Södra Ängby is a residential area blending functionalism with garden city ideals, located in western Stockholm, forming part of the Bromma borough. Encompassing more than 500 buildings, it remains the largest coherent functionalistic villa area in Sweden and the world, still well-preserved more than half a century after its construction 1933–40 and protected as a national cultural heritage; the area covers 1.1 square kilometres, is inhabited by 1,744 people. While traditional villas and cottages still dominated house production in the early 1930s, a few exclusive villas were built in the new Functionalist style, inspired by the showcases at the Stockholm International Exhibition 1930. One of the earliest examples is the villa architect Sven Markelius, one of the leader of the exhibition, had built for himself at Nockeby 1930–31, its strict geometry, its bright plaster façades, its elevated location with nature left untouched around the building makes it characteristic of villas in Bromma. While Functionalist villas were built elsewhere in Stockholm, for example at Stora Essingen and Mälarhöjden, no contemporary suburb could match the extent and execution of Södra Ängby.
The Ängby area was bought by the city in 1904 and, due to its flatter terrain, Norra Ängby, the northern area surrounding Ängby Manor, was used for self-built single-family houses starting in 1931. Södra Ängby with its forest and hilly terrain offered more of a challenge. There, roads were adopted to topography while forest was left pretty much untouched, which resulted in the appearance of rows of bright villas scattered across the preserved forest, it was entirely the design of Edvin Engström, head of the one-family housing agency of the city's property office and the architect behind successful National Romantic residential areas during the 1920s. All the villas are variations on a strict functionalistic theme: Cubic volumes, flat-rolled sheet roofs, large windows, rounded balconies adorned with fine plate and forged metal details inspired by ocean liners. In Stockholm, most suburbs are centred on a small square, but at Södra Ängby the commercial centre is a row of peripheral Functionalist buildings located near the present metro station.
On its completion, city construction director Göran Sidenbladh referred to Södra Ängby as "the last garden city". Functionalist details, 2008 White City, contemporaneous modernist urban area in Tel Aviv, Israel Olofgörs, Gunnar. Södra Ängby - Trädgårdsstad i funkis. Stockholm: Stockholmia förlag. ISBN 91-7031-094-7. Andersson, Thorbjörn. Södra Ängby - Den vita staden. Stockholm: Footlights Publishing. ISBN 91-631-0275-7. Andersson, Magnus. Stockholms årsringar - En inblick i stadens framväxt. Stockholmia förlag. ISBN 91-7031-068-8. Wærn, Rasmus. Guide till Stockholms arkitektur. Stockholm: Arkitektur Förlag. ISBN 91-86050-41-9. "Areal och befolkningstäthet i stadsdelsområden, SDN-delar och stadsdelar". Stockholm Municipality. 2007-12-31. Retrieved 2009-01-28. "Map". Stockholms stadsbyggnadskontor. "Description". SBK. "Plan". SBK. Media related to Södra Ängby at Wikimedia Commons
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Traneberg is a residential district in western Stockholm and part of the Bromma borough. For the 1912 Summer Olympics, Tranebergs Idrottsplats hosted some of the football competitions. Most of the district was built between 1934 and 1940. Alvik metro station 1912 Summer Olympics official report. P. 221. - accessed 8 July 2010
The Liberals is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Sweden. It was a part of the Alliance centre-right coalition government led by Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt from 2006 to 2014; the party is the seventh-largest party in the Swedish Riksdag. Until 22 November 2015 it was known as the Liberal People's Party; the party is a member of the Liberal International and Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. While the party was positioned in the centre of the Swedish political landscape, willing to cooperate with both the political left and the right, it has since the leaderships of Lars Leijonborg and Jan Björklund in the 2000s positioned itself more towards the right; the party's policies include action toward a free market economy and pushing for Sweden to join NATO and the Eurozone, as well as investing in nuclear power. 1809: The first liberal party is formed after a coup d'état ends 20 years of royal autocracy under the Union and Security Act. 1902: The Free-minded National Association is formed as the first liberal party with a national grassroots organisation.
It is reliant on the "free religious" church movement. 1910: After women become eligible to be elected to municipal councils in Sweden, suffragette Valborg Olander is elected to the Falun city council for the Liberal Party. 1923: The Free-minded National Association splits over alcohol prohibition. The Free-minded would come to lead several governments during the coming years. 1934: The parties reconcile and form the People's Party, i.e. the party in its present form. 1939–45: It takes part in a wartime coalition government comprising all parties except the communists. Sweden remains neutral during the Second World War. 1976: It enters a three-party government ending 44 years of Social Democratic Party rule. 1978: The People's Party forms a short-lived minority government by itself, with chairperson Ola Ullsten as prime minister. Hans Blix to become famous before the Iraq War, is foreign minister. 1979: A new attempt at a three-party coalition is made. 1980–82: It forms a two-party coalition government with the Centre party.
