London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Brondesbury railway station
Brondesbury is on the North London Line, on a viaduct crossing Kilburn High Road in the Brondesbury area of Kilburn in the London Borough of Brent in north-west London. It is approximately 200 metres south-east of Kilburn station and half a mile north-west of Kilburn High Road station, ticket barriers are now in operation. Brondesbury station opened on 2 January 1860 as Edgeware Road station on the Hampstead Junction Railway and it was renamed several times, Edgware Road on 1 November 1865, Edgware Road and Brondesbury on 1 January 1872, Brondesbury on 1 January 1873, Brondesbury on 1 May 1883. A signal box was in use at the station until 5 February 1962, a number of plans were put forward between 1890 and 1926 to build an underground railway along the Edgware Road, and would have seen the construction of a Tube station at Brondesbury. None of the schemes succeeded and no line was ever built. Brondesbury currently has the following London Overground services, which are operated by Class 378 trainsets, off-peak, 6tph to Stratford 4tph to Richmond 2tph to Clapham Junction London Buses routes 16,32,189,316,332 and 632 and night route N16 serve the station.
Brondesbury was planned to become a station and the project will be completed in 2017. Train times and station information for Brondesbury railway station from National Rail
London, or Greater London, is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London. It is organised into 33 local government districts, the 32 London boroughs, the Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000, the region covers 1,572 km2 and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom at £37,232, the Greater London Built-up Area—used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside of the administrative region.
The term Greater London has been and still is used to different areas in governance, history. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London, outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965. The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916, one of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles and included 9 million people. The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan, a Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue. The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties, protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor and Eton in the authority.
The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCCs scheme, two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission, Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council sharing power with the City of London Corporation and the 32 London Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985 and its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London was used to form the London region of England in 1994, a referendum held in 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999, in 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary.
The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, the 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson. The 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan, Greater London continues to include the most closely associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers. Thus it includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a way to the citys parks
The Jubilee line is a London Underground line. Opened in 1979, it is the newest line on the network, although sections of track date back to 1932. The stations are larger and have special safety features, both aspects being attempts to future-proof the line, the Jubilee line is coloured silver/grey on the Tube map, to mark the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II after which the line was named. Between Finchley Road and Wembley Park, the Jubilee line shares its route with the Metropolitan line, between Canning Town and Stratford, the line runs parallel to the Stratford International branch of the Docklands Light Railway. In 1932, the Metropolitan Railway built a branch from its line at Wembley Park to Stanmore. The line, as many others in the northwest London area, was designed to absorb commuter traffic from the new. At first, the Metropolitan had advocated a new line roughly following the line of the Edgware Road between the tube station and a point near Willesden Green. Indeed, construction advanced as far as the rebuilding of Edgware Road station to accommodate 4 platforms of 8-car length, things changed, with the formation of the London Passenger Transport Board and the subsequent absorption of the Metropolitan.
The solution was now a new branch of the Bakerloo line from Baker Street to serve new stations at St, the new line rose between the Metropolitan tracks at Finchley Road, providing cross-platform interchange with the Metropolitan line. At Wembley Park, the new Bakerloo would run on to serve Kingsbury, Canons Park and Stanmore, the Bakerloo extension, built as above, opened in 1939. The planning for the Tube network immediately before and after World War II considered several new routes, Line C opened as the Victoria line, in stages, from 1968 to 1972. Work on the northeast–southwest route continued, the new line was to have been called the Fleet line after the River Fleet. In 1971, construction began on the new Fleet line, economic pressure and doubt over the final destination of the line had led to a staged approach. Under the first stage, the Baker Street-to-Stanmore branch of the Bakerloo line was joined at Baker Street to a new 2, the new tube was to offer cross-platform interchange between the Bakerloo and Fleet at Baker Street, as pioneered on the Victoria line.
