he became engaged to Feozva Nikitichna Leshcheva, they married on 27 April 1862 at Nikolaev Engineering Institute's church in Saint Petersburg. Mendeleev became a professor at the Saint Petersburg Technological Institute and Saint Petersburg State University in 1864, 1865, respectively. In 1865 he became Doctor of Science for his dissertation "On the Combinations of Water with Alcohol", he achieved tenure in 1867 at St. Petersburg University and started to teach inorganic chemistry, while succeeding Voskresenskii to this post, and by 1871 he had transformed Saint Petersburg into an internationally recognized center for chemistry research. In 1876, he began courting her, his divorce from Leshcheva was finalized one month after he had married Popova in early 1882.
After the divorce, Mendeleev was technically a bigamist. His divorce and the surrounding controversy contributed to his failure to be admitted to the Russian Academy of Sciences, his daughter from his second marriage, became the wife of the famous Russian poet Alexander Blok. His other children were son Vladimir and daughter Olga, from his first marriage to Feozva, son Ivan and twins from Anna. Though Mendeleev was honored by scientific organizations all over Europe, including the Davy Medal from the Royal Society of London, he resigned from Saint Petersburg University on 17 August 1890, he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1892, in 1893 he was appointed director of the Bureau of Weights and Measures, a post which he occupied until his death. Mendeleev investigated the composition of petroleum, a
Romanization of Russian
Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script. As well as its primary use for citing Russian names and words in languages which use a Latin alphabet, romanization is essential for computer users to input Russian text who either do not have a keyboard or word processor set up for inputting Cyrillic, or else are not capable of typing using a native Russian keyboard layout. In the latter case, they would type using a system of transliteration fitted for their keyboard layout, such as for English QWERTY keyboards, use an automated tool to convert the text into Cyrillic. There are a number of incompatible standards for the Romanization of Russian Cyrillic, with none of them having received much popularity and in reality transliteration is carried out without any uniform standards. Scientific transliteration known as the International Scholarly System, is a system, used in linguistics since the 19th century, it is formed the basis of the GOST and ISO systems.
OST 8483 was the first Soviet standard on romanization of Russian, introduced in 16 October 1935. Developed by the National Administration for Geodesy and Cartography at the USSR Council of Ministers, GOST 16876-71 has been in service for over 30 years and is the only romanization system that does not use diacritics. Replaced by GOST 7.79-2000. This standard is an equivalent of GOST 16876-71 and was adopted as an official standard of the COMECON. GOST 7.79-2000 System of Standards on Information and Publishing–Rules for Transliteration of the Cyrillic Characters Using the Latin Alphabet is an adoption of ISO 9:1995. It is the Commonwealth of Independent States. GOST 52535.1-2006 Identification cards. Machine readable travel documents. Part 1. Machine readable passports is an adoption of an ICAO standard for travel documents, it was used in Russian passports for a short period during 2010–2013. The standard was substituted in 2013 by GOST R ISO/IEC 7501-1-2013, which does not contain romanization, but directly refers to the ICAO romanization.
Names on street and road signs in the Soviet Union were romanized according to GOST 10807-78, amended by newer Russian GOST R 52290-2004, the romanizations in both the standards are identical. ISO/R 9, established in 1954 and updated in 1968, was the adoption of the scientific transliteration by the International Organization for Standardization, it covers seven other Slavic languages. ISO 9:1995 is the current transliteration standard from ISO, it is based on its predecessor ISO/R 9:1968. ISO 9:1995 is the first language-independent, univocal system of one character for one character equivalents that faithfully represents the original and allows for reverse transliteration for Cyrillic text in any contemporary language; the UNGEGN, a Working Group of the United Nations, in 1987 recommended a romanization system for geographical names, based on the 1983 version of GOST 16876-71. It may be found in some international cartographic products. American Library Association and Library of Congress romanization tables for Slavic alphabets are used in North American libraries and in the British Library since 1975.
