SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bronko Nagurski

Bronislau "Bronko" Nagurski was a Canadian-American professional American football player in the National Football League, renowned for his strength and size. Nagurski was a successful professional wrestler, recognized as a multiple-time World Heavyweight Champion. Nagurski became a standout playing both tackle on defense and fullback on offense at the University of Minnesota from 1927 to 1929, selected a consensus All-American in 1929 and inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in its inaugural year of 1951, his professional career with the Chicago Bears, which began in 1930 and ended on two occasions in 1937 and 1943 made him an inaugural inductee into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1963. Nagurski was born in Rainy River, Canada, in a family of Ukrainian and Polish descent, his family moved to International Falls, when he was five years old. His parents, "Mike" and Michelina Nagurski, were immigrants, from the Western Ukraine of Kresy where many ethnicities lived together. Nagurski grew up working on his parents' farm and sawmill, delivering groceries for his father's grocery store and in his teens laboring at nearby timbering operations, growing into a powerfully muscular six-footer.

Nagurski was discovered and signed by University of Minnesota head coach Clarence Spears, who drove to International Falls to meet another player. On the outside of town, he watched Nagurski out plowing a field without assistance. According to legend, Spears asked Bronko lifted his plow and used it to point, he was signed on the spot to play for the Golden Gophers. Spears admitted. Legends aside, on his first day of practice Spears decided to test Nagurski in the "Nutcracker" drill, where a defensive player had to take on two blockers and try to tackle a following ball carrier. On the first drill two All-Big Ten linemen and Herb Joesting charged at Bronko, who promptly split the blockers and drove the big fullback into a blocking dummy. Spears sent in three more players, blew his whistle and watched Bronko produce the same explosive results and after a third try with the same conclusion realized what a super player he had recruited. Nagurski became a standout playing both tackle on defense and fullback on offense at Minnesota from 1927 to 1929.

In 1929, after posting 737 rushing yards, he was a consensus All-American at fullback, despite playing fewer games at the position made some All-American teams at tackle. The pre-eminent sportswriter of the day, Grantland Rice, listed him at the two positions in picking his 1929 All-America team. Rice wrote, "Who would you pick to win a football game - 11 Jim Thorpes - 11 Glen Davises - 11 Red Granges - or 11 Bronko Nagurskis? The 11 Nagurskis would be a mop-up, it would be something close to massacre. For the Bronk could star at any position on the field, with 216 pounds of authority to back him up." His greatest collegiate game was against Wisconsin in the season finale in 1928. Wearing a corset to protect cracked vertebrae, he recovered a Badger fumble deep in their territory ran the ball six straight times to score the go-ahead touchdown. In the same game, he intercepted a pass to seal the victory. During his three varsity seasons at Minnesota, the Gophers went 18–4–2 and won the Big Ten Conference championship in 1927.

Nagurski was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1951. Nagurski turned professional to play for the Chicago Bears from 1930 to 1937. At 6 ft 2 in and 235 pounds, he was a formidable presence, in his day he was a dominant force, helping the Bears win several division titles and two NFL championships, he ended his eight-year stint with 3,947 rushing yards on 856 attempts, completed 36 of 80 passes, scored a total of 236 points. Nagurski wore a size-8 helmet, he was the largest running back of his time, bigger than most linemen of the day dragging multiple tacklers with him. In a time when players were expected to play on both sides of the ball, he was a standout defensive lineman as well playing a ranging tackle or "The Monster." After an injury, instead of sitting on the bench, he would sometimes be put in as an offensive tackle. In a 1984 interview with Sports Illustrated writer Paul "Dr. Z" Zimmerman, when asked what position he would play if he were coming up in the present day, he said, "I would be a linebacker today.

I wouldn't be carrying the ball 30 or 35 times a game." A time-honored and apocryphal story about Nagurski is a scoring gallop that he made against the Washington Redskins, knocking two linebackers in opposite directions, stomping a defensive back and crushing a safety bouncing off the goalposts and cracking Wrigley Field's brick wall. On returning to the huddle for the extra point try, he said: "That last guy hit me awfully hard."Once in a game against the Packers, the Bears prepared to punt, Green Bay's Cal Hubbard went to Red Grange and said: "I promise not to try to block the kick, but get out of the way so I can get a shot at that Polack." Grange, glad not to try to block Hubbard for once, obliged. Cal slammed into Nagurski and bounced off. Rising he turned to Grange and said: "Hey, don't do me any more favors."At the end of the 1932 season, the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans were tied with the best regular-season records. To determine the champion, the league voted to hold its first playoff game.