The work was completed in 1979, as part of the works, Trafalgar Square and Strand stations were combined into a single station complex, Charing Cross. The existing Charing Cross station on the sub-surface District and Circle lines was renamed Embankment, another part of the works included a section of test tunnel, built near New Cross. When the planned route was altered, this section was abandoned as it was effectively useless. However, this idea was rejected because of the costs involved
West Hampstead is an area in the London Borough of Camden in north-west London. The area is residential with several small shops, cafes, bakeries concentrated on the northern section of West End Lane. It is served by three stations, West Hampstead on the Jubilee line, West Hampstead Overground station and West Hampstead Thameslink station, an area, known as le Rudyng in the mid-13th century, had by 1534 come to be called West End. It was an estate belonging to Kilburn Priory, and was so called because it was at the west end of another, larger estate. Although it is possible there was a dwelling on the estate prior to 1244. West End Lane is still bent at a right-angle at the north and south ends where it connects to Finchley Road and this is because the lane used to form the boundary between a number of different estates. In 1879, the Metropolitan Railway adopted the name West Hampstead for its station on West End Lane, Hampstead Cemetery on Fortune Green Road, opened in 1876 Hampstead Synagogue on Dennington Park Road, built on the site of Lauriston Lodge, opened in 1892.
Emmanuel Church, West Hampstead on the corner of Lyncroft Gardens, West Hampstead Fire Station was opened in 1901 and is still operating, responding to over two thousand emergency calls a year. Its service area covers 12 square miles, including Hampstead, West Hampstead, Cricklewood, Hampstead Cricket Club moved to Lymington Road in 1877. Now used as rehearsal space by the English National Opera, david Bowie recorded his first single and the Rolling Stones their first album in the studios. They were known for being where the Beatles failed their audition with Decca Records on 1 January 1962, there are three railway stations named West Hampstead all within close proximity, as well as a number of other tube stations in the area. Numerous bus routes pass through the district. Tube, West Hampstead tube station, on the Jubilee line, nearby is Finchley Road tube station, on the Jubilee and Metropolitan lines. Trains, West Hampstead Thameslink station on the cross London Thameslink route, the power signal box for the northern end of the Thameslink route is in Iverson Road, West Hampstead, around the corner from the Thameslink station.
The Network Rail signal box can be seen from the end of the platforms on the left. As well as being a 24 hours a day,7 days a week operational building, it houses engineers, the upper floor of this box controls the signals and operation of the railway from Farringdon/St Pancras International as far as Sharnbrook. Before the demise of First Capital Connect, located in the box was FCCs Thameslink control, FCCs services between London Blackfriars and Bedford were controlled from here. South of Blackfriars, FCC trains were controlled by southeastern control or FCCs other SDC at Croydon
Glossary of architecture
This page is a glossary of architecture. Aisle Subsidiary space alongside the body of a building, separated from it by columns, raised panel below a window or wall monument or tablet. Open portion of a marine terminal immediately adjacent to a vessel berth, concrete slab immediately outside a vehicular door or passageway used to limit the wear on asphalt paving due to repetitive turning movements or heavy loads. Apse Vaulted semicircular or polygonal end of a chancel or chapel and that portion of a church, usually Christian, beyond the crossing and opposite the nave. In some churches the choir is seated in this space, arcade Passage or walkway covered over by a succession of arches or vaults supported by columns. Blind arcade or arcading, the applied to the wall surface. Arch A curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight, architrave Formalized lintel, the lowest member of the classical entablature. Also the molded frame of a door or window, arris Sharp edge where two surfaces meet at an angle such as the corner of a square column or shaft.
Arrowslit A thin vertical aperture in a fortification through which an archer can launch arrows, Articulation Articulation is the manner or method of jointing parts such that each part is clear and distinct in relation to the others, even though joined. Ashlar Masonry of large blocks cut with even faces and square edges, atlas A support sculpted in the form of a man, which may take the place of a column, a pier or a pilaster. Atrium Inner court of a Roman or C20 house, in a multi-story building, attic Small top story within a roof above the uppermost ceiling. The story above the entablature of a classical façade. Bahut A small parapet or attic wall bearing the weight of the roof of a cathedral or church, balconet A false balcony, or railing at the outer plane of a window. The bar runs down and below the girder and stand off the girder on one or more struts anchored to the girder at its bottom surface, the struts are sized to accept the compressive forces imposed without bending. The load limit to this member is the capacity of the girder.