The formal, unambiguous version of the system requires some diacritics and two-letter tie characters, which are omitted in practice. British Standard 2979:1958 is the main system of the Oxford University Press, a variation was used by the British Library to catalogue publications acquired up to 1975; the BGN/PCGN system is intuitive for Anglophones to read and pronounce. In many publications, a simplified form of the system is used to render English versions of Russian names converting ë to yo, simplifying -iy and -yy endings to -y, omitting apostrophes for ъ and ь, it can be rendered using only the basic letters and punctuation found on English-language keyboards: no diacritics or unusual letters are required, although the interpunct character may be used to avoid ambiguity. This particular standard is part of the BGN/PCGN romanization system, developed by the United States Board on Geographic Names and by the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use; the portion of the system pertaining to the Russian language was adopted by BGN in 1944 and by PCGN in 1947.
In Soviet international passports, transliteration was based on French rules, so all of the names were transliterated in a French-style system. In 1997, with the introduction of new Russian passports, a diacritic-free English-oriented system was established by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, but this system was abandoned in 2010. In 2006, GOST 52535.1-2006 was adopted, which defines technical requirements and standards for Russian international passports and introduces its own system of transliteration. In 2010, the Federal Migratory Service of Russia approved Order No. 26, stating that all personal names in the passports issued after 2010 must be transliterated using GOST 52535.1-2006. Because of some differences between the new system and the old one, citizens who wanted to retain the old version of a name's transliteration, in the old pre-2010 passport, might apply to the local migratory office before acquiring a new passport; the standard was abandoned in 2013. In 2013, Order No. 320 of the Federal Migratory Service of Russia came into force.
It states that all pe
Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus
Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus was a German encyclopedia publisher and editor, famed for publishing the Conversations-Lexikon, now published as the Brockhaus encyclopedia. Brockhaus was educated at the gymnasium of his native Dortmund, from 1788 to 1793 served an apprenticeship in a mercantile house at Düsseldorf, he devoted two years at the University of Leipzig to the study of modern languages and literature, after which he set up in Dortmund an emporium for English goods. In 1801, he transferred this business to Arnheim, in the following year to Amsterdam. In 1805, having given up his first line of trade, Brockhaus began business as a publisher. Two journals projected by him were not allowed by the government to survive for any length of time, in 1810 the complications in the affairs of Holland induced him to return homewards. In 1811 he settled at Altenburg. About three years he had purchased the copyright of the bankrupt Conversations-Lexikon, an encyclopedia started in 1796, in 1810-1811 he completed the first edition of this celebrated work.
It was imitated as a model for encyclopedias, is still published today, known as the Brockhaus Encyclopedia. A second edition under Brockhaus's editorship was begun in 1812, was received with universal favour, his business extended and in 1818 Brockhaus moved to Leipzig, where he established a large printing-house. Among the more extensive of his many literary undertakings were the critical periodicals — Hermes, the Literarisches Konversationsblatt and the Zeilgenossen, some large historical and bibliographical works, such as Friedrich Ludwig Georg von Raumer's Geschichte der Hohenstaufen, Friedrich Adolf Ebert's Allgemeines bibliographisches Lexikon. Brockhaus died in Leipzig; the business was carried on by his sons, Friedrich Brockhaus, who retired in 1850, Heinrich Brockhaus, under whom it was extended. Heinrich rendered great services to literature and science, which the University of Jena recognized by making him, in 1858, honorary Doctor of Philosophy. In the years 1842–1848, Heinrich Brockhaus was member of the Saxon second chamber, as representative for Leipzig, was made honorary citizen of that city in 1872, died there on 15 November 1874.
His firm continues under the name F. A. Brockhaus AG in his honor, he is the namesake of 27765 Brockhaus, a main-belt asteroid discovered in 1991. F. A. Brockhaus AG Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Brockhaus, Friedrich Arnold". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this work in turn cites: H. E. Brockhaus, Friedrich A. Brockhaus, sein Leben und Wirken nach Briefen und andern Aufzeichnungen H. E. Brockhaus, Die Firma F. A. Brockhaus von der Begründung bis zum hundertjährigen Jubiläum
Semyon Afanasievich Vengerov was the preeminent literary historian of Imperial Russia. Vengerov was memoirist Pauline Wengeroff, a prominent Jewish family, his parents were of the few acculturated Russian Jews, sent him to a Christian school, of which he once was expelled for refusing to kneel before an icon. As academic careers were barred to Jews, he converted to Orthodoxy after matriculating, he was the pater familias of an artistic clan that included his sister Isabelle Vengerova, a co-founder of the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia, nephew Nicolas Slonimsky, a Russian-American composer. Vengerov studiously researched the careers of "second-tier" Russian authors of the 19th and 18th centuries, his materials proved indispensable for several generations of Russian literary historians. His archives contain the largest private collection of Dostoyevsky's manuscripts, he was a great admirer of the subject of his first major work of criticism. Vengerov presided over an influential Pushkin seminar and the Russian Book Chamber.