1990: It adds Liberal to its name to become the Liberal People's Party. 1991–94: It forms part of a four-party centre-right coalition government under Moderate Party leader Carl Bildt. 2002: It more than doubles its vote share and comes close to being the second-largest party in Riksdag elections. 2006–14: It forms part of the Alliance four-party centre-right coalition government under Moderate Party leader Fredrik Reinfeldt. 2015: It changes its name from the Liberal People's Party to the Liberals. 2018: It, together with the Centre Party, voted down a proposed Moderate-Christian Democrat government led by Ulf Kristersson after concerns that such a government would be dependent on the Sweden Democrats for support. 2019: It, together with the Centre Party, voted to tolerate a Social Democratic-Green government led by Stefan Lofven after coming up with a 73-point agreement. Jan Bjorklund announced he will step down as party leader and will not stand in the party's autumn leadership contest; the official party ideology has been social liberalism, which translates as a strong ideological commitment to a mixed economy, with support for comprehensive but market-based welfare state programs.
While allied with the Swedish Social Democratic Party in the struggle for democracy and social reform, the People's Party came to be part of the opposition from the thirties and onwards, opposing Social Democrat demands for nationalization of private businesses. It has stayed opposed to the Social Democrats since as the largest or second-largest party of the opposition block, but equally critical towards parties on the right. Over time, this has shifted towards a more clear-cut rightwing role. In the mid-nineties the party seemed to have ruled out the alternative of co-operation with the Social Democrats, focusing instead on bringing them down by strengthening the opposition. Foreign aid and women's equality were important issues for the party in the past, today the party advocates liberal feminism and giving a full percent of the gross national income as foreign aid. Foreign policy is another high-profile issue. Always oriented towards the United States and the United Kingdom, the party was a strong opponent of Communism and Nazism during the 20th century.
While it was part of and supported the Swedish coalition government and its position of neutrality during World War II, the party advocated an active stance against the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The party supported the struggle of the Baltic peoples against the Soviet regime, whereas Social Democrats were wary of irritating the Soviets; as a consequence, it suffered several worded rebukes from the often-ruling Social Democrats for endangering Swedish relations with the Soviet Union. It criticised what it perceived as Social Democrat tolerance of left-wing dictatorships in the third world, supported the United States in the Vietnam War. After the end of the Cold War it became the first Swedish party to call for abandoning the country's traditional neutrality in favor of joining NATO. Among issue
Riksby is a district in Västerort within Stockholms Municipality. It belongs to Bromma borough; the district borders with Ulvsunda, Stora Mossen, Åkeslund, Åkeshov, Northern Ängby, Bromma Kyrka, Eneby, Bällsta, Mariehäll and Ulvsunda industriområde. The name "Riksby" is derived from a mideivel village located between Lillsjön and Bromma Airports southern area; the town of Riksby is mentioned for the first time in a parish letter from 1409, but was called Rodhersby. It was a part of Åkeshovs Castle, but Stockholm Municipality bought the land in the year 1904; the districts Nockeby, Nockebyhov, Höglandet, Åkeslund, Åkeshov and parts of Riksby were built on Åkeshovs Castles land. In the year 1930 Riksby became an allotment; because of this the house owners moved from the old Fredhällskolonin on Kungsholmen to Riksby. The district was established in 1926. In 1939 it was decided that the area was to be an apartment area and the following year the colonizers were to move to Glia and Kortenslund. During the interwar period several colony areas in Bromma were added.
Riksby allotment was added, as mentioned above, the year 1930. Iris Glia and Iris Riksby were established in the year 1939. Kortenslund was founded 1939-1940. Kortenslund is the name of an old torp which once laid on the same place where the allotment now exists; the area for Riksby allotment area is planned through zoning. However, the adjacent allotments Iris Glia, Iris Riksby and Koloniträdgårdsföreningen Linnéa known as Kortenslund, are not. Riksby allotment area is one of the few allotments in Stockholm that are set in a city plan with official city blocks and roads and is one of the four allotments, located like a string around the southern and south-western side of Bromma Airport. According to Stockholm city planning office they are included in areas where attention needs to be devoted to culture historical values. Riksby has several tourist attractions, such as the runestones at Drottningholmsvägen and the old Norrby båtsmanstorp; the Runestone that has two rune carvings from the 1000s is estimated to have been created around the year 1070.