Bargeboard A board fastened to the gables of a roof. Barrel vault An architectural element formed by the extrusion of a curve along a given distance. Bartizan An overhanging, wall-mounted turret projecting from the walls, usually at the corners, basement Lowest, subordinate storey of building often either entirely or partially below ground level, the lowest part of classical elevation, below the piano nobile
London Ambulance Service
It is one of the busiest ambulance services in the world, and the busiest in the United Kingdom, providing care to more than 8.6 million people, who live and work in London. The service is currently under the leadership of chief executive Dr Fionna Moore MBE, the service employ around 4,500 staff. In exceptional cases, or where the service deems in necessary, specialist teams can be deployed from within the service, such as the Hazardous Area Response Team and these teams are specially trained and equipped to deal with incidents such as working at height or in confined spaces. It is one of 10 ambulance trusts in England providing emergency medical services, there is no charge to patients for use of the service, as every person in England has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency. The LAS responded to over 1.8 million calls for assistance, incidents rose by 20,000 in 2015/16, putting more pressure on the service. All 999 calls from the public are answered at the Emergency Operations Centre in Waterloo, to assist, the services command and control system is linked electronically with the equivalent system for Londons Metropolitan Police.
This means that police updates regarding specific jobs will be updated directly on the computer-aided dispatch log, to be viewed by the EOC, the first became operational at The South Eastern Fever Hospital, Deptford, in October 1883. In all, six hospitals operated horse-drawn land ambulances, putting almost the whole of London within three miles of one of them, each ambulance station included accommodation for a married superintendent and around 20 drivers, horse keepers and attendants, laundry staff and domestic cleaners. At Deptford, in order to transfer patients between the hospitals at Joyce Green and Long Reach near Gravesend, a horse-drawn ambulance tramway was constructed in 1897, in 1902, the MAB introduced a steam driven ambulance and in 1904, their first motor ambulance. The last horse-drawn ambulances were used on 14 September 1912, although the MAB was legally supposed to be transporting only infectious patients, it increasingly carried accident victims and emergency medical cases.
Also in 1915, the MAB Ambulance Section were the first public body to women drivers. By July 1916 the London County Council Ambulance Corps was staffed entirely by women, the LCC took control of the River Ambulance Service, but it was disbanded in 1932. During World War II, the London Auxiliary Ambulance Service was operated by over 10,000 auxiliaries, mainly women and they ran services from 139 Auxiliary Stations across London. A plaque at one of the last to close, Station 39 in Weymouth Mews, near Portland Place, in 1948 the National Health Service Act made it a requirement for ambulances to be available for anyone who needed them. On 1 April 1996, the LAS left the control of the South West Thames Regional Health Authority, as an NHS Trust, the LAS has a Trust Board consisting of 12 members. The board includes, a chairman, five of the Service’s executive directors. Special events in London are co-ordinated from the Services event control room, located in east London, during mass casualty incidents, the command structure works on three levels, gold and bronze.
Silver control, tactical command, from a point in the vicinity of the incident, Bronze control
A manor in English law is an estate in land to which is incident the right to hold a court termed court baron, that is to say a manorial court. The proper unit of tenure under the system is the fee, on which the manor became established through the process of time. The manor is nevertheless often described as the basic unit of tenure and is historically connected with the territorial divisions of the march, hundred, parish. And so by continuance of time made a manor, of the portion reserved by the lord for his own use, termed the demesne, part was occupied by villeins, with the duty of cultivating the rest for the lords use. These were originally tenants at will and in a state of semi-serfdom and it is of the essence of copyhold that it should be regulated by the custom of the manor, as evidenced in the manorial roll produced by the manorial court. Manors cannot be created at the present day because manorial courts cannot be established with any legal jurisdiction, the statute did not apply to a tenant-in-chief of the king, who might have alienated his land under a license.
