Polish Academy of Sciences
The Polish Academy of Sciences, headquartered in Warsaw, is Polands top academy of sciences. It is responsible for spearheading the development of science across the country by a society of distinguished scholars as well as a network of research institutes and it was established in 1951, during the early period of the Polish Peoples Republic following World War II. The Polish Academy of Sciences functions as a learned society acting through a corporation of leading scholars. The Academy has also, operating through its committees, become a scientific advisory body. Another aspect of the Academy is its coordination and overseeing of numerous research institutes, PAN institutes employ over 2,000 people, and are funded by about a third of the Polish governments budget for science. In 1989, the Polish Academy of Learning in Kraków, resumed its independent existence, separate from the Polish Academy of Sciences, in Warsaw
University of Warsaw
The University of Warsaw, established in 1816, is the largest university in Poland. It employs over 6,000 staff including over 3,100 academic educators and it provides graduate courses for 53,000 students. The University offers some 37 different fields of study,18 faculties and over 100 specializations in Humanities and it was founded as a Royal University on 19 November 1816, when the Partitions of Poland separated Warsaw from the oldest and most influential University of Kraków. Tsar Alexander I granted permission for the establishment of five faculties – law and political science, philosophy, the university expanded rapidly, but was closed during November Uprising in 1830. It was reopened in 1857 under the name Akademia Medyko-Chirurgiczna based in the nearby Staszic Palace with only medical and pharmaceutical faculties, over 70% of students were of Polish nationality, but after the revolution in 1905, the proportion dropped below 10% as a result of the boycott. The university was resurrected during the First World War and the number of students in 1918 was estimated at 4,500, after Polands independence in 1918 the new government focused on improving the university, and in the early 1930s it became the countrys largest.
New faculties were established and the curriculum was extended, the university was named after Chief-of-State and Marshal of Poland Józef Piłsudski after his death in 1935. Following the Second World War and the devastation of Warsaw, the University successfully reopened in 1945, the University of Warsaw is one of the top Polish universities. It was ranked by Perspektywy magazine as best Polish university in 2010,2011 and 2014, international rankings such as ARWU and University Web Ranking rank the university as the best Polish higher level institution. On the list of 100 best European universities compiled by University Web Ranking, QS World University Rankings positioned the University of Warsaw as the best higher level institution among the worlds top 400. In 1795 the partitions of Poland left Warsaw with access only to the Academy of Vilnius, in 1815, the newly established autonomous Congress Poland de facto belonging to the Russian Empire found itself without a university at all, as Vilnius was incorporated into Russia.
The first to be established in Congress Poland were the Law School, in 1816 Tsar Alexander I permitted the Polish authorities to create a university, comprising five departments and Administration, Philosophy and Art and Humanities. The university soon grew to 800 students and 50 professors, after most of the students and professors took part in the November 1830 Uprising the university was closed down. After the Crimean War, Russia entered a period of liberalization. In 1862 departments of Law and Administration and History, the newly established academy gained importance and was soon renamed the Main School. However, after the January 1863 Uprising the liberal period ended, during its short existence, the Main School educated over 3,000 students, many of whom became part of the backbone of the Polish intelligentsia. The Main School was replaced with a Russian-language Imperial University of Warsaw and its purpose was to provide education for the Russian military garrison of Warsaw, the majority of students were Poles.