In the early 20th century he issued a detailed overview of recent Russian literature and edited the grand Brockhaus-Efron edition of Pushkin's works in 6 large quarto volumes. Vengerov's interest in academic biographism gained him a reputation of being a positivist compiler of biographical data. According to Mirsky, his works contain "a great mass of prefatory and biographical matter, most of, more or less worthless". In Noise of Time, Osip Mandelshtam claimed that Vengerov had "understood nothing in Russian literature and studied Pushkin as a professional task". For Vengerov, the greatest merit of Russian literature was its essential didacticism: "For the Russian reader, literature has always been a holy thing.
Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher)
Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov was a Russian philosopher, poet and literary critic. He played a significant role in the development of Russian philosophy and poetry at the end of the 19th century and in the spiritual renaissance of the early 20th century; the son of the historian Sergey Mikhaylovich Solovyov, the brother of historical novelist Vsevolod Solovyov, he was born in Moscow. His mother Polyxena Vladimirovna belonged to a Polish origin family and had, among her ancestors, the thinker Gregory Skovoroda. In his teens, Solovyov renounced Eastern Orthodoxy for nihilism, but his disapproval of positivism saw him begin to express views that were in line with those of the Orthodox Church. Solovyov studied at the University of Moscow, his philosophy professor was Pamfil Yurkevich. In his The Crisis of Western Philosophy: Against the Positivists, Solovyov discredited the positivists' rejection of Aristotle's essentialism, or philosophical realism. In Against the Postivists, he insight, he saw consciousness as requiring both phenomenon and noumenon validated intuitively.
Positivism, according to Solovyov, validates only the phenomenon of an object, denying the intuitive reality that people experience as part of their consciousness. As Solovyov's basic philosophy rests on the idea that the essence of an object can be validated only by intuition and that consciousness as a single organic whole is done in part by reason or logic but in completeness by intuition. Soloyvev was attempting to reconcile the dualism found in German idealism. Vladimir Solovyov became a confidant of Fyodor Dostoyevsky. In opposition to his friend, Solovyov was sympathetic to the Roman Catholic Church, he favoured the healing of the schism between the Roman Catholic Churches. It is clear from Solovyov's work that he accepted papal primacy over the Universal Church, but there is not enough evidence, at this time, to support the claim that he officially embraced Roman Catholicism; as an active member of Society for the Promotion of Culture Among the Jews of Russia, he spoke Hebrew and struggled to reconcile Judaism and Christianity.
Politically, he got renowned as the leading defender of Jewish civil rights in tsarist Russia in the 1880s. Solovyov advocated for his cause internationally and published a letter in The London Times pleading for international support for his struggle; the Jewish Encyclopedia describes him as "a friend of the Jews" and states that "Even on his death-bed he is said to have prayed for the Jewish people". Solovyov's attempts to chart a course of civilization's progress toward an East-West Christian ecumenicism developed an increasing bias against Asian cultures which he studied with great interest, he dismissed the Buddhist concept of Nirvana as a pessimistic nihilistic "nothingness", antithetical to salvation, no better than Gnostic dualism. Solovyov spent his final years obsessed with fear of the "Yellow Peril", warning that soon the Asian peoples the Chinese, would invade and destroy Russia. Solovyov further elaborated in his apocalyptic short story "Tale of the Antichrist" published in the Nedelya newspaper on February 27, 1900, in which China and Japan join forces to conquer Russia.