When a great baron had granted out smaller manors to others, all land was differentiated by its legal status and by physical characteristics. It should be noted that legal status of land in England, land retained in-hand by the lord of the manor, without subtenant. Other land could be, land not belonging to the reserved for the support of the parish priest. Common land, by open land, over which the lord, certain manorial tenants. For example, a right of estovers may belong to one of groups or all of them. Freehold Copyhold Customary Freehold Leasehold, the Reversion is held by its former freeholder, usually before the sale of land belonging to manors, ploughed land used to grow crops. Pasture, grassland used for grazing livestock, small enclosed fields created by hedge or stone wall boundaries, used for example to house ewes with their lambs requiring close observation. Marsh Woodland, a fuel resource. Furze, a resource used by the lower tenants. Fallow, land resting within the cycle of crop rotation agriculture, used to breed fish such as carp A manor was akin to the modern firm or business or other going concern.
It was further similar in that its ownership could be transferred, with the licence to alienate having been obtained from the overlord. The administration was self-contained and the new lord needed only to collect its net revenues to form his return on investment, the direction was ultimately provided by the manorial court, presided over by the lords personal steward, whose members included the freehold tenants of the manor
London Borough of Brent
The London Borough of Brent is a London borough in north west London, and forms part of Outer London. The major areas are Kilburn and Harlesden, most of the eastern border is formed by the Roman road Watling Street, which is now the modern A5. Brent has a mixture of residential and commercial land, Brent is home to Wembley Stadium, one of the countrys biggest landmarks, as well as Wembley Arena. The local authority is Brent London Borough Council, the borough has seen illegal dumping on the borough’s streets between 2013/14 and 2014/15 surge by 84 per cent, the most recorded by a local authority in England. Brent has the highest proportion of housing benefit claims by private tenants in the country as a percentage of all according to the Financial Times. Brent was formed in 1965 from the area of the former Municipal Borough of Wembley and its name derives from the River Brent which runs through the borough. Brent is divided into 21 Electoral Wards, some wards share a name with the traditional areas above, others include Barnhill, Dudden Hill, Fryent and Welsh Harp.
The Brent borough includes three parliamentary constituencies, Brent North, Brent Central, and Hampstead and Kilburn, which part of the London Borough of Camden. Before the 2010 United Kingdom general election it was divided into three constituencies contained wholly within the borough - Brent South, Brent East and Brent North, Brent London Borough Council is elected every four years, with currently 63 councillors being elected at each election. Labour regained control in 2010 and increased their majority at the 2014 election, as of the 2014 election the council is composed of the following councillors, - The leader of the Council is Labour Councillor Muhammed Butt. In 1801, the parishes that form the modern borough had a total population of 2,022. This rose slowly throughout the 19th century, as the district built up. When the railways arrived the rate of growth increased. The population peaked in the 1960s, when began to relocate from London. Brent is among the most diverse localities in the country, with large Asian and Indian, Black African, Black Caribbean and Eastern European minority communities.
In the 2001 Census, the borough had a population of 263,464 – of whom 127,806 were male, and 135,658 female. Of those stating a choice,47. 71% described themselves as Christian,17. 71% as Hindu,12. 26% as Muslim and 10% as having no religion. Of the population,39. 96% were in employment and 7. 86% in part-time employment – compared to a London average of 42. 64% and 8. 62%
Ordnance Survey National Grid
The Ordnance Survey National Grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude. It is often called British National Grid, the Ordnance Survey devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys. Grid references are commonly quoted in other publications and data sources. The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system is used to provide references for worldwide locations. European-wide agencies use UTM when mapping locations, or may use the Military Grid Reference System system, the grid is based on the OSGB36 datum, and was introduced after the retriangulation of 1936–1962. It replaced the previously used Cassini Grid which, up to the end of World War Two, had issued only to the military. The Airy ellipsoid is a regional best fit for Britain, more modern mapping tends to use the GRS80 ellipsoid used by the GPS, the British maps adopt a Transverse Mercator projection with an origin at 49° N, 2° W.
