Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35. It is the third-lightest halogen, is a fuming red-brown liquid at room temperature that evaporates to form a coloured gas, its properties are thus intermediate between those of iodine. Isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig and Antoine Jérôme Balard, its name was derived from the Ancient Greek βρῶμος, referencing its sharp and disagreeable smell. Elemental bromine is reactive and thus does not occur free in nature, but in colourless soluble crystalline mineral halide salts, analogous to table salt. While it is rather rare in the Earth's crust, the high solubility of the bromide ion has caused its accumulation in the oceans. Commercially the element is extracted from brine pools in the United States and China; the mass of bromine in the oceans is about one three-hundredth. At high temperatures, organobromine compounds dissociate to yield free bromine atoms, a process that stops free radical chemical chain reactions.
This effect makes organobromine compounds useful as fire retardants, more than half the bromine produced worldwide each year is put to this purpose. The same property causes ultraviolet sunlight to dissociate volatile organobromine compounds in the atmosphere to yield free bromine atoms, causing ozone depletion; as a result, many organobromide compounds—such as the pesticide methyl bromide—are no longer used. Bromine compounds are still used in well drilling fluids, in photographic film, as an intermediate in the manufacture of organic chemicals. Large amounts of bromide salts are toxic from the action of soluble bromide ion, causing bromism. However, a clear biological role for bromide ion and hypobromous acid has been elucidated, it now appears that bromine is an essential trace element in humans; the role of biological organobromine compounds in sea life such as algae has been known for much longer. As a pharmaceutical, the simple bromide ion has inhibitory effects on the central nervous system, bromide salts were once a major medical sedative, before replacement by shorter-acting drugs.
They retain niche uses as antiepileptics. Bromine was discovered independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig and Antoine Balard, in 1825 and 1826, respectively. Löwig isolated bromine from a mineral water spring from his hometown Bad Kreuznach in 1825. Löwig used a solution of the mineral salt saturated with chlorine and extracted the bromine with diethyl ether. After evaporation of the ether a brown liquid remained. With this liquid as a sample of his work he applied for a position in the laboratory of Leopold Gmelin in Heidelberg; the publication of the results was delayed and Balard published his results first. Balard found bromine chemicals in the ash of seaweed from the salt marshes of Montpellier; the seaweed was used to produce iodine, but contained bromine. Balard distilled the bromine from a solution of seaweed ash saturated with chlorine; the properties of the resulting substance were intermediate between those of iodine. After the French chemists Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, Louis Jacques Thénard, Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac approved the experiments of the young pharmacist Balard, the results were presented at a lecture of the Académie des Sciences and published in Annales de Chimie et Physique.
In his publication, Balard stated that he changed the name from muride to brôme on the proposal of M. Anglada. Brôme derives from the Greek βρωμος. Other sources claim that the French chemist and physicist Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac suggested the name brôme for the characteristic smell of the vapors. Bromine was not produced in large quantities until 1858, when the discovery of salt deposits in Stassfurt enabled its production as a by-product of potash. Apart from some minor medical applications, the first commercial use was the daguerreotype. In 1840, bromine was discovered to have some advantages over the used iodine vapor to create the light sensitive silver halide layer in daguerreotypy. Potassium bromide and sodium bromide were used as anticonvulsants and sedatives in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but were superseded by chloral hydrate and by the barbiturates. In the early years of the First World War, bromine compounds such as xylyl bromide were used as poison gas. Bromine is the third halogen.
Its properties are thus similar to those of fluorine and iodine, tend to be intermediate between those of the two neighbouring halogens and iodine. Bromine has the electron configuration 3d104s24p5, with the seven electrons in the fourth and outermost shell acting as its valence electrons. Like all halogens, it is thus one electron short of a full octet, is hence a strong oxidising agent, reacting with many elements in order to complete its outer shell. Corresponding to periodic trends, it is intermediate in electronegativity between chlorine and iodine, is less reactive than chlorine and more reactive than iodine, it is a weaker oxidising agent than chlorine, but a stronger one than iodine. Conversely, the bromide ion is a weaker reducing agent than iodide, but a stronger one than chloride; these similarities led to chlorine and iodine together being classified as one of the original triads of Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, whose work foreshadowed the periodic law for chemical elements. It is intermediate in atomic radius between chlorine and iodi
Section 44 Records is an independent record label and online store based in Colorado and specializing in electronic music and related genres. In 2004, Section 44 Records was formed by Pierre Norman and Randall Erkelens from the band Tristraum. Section 44 acquired the synthpop forum defunct label Kiss My Asterix Records; the label has released albums and compilations by The Alphabet Girls, Eight to Infinity, Empire State Human and Tycho Brahe. Although based in the U. S. the roster includes international bands. Section 44 Records added Breye Kiser of Provision and Steven Cochran of Eloquent, Royal Visionaries to its management and A&R in 2005. Eloquent: Carousel of Life – Catalog # SEC-019 Royal Visionaries: Analogue Fairytale – Catalog # SEC-018 Sector One: Vol 2 – Various Artist Compilation – Catalog # SEC-017 Storybox: No Dancing Allowed – Catalog # SEC-016 Tycho Brahe: Transatlantic – The Atlantic Remixes – Catalog # SEC-015 Chinese Theatre: Voices & Machines – Catalog # SEC-014 Fake the Envy: Blind – Catalog # SEC-013 Eloquent: Carousel of Life – Catalog # SEC-012 New Music Sampler: Various Artist Compilation – Catalog # SEC-011 Rhythmic Symphony: The Mechanism Fulfilled – Catalog # SEC-010 Sector One: Various Artist Compilation – Catalog # SEC-009 Eight to Infinity: Aether – Catalog # SEC-008 Tristraum: Gray – Catalog # SEC-007 Tristraum: First Embrace MCD – Catalog # SEC-006 Provision: The Consequence – Catalog # SEC-005 Provision: Ideal Warfare MCD – Catalog # SEC-004 4x4: Volume Two – Catalog # SEC-003 The Fixx: An Electronic Tribute – Catalog # SEC-002 Rocket: A Tribute to Dead or Alive – Catalog # SEC-001 Eloquent: Future pop – Catalog # WSR01 Royal Visionaries: Back to Yazoo – The Remix E.