The tsarist authorities believed that the Russian university would become a way to Russify Polish society
The Charlemagne Prize is one of the most prestigious European prizes. It has been awarded annually since 1950 by the German city of Aachen to people who contributed to the ideals upon which it was founded. It commemorates Charlemagne, ruler of the Frankish Empire and founder of what became the Holy Roman Empire, traditionally the award is given to the recipient on Ascension Day in a ceremony in the town hall of Aachen. This contribution may be in the field of literary, economic or political endeavour, the first Charlemagne Prize was awarded to Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, the founder of the Pan-European Movement, and the founder of the Coudenhove-Kalergi plan. The award sponsors assert that the list of Charlemagne Prize winners reflects the history of the European process of unification and they quote Kurt Pfeiffer, the Charlemagne Prize reaches into the future, and at the same time it embodies an obligation - an obligation of the highest ethical value. The Lord Mayor of the City of Aachen
Jerzy Karol Buzek is a Polish politician and Member of the European Parliament from Poland. He has served as Prime Minister of Poland from 1997 to 2001, since being elected to the European Parliament in 2004 and he is married to Ludgarda Buzek and is the father of Polish actress Agata Buzek. Jerzy Karol Buzek was born to a Lutheran family on 3 July 1940 in Smilovice and he was born into the prominent Buzek family, which participated in Polish politics in the Second Polish Republic during the interbellum. The family was part of the Polish community in Zaolzie, after the Second World War, his family moved to Chorzów. In 1963 Jerzy Buzek graduated from the Mechanics-and-Energy Division of the Silesian University of Technology and he became a scientist in the Chemical Engineering Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Since 1997 he has been a professor of technical science and he is an honorary doctor of the universities in Seoul and Dortmund among others. From 1997 to 2001, Buzek was a coalition Prime Minister of Poland, in 1998 he became the first laureate of the Grzegorz Palka Award and was nominated European of the Year by the European Union Business Chambers Forum.
In 1998 he was named Person of the Year by the influential Polish political weekly Wprost and he won the award for a second time in 2009. On receiving the award again, as President of the European Parliament and he was the first Prime Minister of the 3rd Republic of Poland to serve a full term. His return to life in 2004 saw him gain the largest popular vote in Poland as the member for Katowice to the European Parliament standing for the Civic Platform. In the 1980s, Buzek was an activist of the democratic anti-communist movements, including the legal and underground Solidarity trade union and he was an active organiser of the trade unions regional and national underground authorities. He was the chairman of the four national general meetings when the Solidarity movement was allowed to participate in the process again. Jerzy Buzek was a member of the Solidarity Electoral Action and co-author of the AWSs economic program, after the 1997 elections he was elected to the Sejm, the lower house of the Polish Parliament, and was soon appointed Prime Minister of Poland.
In 1999 he became the chairman of the AWS Social Movement, between the years 1997–2001 he was the Prime Minister of Poland, first of the right-centrist AWS–Freedom Union coalition government until 2001, and of the rightist AWS minority government. AWS was defeated in the Polish parliamentary election,2001, Buzek resigned as the chairman of AWS Social Movement, and was replaced by Mieczysław Janowski. He received a number of votes,173,389. His current party affiliation is with the Civic Platform, which is a member of the European Peoples Party and he served as rapporteur on the EUs 7th Framework Programme for Research and Development, a multibillion-euro spending programme for the years 2007–2013. On 7 June 2009, in the European Parliament election,2009, just as in the previous election, Buzek received a record number of votes in Poland,393,117
College of Europe
The College of Europe is an independent university institute of postgraduate European studies with the main campus in Bruges, Belgium. It has the status of Institution of Public Interest, operating according to Belgian law, since 1993 the college has had an additional smaller campus in Warsaw, Poland. Students are usually selected in cooperation with their countries ministries of foreign affairs, the number of students each year used to be very low—for several decades less than 100—but has increased since the early 1990s. The College of Europe is bilingual, and students must be proficient in English, students receive an advanced masters degree following a one-year programme. Traditionally, students specialise in either European law, international economics, or European political and administrative studies, in recent years, additional programmes have been created. According to The Times, the College of Europe, in the medieval Belgian city of Bruges, is to the European political elite what the Harvard Business School is to American corporate life and it is a hothouse where the ambitious and talented go to make contacts.
The Economist describes it as a finishing school for aspiring Eurocrats. The Financial Times writes that the elite College of Europe in Bruges is an institution geared to producing crop after crop of graduates with an enthusiasm for EU integration. European Commissioner for Education Ján Figeľ described the college as one of the most emblematic centres of European studies in the European Union, the BBC has referred to it as the EUs very own Oxbridge. The college has described as the leading place to study European affairs. RFE/RL has referred to the college as a Euro-federalist hot-spot, the Global Mail has described its students as Europes leaders-in-waiting. Each academic year is named for a patron and referred to as a promotion, the academic year is opened by a leading European politician. The College of Europe in Belgium shares several traditions with the École nationale dadministration of France, many of its anciens go on to serve as diplomats and senior civil servants in European institutions.