Because of cold weather, the game was held indoors at Chicago Stadium, which forced some temporary rule changes. Chicago won, 9–0. In the fourth quarter of the 1932 game, the Bears scor

Jaylen Brown

Jaylen Marselles Brown is an American professional basketball player for the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association. He played one year of college basketball for the University of California Golden Bears, being named first-team All-Pac-12 and Pac-12 Freshman of the Year. Declaring for the 2016 NBA draft after that season, he was selected by the Celtics with the third overall pick; as a professional, he has split his time between shooting small forward. In the 2019 season at the all star break the Celtics were 38-16 and Jaylen Brown averaged 20.3 points a game. Brown attended Wheeler High School in Georgia; as a senior, he helped lead his team to victory in the Georgia High School Association Class 6A State Championship. With 0.6 seconds remaining, Brown hit two free throws to give Wheeler a 59–58 win. As a senior, Brown averaged 28 points and 12 rebounds while leading Wheeler to a 30–3 overall record. Brown was rated a five-star recruit and ranked by Scout.com, ESPN, 247Sports.com as the fourth best recruit in his class behind Ben Simmons, Skal Labissière, Brandon Ingram.

Rivals.com ranked him third in his class. Brown won a 2014 FIBA Americas Championship gold medal as part of the USA Basketball Men's U18 National Team, he was selected to play in the 2015 McDonald's All-American Boys Game. At the conclusion of an outstanding high school career, Brown was named Gatorade Georgia Boys Player of the Year, USA Today's All-USA Georgia Player of the Year, Georgia's Mr. Basketball, the Class 6A Player of the Year. On May 1, 2015, Brown committed to play for the Golden Bears at the University of California, under coach Cuonzo Martin and alongside fellow top-recruit Ivan Rabb, he was heralded as an all-around prospect due to his athleticism. Brown took a masters-level class in Berkeley's Cultural Studies of Sport in Education program during his first semester in college, he gained some fluency in Spanish, stating a goal of learning three more languages by the age of 25. While playing for California, Brown averaged 14.6 points, 5.4 rebounds, 2.0 assists in 27.6 minutes per game over 34 games.

He had his best scoring games on November 27, 2015, against Richmond and January 27, 2016, against Utah, recording 27 points in each game. He had a season-high 11 rebounds twice during victories on November 23, 2015, against Sam Houston State and on January 1, 2016, against Colorado. On January 23, 2016, Brown recorded a season-high 7 assists to go with 15 points in a 74–73 victory over Arizona. Brown was named the Pac-12 Freshman of the Year. On June 23, 2016, Brown was selected by the Boston Celtics with the third overall pick in the 2016 NBA draft. On July 27, he signed his rookie scale contract with the Celtics after averaging 16.0 points, 6.2 rebounds and 2.3 steals in six Summer League games. He made his debut for the Celtics in their season opener on October 26 against the Brooklyn Nets, scoring nine points on 3-for-4 shooting, while adding two blocked shots in 19-plus minutes. In his first career start on November 3, Brown scored 19 points in a 128–122 loss to the Cleveland Cavaliers.

On January 27, 2017, he scored a career-high 20 points in a 128–98 win over the Orlando Magic. Brown helped the Celtics claim the No. 1 seed in the Eastern Conference, before helping them advance through to the Eastern Conference Finals, where they were defeated by the Cavaliers in five games. Brown had a productive rookie season in 2016–17, with his role off the bench continuing to develop as the year went on, he appeared in 78 games for the Celtics with 20 starts. He averaged 17.2 minutes on 6.6 points, 2.8 rebounds and 0.8 assists. At the season's end, he was named to the NBA All-Rookie Second Team. In the Celtics' 2017–18 season opener against the Cavaliers on October 17, 2017, Brown scored a career-high 25 points in a 102–99 loss. On November 18, he set a new career high with 27 points and helped the Celtics win their 15th straight game with a 110–99 victory over the Atlanta Hawks. On December 13 he had a 26-point effort against the Denver Nuggets. Brown missed two weeks in March 2018 with a concussion.