His 1894 poem Pan-Mongolism, whose opening lines serve as epigraph to the story, was seen as predicting the coming Russo-Japanese War. Solovyov never married or had children, but he pursued idealized relationships as immortalized in his spiritual love poetry, including with two women named Sophia, he rebuffed the advances of mystic Anna Schmidt. It is held that Solovyov was one of the sources for Dostoevsky's characters Alyosha Karamazov and Ivan Karamazov in The Brothers Karamazov. Solovyov's influence can be seen in the writings of the Symbolist and Neo-Idealist writers of the Russian Soviet era, his book The Meaning of Love can be seen as one of the philosophical sources of Leo Tolstoy's The Kreutzer Sonata. It was the work in which he introduced the concept of'syzygy', to denote'close union', he influenced the religious philosophy of Nikolai Berdyaev, Sergey Bulgakov, Pavel Florensky, Nikolai Lossky, Semyon Frank, brothers Sergei Nikolaevich Trubetskoy and Evgenii Nikolaevich Trubetskoy, the ideas of Rudolf Steiner, the poetry and theory of Russian Symbolists.
Hans Urs von Balthasar explores his work as one example of seven lay styles, which reveal the glory of God's revelation, in volume III of The Glory of the Lord. Solovyov compiled a philosophy based on Hellenistic philosophy and early Christian tradition with Buddhism and Hebrew Kabbalistic elements, he studied Gnosticism and the works of the Gnostic Valentinus. His religious philosophy was syncretic and fused philosophical elements of various religious traditions with Orthodox Christianity and his own experience of Sophia. Solovyov described his encounters with the entity Sophia in his works, such as Three Encounters and Lectures on Godmanhood, his fusion was driven by the desire to reconcile and/or unite with Orthodox Christianity the various traditions by the Russian Slavophiles' concept of sobornost. His Russian religious philosophy had a strong impact on the Russian Symbolist art movements of his time, his teachings on Sophia, conceived as the merciful unifying femini
An acropolis was in ancient Greece a settlement a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense. Acropoleis became the nuclei of large cities of classical antiquity, such as ancient Athens, for this reason they are sometimes prominent landmarks in modern cities with ancient pasts, such as modern Athens; the word acropolis means in Greek "upper city," and though associated with the Greek cities Athens, Argos and Corinth, may be applied generically to all such citadels, including Rome, Celtic Bratislava, many in Asia Minor, or Castle Rock in Edinburgh. An example in Ireland is the Rock of Cashel. Acropolis is the term used by archaeologists and historians for the urban Castro culture settlements located in Northwestern Iberian hilltops; the most famous example is the Acropolis of Athens, which, by reason of its historical associations and the several famous buildings erected upon it, is known without qualification as the Acropolis.
Although originating in the mainland of Greece, use of the acropolis model spread to Greek colonies such as the Dorian Lato on Crete during the Archaic Period. Because of its classical Hellenistic style, the ruins of Mission San Juan Capistrano's Great Stone Church in California, United States has been called the "American Acropolis". Other parts of the world developed other names for the high citadel or alcázar, which reinforced a strong site. In Central Italy, many small rural communes still cluster at the base of a fortified habitation known as La Rocca of the commune; the term acropolis is used to describe the central complex of overlapping structures, such as plazas and pyramids, in many Maya cities, including Tikal and Copán. Media related to Acropolis at Wikimedia Commons The Acropolis of Athens The Acropolis Restoration Project UNESCO World Heritage Centre — Acropolis, Athens Acropolis Museum The Parthenon Frieze Acropolis: description, photo album
The Brockhaus Enzyklopädie is a German-language encyclopedia which until 2009 was published by the F. A. Brockhaus printing house; the first edition originated in the Conversations-Lexikon published by Löbel and Franke in Leipzig 1796–1808. Renamed Der Große Brockhaus in 1928 and Brockhaus Enzyklopädie from 1966, the current 21st thirty-volume edition contains about 300,000 entries on 24,000 pages, with about 40,000 maps and tables, it is the largest German-language printed encyclopedia in the 21st century. In February 2008, F. A. Brockhaus announced the changeover to an online encyclopedia and the discontinuation of the printed editions; the rights to the Brockhaus trademark were purchased by Arvato services, a subsidiary of the Bertelsmann media group. After more than 200 years, the distribution of the Brockhaus encyclopedia ceased in 2014. Paralleling other 18th century encyclopedias, the scope of the original Conversations-Lexikon was expanded beyond that of earlier publications, in an effort to become comprehensive.