The College of Europe was the world’s first university institute of postgraduate studies and it was founded in 1949 by leading European figures, such as Salvador de Madariaga, Winston Churchill, Paul-Henri Spaak and Alcide De Gasperi, in the wake of the Hague Congress of 1948. They imagined a college where Europes future leaders, some countries only a short while before at war with each other, could live. The Hague Congress led to the creation of the European Movement, a group of Bruges citizens led by the Reverend Karel Verleye succeeded in attracting the college to Bruges. Professor Hendrik Brugmans, one of the leaders of the European Movement. The college now operates as ‘one College – two campuses, ’ and what was referred to as the ‘esprit de Bruges’, is now known as the ‘esprit du Collège’
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Poland)
It is considered to be one of the most important offices of state. The head of the ministry is a secretary of state. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible primarily for maintaining good, in doing so it is required to act primarily as a representative of the Polish people. To this end all Polish diplomatic missions around the world are subordinate to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the ministry is considered to be one of Polands most important, with the minister of foreign affairs ranking amongst the most influential people in Polish politics. This position is reserved for seasoned, professional politicians, and is thought to require a great deal of tact and intellect. However, the ministry began to fulfil its ascribed duties truly only after the fall of the Regency Council, adoption of the Treaty of Versailles, the ministry was then, until 1939, located in central Warsaw, with its seat in the Brühl Palace on Piłsudski Square. During this period Count Edward Raczyński, a man who was to become President of the government in exile, was the minister responsible, the departments for regional affairs exist to monitor the internal situation and politics of the countries within the area of any one specific departments competence.
They coordinate development of relations, initiate the related undertakings. These departments oversee the issue of Poland’s participation in the structures of multilateral cooperation with any relevant partner states and they are responsible for the substantive activity of relevant Polish diplomatic missions abroad
The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, the regional economic organization for the communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. While the Warsaw Pact was established as a balance of power or counterweight to NATO, the conflict was fought on an ideological basis and in proxy wars. Both NATO and the Warsaw Pact led to the expansion of military forces and its largest military engagement was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968, which, in part, resulted in Albania withdrawing from the pact less than a month later. The Pact began to unravel in its entirety with the spread of the Revolutions of 1989 through the Eastern Bloc, beginning with the Solidarity movement in Poland, East Germany and Poland withdrew from the Pact in 1990. On 25 February 1991, the Pact was declared at an end at a meeting of defence, the USSR itself was dissolved in December 1991, although most of the former Soviet republics formed the Collective Security Treaty Organization shortly thereafter.
Throughout the following 20 years, the seven Warsaw Pact countries outside the USSR each joined NATO, in the Western Bloc, the Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship and Mutual Assistance is often called the Warsaw Pact military alliance—abbreviated WAPA, and WP. Therefore, although ostensibly an international collective security alliance, the USSR dominated the Warsaw Treaty armed forces, the strategy behind the formation of the Warsaw Pact was driven by the desire of the Soviet Union to dominate Central and Eastern Europe. The Soviets wanted to keep their part of Europe theirs and not let the Americans take it from them and this policy was driven by ideological and geostrategic reasons. Ideologically, the Soviet Union arrogated the right to define socialism and communism, geostrategic principles drove the Soviet Union to prevent invasion of its territory by Western European powers. Before the creation of the Warsaw Pact, Czechoslovak leadership, fearful of a rearmed Germany, sought to create a security pact with East Germany and these states protested strongly against the re-militarization of West Germany.
The Warsaw Pact was primarily put in place as a consequence of the rearming of West Germany inside NATO, Soviet leaders, like many European countries on both sides of the Iron Curtain, feared Germany being once again a military power and a direct threat. The terrible consequences of German militarism remained a fresh memory among the Soviets, previously, in March 1954, the USSR, fearing the restoration of German militarism in West Germany, requested admission to NATO. The Soviet request to join NATO arose in the aftermath of the Berlin Conference of January–February 1954. James Dunn, who met in Paris with Eden and Robert Schuman, affirmed that the object should be to avoid discussion with the Russians, according to John Gaddis there was little inclination in Western capitals to explore this offer from USSR. But Eden and Bidault opposed the proposal, the Soviets decided to make a new proposal to the governments of the USA, UK and France to accept the participation of the USA in the proposed General European Agreement.