Over the Airy ellipsoid a straight grid, the National Grid, is placed with a new false origin. This false origin is located south-west of the Isles of Scilly, the distortion created between the OS grid and the projection is countered by a scale factor in the longitude to create two lines of longitude with zero distortion rather than one. Grid north and true north are aligned on the 400 km easting of the grid which is 2° W. 2° 0′ 5″ W. OSGB36 was used by Admiralty nautical charts until 2000 after which WGS84 has been used, a geodetic transformation between OSGB36 and other terrestrial reference systems can become quite tedious if attempted manually. The most common transformation is called the Helmert datum transformation, which results in a typical 7 m error from true, the definitive transformation from ETRS89 that is published by the OSGB is called the National Grid Transformation OSTN02. This models the detailed distortions in the 1936–1962 retriangulation, and achieves backwards compatibility in grid coordinates to sub-metre accuracy, the difference between the coordinates on different datums varies from place to place.
The longitude and latitude positions on OSGB36 are the same as for WGS84 at a point in the Atlantic Ocean well to the west of Great Britain. In Cornwall, the WGS84 longitude lines are about 70 metres east of their OSGB36 equivalents, the smallest datum shift is on the west coast of Scotland and the greatest in Kent. But Great Britain has not shrunk by 100+ metres, a point near Lands End now computes to be 27.6 metres closer to a point near Duncansby Head than it did under OSGB36. For the first letter, the grid is divided into squares of size 500 km by 500 km, there are four of these which contain significant land area within Great Britain, S, T, N and H. The O square contains an area of North Yorkshire, almost all of which lies below mean high tide
His first name is often incorrectly rendered Humphrey. Repton was born in Bury St Edmunds, the son of a collector of excise, John Repton, in 1762 his father set up a transport business in Norwich, where Humphry attended Norwich Grammar School. At age twelve he was sent to the Netherlands to learn Dutch, Repton was befriended by a wealthy Dutch family and the trip may have done more to stimulate his interest in polite pursuits such as sketching and gardening. Returning to Norwich, Repton was apprenticed to a merchant, after marriage to Mary Clarke in 1773. He was not successful, and when his parents died in 1778 used his modest legacy to move to a country estate at Sustead. Repton joined John Palmer in a venture to reform the mail-coach system, Reptons childhood friend was James Edward Smith, who encouraged him to study botany and gardening, Smith reproduces a long letter from Repton in his Letter and Correspondence. He was given access to the library of Windham to read its works on botany and his capital dwindling, Repton moved to a modest cottage at Hare Street near Romford in Essex.
He was at first an avid defender of Browns views, contrasted with those of Richard Payne Knight and Uvedale Price and his first paid commission was Catton Park, to the north of Norwich, in 1788. That Repton, with no experience of practical horticulture, became an overnight success, is a tribute to his undeniable talent. To help clients visualise his designs, Repton produced Red Books with explanatory text and watercolours with a system of overlays to show before, in this he differed from Capability Brown, who worked almost exclusively with plans and rarely illustrated or wrote about his work. Reptons overlays were soon copied by the Philadelphian Bernard MMahon in his 1806 American Gardeners Calendar, to understand what was unique about Repton it is useful to examine how he differed from Brown in more detail. Brown worked for many of the wealthiest aristocrats in Britain, carving huge landscape parks out of old formal gardens, while Repton worked for equally important clients, such as the Dukes of Bedford and Portland, he was usually fine-tuning earlier work, often that of Brown himself.
Where Repton got the chance to lay out grounds from scratch it was generally on a more modest scale. Around 1787, Richard Page, landowner of Sudbury, to the west of Wembley decided to convert the Page family home Wellers into a country seat and turn the fields around it into a private estate. In 1792 Page employed Humphry Repton, by famous as an architect, to convert the previous farmland into wooded parkland. Repton often called the areas he landscaped parks, and so it is to Repton that Wembley Park owes its name, the original site that Repton so transformed was built on in the construction of the short-lived Watkins Tower. The area landscaped by Repton was larger than the current Wembley Park and it included the southern slopes of Barn Hill to the north, where Repton planted trees and started building a prospect house – a gothic tower offering a view over the parkland. Repton may have designed the lodge that survives on Wembley Hill Road
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years