Published by the Leipzig scholars Renatus Gotthelf Löbel and Christian Wilhelm Franke from 1796 onward, it included geography, in part biography, as well as the more typical mythology, natural history, etc. Upon Löbel's death in 1799, Franke sold the rights to publication to Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus; the deal was made at the Leipzig Book Fair on 25 October 1808 for the price of 1,800 thalers. Thirteen editions were issued during the 19th century; the articles very brief, were considered excellent and trustworthy on German subjects, gave references to the best books, included biographies of living men. At first the name of the encyclopedia remained Konversationslexikon or Allgemeine deutsche Real-Encyklopädie für die gebildeten Stände. Christian Wilhelm Franke was to finish vol. vi of the Leipzig publication by December 1808, the projected supplement, in 2 volumes, by 1811. Brockhaus himself edited the 2nd edition, when vol. IV was published, the 3rd. Ludwig Ham assisted in editing the 4th and 5th editions until he left Leipzig in April 1820, when Professor F.
C. Hasse took his place. Brockhaus died in 1823, his two eldest sons and Heinrich, edited the 6th edition with Hasse's assistance in September 1823. Hasse edited the 7th edition. Karl August Espe edited the 9th editions. August Kurtzel, aided by Oskar Pilz, edited the 10th edition, assisted by Heinrich Eduard Brockhaus, Heinrich Rudolf Brockhaus, the younger son, assisted in the 11th edition. Kurtzel died on April 24, 1871, Pilz was sole editor until March 1872, when Gustav Stockmann joined, alone from April until joined by Karl Wippermann in October; the 14th edition was published in 1894, featuring 18,842 pages in 16 regular volumes and one supplement volume. Preparations for the 15th edition were disrupted by World War I, recommenced in 1925; because its 20 volumes were published from 1928–1934 which covered the period of the Weimar Republic, this edition is sometimes referred to as the Weimar Brockhaus. A supplement volume was published in 1935; the 16th edition, published 1952–1957, consisted of 12 regular volumes, two supplement volumes, one atlas volume.
The latest full print version of the Brockhaus Enzyklopädie is the 21st edition, with approx. 24,500 pages in 30 volumes. Prices start at EUR 2,820. In addition to the full encyclopedia, several abbreviated editions have been published with condensed content: The 1854 Kleineres Brockhaus'sches Conversations-Lexikon für den Hausgebrauch had 4 volumes. By 1941, it was with 794 pages; the 15th edition, expanded to 1040 pages, was published in 1975. A digital multimedia encyclopedia based on the Brockhaus Enzyklopädie is available under the name Brockhaus Multimedial Premium, similar to Microsoft Encarta. On February 13, 2008, Brockhaus announced that due to the disappointing sales figures, it would make the content of the encyclopedia available online, supported by Internet advertising revenues and that there might be no more print editions; this announcement boosted print sales again and the plans to switch to an on-line only edition were canceled. However, in 2009 Bibliographisches Institut & F.
A. Brockhaus AG sold the Brockhaus brand to Bertelsmann, renamed themselves to Bibliographisches Institut AG, sacked 50 employees of its Leipzig-based editorial staff; this move was interpreted as the end of Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, caused by the competition of Internet-based reference works such as Wikipedia. "No work of reference has been more useful and successful, or more copied and translated, than that known as the Conversations-Lexikon of Brockhaus," wrote the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. The work was intended not for scientific use, but to promote general intellectual improvement by giving the results of research and discovery in a simple and popular form without extended details; this format, a contrast to the Encyclopædia Britannica, was imitated by 19th century encyclopedias in several countries. The seventh edition of the Conversations-Lexikon formed the basis of the Encyclopedia Americana, the first significant American encyclopedia. Other encyclopedias