P. – Catalog # WSR02 Spanky: Dominatricks 12" Vinyl – Catalog # TW-EP–08 Empire State Human: Cycles – Catalog # KMA Jaded: Various Artist Compilation – Catalog # KMA Cosmicity: Definitive CD/DVD KMA The Alphabet Girls: Beatnik Europa KMA Electrokuted!: An electronic tribute to the Gods of Metal and Rock. KMA Tristraum: Shiver 12" Vinyl MHHP-EP–03 Tristraum: Shiver MCD INT–0130 4x4: Volume One KMA-SOO4 List of electronic music record labels Official site
A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriters for a film, television program, or video game. These screenplays can be original adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In them, the movement, actions and dialogues of the characters are narrated. A screenplay written for television is known as a teleplay; the format is structured so that one page equates to one minute of screen time, though this is only used as a ballpark estimate and bears little resemblance to the running time of the final movie. The standard font is 10 pitch Courier Typeface; the major components are dialogue. The action is written in the present tense and is limited to what can be heard or seen by the audience, for example descriptions of settings, character movements, or sound effects; the dialogue is the words the characters speak, is written in a center column. Unique to the screenplay is the use of slug lines. A slug line called a master scene heading, occurs at the start of every scene and contains three pieces of information: whether the scene is set inside or outside, the specific location, the time of day.
Each slug line begins a new scene. In a "shooting script" the slug lines are numbered consecutively for ease of reference. American screenplays are printed single-sided on three-hole-punched paper using the standard American letter size, they are held together with two brass brads in the top and bottom hole. The middle hole is left empty as it would otherwise make it harder to read the script. In the United Kingdom, double-hole-punched A4 paper is used, taller and narrower than US letter size; some UK writers format the scripts for use in the US letter size when their scripts are to be read by American producers, since the pages would otherwise be cropped when printed on US paper. Because each country's standard paper size is difficult to obtain in the other country, British writers send an electronic copy to American producers, or crop the A4 size to US letter. A British script may be bound by a single brad at the top left hand side of the page, making flicking through the paper easier during script meetings.
Screenplays are bound with a light card stock cover and back page showing the logo of the production company or agency submitting the script, covers are there to protect the script during handling which can reduce the strength of the paper. This is important if the script is to pass through the hands of several people or through the post. Reading copies of screenplays are distributed printed on both sides of the paper to reduce paper waste, they are reduced to half-size to make a small book, convenient to read or put in a pocket. Although most writing contracts continue to stipulate physical delivery of three or more copies of a finished script, it is common for scripts to be delivered electronically via email. Screenplays and teleplays use a set of standardizations, beginning with proper formatting; these rules are in part to serve the practical purpose of making scripts uniformly readable "blueprints" of movies, to serve as a way of distinguishing a professional from an amateur. Motion picture screenplays intended for submission to mainstream studios, whether in the US or elsewhere in the world, are expected to conform to a standard typographical style known as the studio format which stipulates how elements of the screenplay such as scene headings, transitions, character names and parenthetical matter should be presented on the page, as well as font size and line spacing.
One reason for this is that, when rendered in studio format, most screenplays will transfer onto the screen at the rate of one page per minute. This rule of thumb is contested — a page of dialogue occupies less screen time than a page of action, for example, it depends enormously on the literary style of the writer — and yet it continues to hold sway in modern Hollywood. There is no single standard for studio format; some studios have definitions of the required format written into the rubric of their writer's contract. The Nicholl Fellowship, a screenwriting competition run under the auspices of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, has a guide to screenplay format. A more detailed reference is The Complete Guide to Standard Script Formats. A "spec script" or speculative screenplay is a script written to be sold on the open market with no upfront payment, or promise of payment; the content is invented by the screenwriter, though spec screenplays can be based on established works, or real people and events.
For American TV shows, the format rules for hour-long dramas and single-camera sitcoms are the same as for motion pictures. The main difference is. Multi-camera sitcoms use a specialized format that derives from stage plays and radio. In this format, dialogue is double-spaced, action lines are capitalized, scene headings, character entrances and exits, sound effects are capitalized and underlined. Drama series and sitcoms are no longer the only formats. With reality-based programming crossing genres to create various hybrid programs, many of the so-called "reality" programs are in a large part scripted in format; that is, the overall skeleton of the show and its episodes are written to d