Again all proposals, including the request to join NATO, were rejected by the UK, US, emblematic was the position of British General Hastings Ismay, supporter of NATO expansion, who said that NATO must grow until the whole free world gets under one umbrella. He opposed the request to join NATO made by the USSR in 1954 saying that the Soviet request to join NATO is like an unrepentant burglar requesting to join the police force, in April 1954 Adenauer made his first visit to the USA meeting Nixon and Dulles. Ratification of EDC was delaying but the US representatives made it clear to Adenauer that EDC would have to become a part of NATO, memories of the Nazi occupation were still strong, and the rearmament of Germany was feared by France too
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. It was established in 1754 as Kings College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain, after the American Revolutionary War, Kings College briefly became a state entity, and was renamed Columbia College in 1784. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university has global research outposts in Amman, Istanbul, Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro, Asunción, Columbia administers annually the Pulitzer Prize. Additionally,100 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Columbia as students, faculty, Columbia is second only to Harvard University in the number of Nobel Prize-winning affiliates, with over 100 recipients of the award as of 2016. In 1746 an act was passed by the assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. Classes were initially held in July 1754 and were presided over by the colleges first president, Dr.
Johnson was the only instructor of the colleges first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan, in 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queens College, and an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777. The suspension continued through the occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783. The colleges library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a hospital first by American. Loyalists were forced to abandon their Kings College in New York, the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where they founded Kings Collegiate School. After the Revolution, the college turned to the State of New York in order to restore its vitality, the Legislature agreed to assist the college, and on May 1,1784, it passed an Act for granting certain privileges to the College heretofore called Kings College.
The Regents finally became aware of the colleges defective constitution in February 1787 and appointed a revision committee, in April of that same year, a new charter was adopted for the college, still in use today, granting power to a private board of 24 Trustees. On May 21,1787, William Samuel Johnson, the son of Dr. Samuel Johnson, was unanimously elected President of Columbia College, prior to serving at the university, Johnson had participated in the First Continental Congress and been chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. The colleges enrollment and academics stagnated for the majority of the 19th century, with many of the college presidents doing little to change the way that the college functioned. In 1857, the college moved from the Kings College campus at Park Place to a primarily Gothic Revival campus on 49th Street and Madison Avenue, during the last half of the 19th century, under the leadership of President F. A. P. Barnard, the institution assumed the shape of a modern university
Dariusz Kajetan Rosati is a Polish professor of economics and a politician who is a member of the European Parliament. Dariusz Rosati is a graduate of international trade from Warsaw School of Economics, in the 1980s he was a member of Polish United Workers Party and an economic adviser to Mieczysław Rakowskis government, the last communist regime in Poland. In the 1990s he was a supporter of the post-communist parties, first Democratic Left Alliance, Dariusz Rosati was a co-founder and director of the Global Economy Institute and the Institute of Economic Situations and Prices. He worked as an expert in international organizations, including the economic commission of the United Nations in Geneva. He was the minister of foreign affairs in the cabinets of Józef Oleksy and Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz, supporter of a united Europe, he is the author of numerous publications on the European integration and the rector of Lazarski School of Commerce and Law in Warsaw. In the European elections on June 13,2004, he was a candidate of the SDPL in constituency No.4 Warsaw, in 2014 we was once more elected to the European Parliament and joined the Group.
He represents the Lubuskie Region as well as Western Pomerania and he is a member of the ECON Committee as well as the PANA Committee, where he serves at the EPPs Coordinator. In November 2007, the IPN said that Dariusz Rosati was registered as a secret collaborator candidate and protection by the Ministry of Interior I Department, on he was registered as a operational contact. However, in July 2007 Dariusz Rosati has made a statement in which he denied that cooperation went beyond sporadic contacts and his lustration declaration was approved by the Ombudsman of the Public Interest and prosecutor of the IPN. Thus he was not a collaborator at any time during his life. European Parliament Election,2004 http, //www. rosati. pl http, //www. radom. pl/uk/