The left carving, U58, Swedish translation: "Sigvid och Sigrev läto rista denna sten efter Sinar, sin fader." English translation: "Sigvid and Sigrev let this stone be carved after Sinar, their father. The right carving, U59, Swedish translation: "Närt lät rista dessa runor efter sin fader Faste. Ulv högg." English translation: "Närt let these runes be carved after his father Faste. Ulv carved." In 2017 the neighborhood had about 4200 residents. Stockholm Bromma airport
Ulvsunda Castle is a castle in Bromma, Sweden. List of castles in Sweden
Per Albin Hansson
Per Albin Hansson was a Swedish politician, chairman of the Social Democrats from 1925 and two-time Prime Minister in four governments between 1932 and 1946, governing all that period save for a short-lived crisis in the summer of 1936, which he ended by forming a coalition government with his main adversary, Axel Pehrsson-Bramstorp. During World War II, in which Sweden maintained a policy of neutrality, he presided over a government of national unity that included all major parties in the Riksdag with the exception of the Communist Party. Forging the Social Democratic grip on Swedish politics that would last throughout the century, Hansson left an astounding legacy on his party as well as creating the idea of Sweden to become "Folkhemmet", "The People's Home"; this remained intact until the early 1990s, including a strict policy of neutrality, a wide-stretching welfare state through parliamentary legislation, reformist social corporatism rather than Marxist nationalisation of the means of production.
Following the war, Hansson formed a Social Democratic cabinet enjoying absolute majority in the Riksdag before succumbing to a heart attack on his way home from work late at night on 6 October 1946. During Hansson's fourteen years as Prime Minister of Sweden, a wide range of reforms were realised, such as subsidised dental care, income-tested child allowances for invalidity pensioners and widows, maternity allowances through voluntary sickness insurance, a 1935 law that introduced state subsidies for the construction of apartment houses for families with three or more children, combined with housing allowances for families with more than two children living in these houses. Per Albin Hansson was born in Kulladal, a neighborhood in Malmö, Sweden, on 28 October 1885. One of the first professional politicians of Sweden, Hansson participated in the creation of the Swedish Social Democratic Youth in 1903 and presided over it as its chairman in 1908–09, a period in which universal suffrage and proportional representation was to be enacted for all Swedish males by Conservative Prime Minister Arvid Lindman a rival of Hansson.
Influenced by Karl Kautsky's views on socialism, Hansson succeeded Hjalmar Branting as editor of Social-Demokraten in 1917 and was appointed his Minister of Defence in Sweden's first Social Democratic cabinet in 1920, following a Liberal-Social Democratic coalition enacting equal suffrage for men and women. Per Albin Hansson held this office in all of Branting's three cabinets between 1920 and 1925, performing numerous cut-backs on the military budget. Upon Branting's death in 1925, Per Albin Hansson rose to be embraced as chairman of the party, his legitimacy remained under dispute and only in 1927 did he become the head of the Riksdag faction, before confirmed undisputedly as Branting's successor in a 1928 congress. Upon losing power to Carl Gustaf Ekman's pro-prohibition Liberals in 1926, Hansson worked from the opposition bench and, although heading what was to remain the largest party of the Riksdag to date, faced a major setback upon cooperating with the Communists in the infamous election of 1928.
The Social Democratic Party was not to run along with the Communists until the 2010 election. In opposition to the Conservative – though pragmatic and staunchly anti-Nazi – Lindman cabinet, Hansson pressed for the introduction of a welfare state rather than wide-scale nationalizations, coining his vision Folkhemmet in a Riksdag debate in 1928. Following the fall of Ekman in 1932 due to a corruption scandal involving late industrialist Ivar Kreuger, the Social Democrats made gains to possess 104 seats and 41,7% of the electorate. Though not facing a majority, the inability of the Liberal parties, the Conservatives and Agrarians to form a majority government pressed for a minority government led by Hansson, expecting support from the Farmers' League through an agriculture policy favoring the interests of the League, although stopping short of inviting it into the cabinet. In June 1936, the uneasy majority enforced Hansson's resignation, leaving League chairman Axel Pehrsson-Bramstorp to form a three-month "Vacation Cabinet" until the elections in September, which saw a rise in support of the Social Democrats.
Following further negotiations, Hansson formed a proper coalition government with Pehrsson-Brahmstorp as Minister of Agriculture that enjoyed a robust majority and would last until 1939. Following the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, Hansson declared strict neutrality and called for the formation of a broad coalition government involving all major parties under his leadership, realized in December except only the pro-Stalinist Communist Party and its short-lived pro-Nazi splinter faction, the Socialist Party. Alone in Europe save for Spain, Switzerland and the Vatican, Sweden maintained neutrality throughout all World War II, but like the mentioned countries and traded with both sides. Winston Churchill claimed that Sweden during World War II ignored the greater moral issues and played both sides for profit, a criticism mimicked in criticism towards Sweden's policy towards the German occupation of Denmark and Norway upheld by transportation reinforcement through Swedish territory, sanctioned by Hansson's cabinet.
The German invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, Operation Barbarossa sparked an ultimatum known as the Midsommarkrisen by the government of Nazi Germany to Hansson's cabinet, demanding some military concessions, including German troop transports on Swedish railways in order to support Germany's ally Finland. Political deliberat