On April 6, 2018, he set a new career high with 32 points in a 111–104 win over the Chicago Bulls. In Game 2 of the Celtics' first-round playoff series against the Milwaukee Bucks, Brown had a playoff career-high 30 points in helping Boston take a 2–0 series lead with a 120–106 win. At age 21, Brown became the youngest player in Celtics history to score 30 or more points in a playoff game. In Game 4, Brown scored 34 points in a 104–102 loss; the Celtics went on to win the series in seven games, with Brown sitting out the second-round series opener with a strained right hamstring. He returned to action in Game 2 against the Philadelphia 76ers, scoring 13 points off the bench in a 108–103 win, helping the Celtics take a 2–0 series lead. In Game 5, Brown scored 24 points in a 114–112 series-clinching win. In Game 6 of the Eastern Conference Finals, Brown scored 27 points in a 109–99 loss to the Cavaliers. Brown struggled to start the season, with the Boston Globe criticizing him for taking too many two-point jump shots and an overall "lack of focus and discipline".

After the Celtics unexpectedly started the season with 10 wins and 10 losses, ESPN's Jackie MacMullan wrote that "nobody disappointed more than Brown." On December 6, Brown returned after missing three games with a bruised lower back and scored a season-high 21 points in a 128–100 win over the New York Knicks. Two days he scored a game-high 23 points in a 133–77 win over the Chicago Bulls. On December 31, he had a season-high 30 points in a 120–111 loss to the San Antonio Spurs. Brown re-signed with the Celtics with a $115 million contract that lasts thr

Ippolito Desideri

Ippolito Desideri or Hippolyte Desideri was an Italian Jesuit missionary and traveller and the most famous of the early European missionaries to visit Tibet. He was the first European to have studied and understood Tibetan language and culture. Desideri was born in 1684 to a prosperous family in Pistoja, Tuscany, he was educated from childhood in the Jesuit school in Pistoja, in 1700 was selected to attend the Collegio Romano in Rome. From 1706 to 1710 he taught literature at the Jesuit colleges in Orvieto and Arezzo, at the Collegio Romano itself, his application for the Indies mission was accepted by the Father-General of the Society of Jesus, Michelangelo Tamburini, in 1712, he was assigned to reopen the Tibetan mission, under the jurisdiction of the Jesuit Province of Goa. Desideri left Rome on 27 September 1712, embarked for the East from Lisbon on a Portuguese vessel, arriving in Goa one year later. From Goa he traveled to Surat, Ahmedabad and Delhi, arriving in Agra on 15 September 1714.

From there he returned to Delhi, where he met his superior and travel companion, the Portuguese Jesuit Manoel Freyre. Together they traveled from Delhi to Srinagar in Kashmir, from Kashmir to Leh, capital of Ladakh, arriving there at the end of June, 1715. According to Desideri, they were well received by the king of Ladakh and his court, he wished to remain there to found a mission, but he was forced to obey his Superior, who insisted that they travel to Central Tibet and Lhasa, they thus undertook a perilous seven months winter journey across the Tibetan plateau. They journeyed with her armed caravan, arrived in Lhasa on 18 March 1716. After a few weeks Freyre returned to India, via Kathmandu and Patna, leaving Desideri in charge of the mission, he was the only European missionary in Tibet, at that time. Soon after arriving in Lhasa, Desideri was received in audience by the Mongol ruler of Tibet, Lhasang Khan, who gave him permission to rent a house in Lhasa and to practice and teach Christianity.

After reading Desideri's first work in Tibetan, on the basics of Catholic doctrine, Lasang Khan advised him to improve his Tibetan and learn the Tibetan Buddhist religious and philosophical literature. After some months of intensive study he entered the Sera monastic university, one of the three great seats of learning of the politically involved Gelukpa. There he studied and debated with Tibetan monks and scholars, was permitted to have a Christian chapel in his rooms, he became a voracious student of the culture. At the end of 1717 he was forced to leave Lhasa due to the unrest caused by the invasion of the Dzungar Mongols, he retired to the Capuchin hospice in Dakpo province, in South Central Tibet, although he did return to Lhasa for considerable periods during the period 1719-1720. Between 1718 and 1721 he composed five works in literary Tibetan, in which he taught Christian doctrines and attempted to refute the Buddhist concepts of rebirth and'Emptiness'. In these books Desideri utilized the Tibetan Buddhist techniques of scholastic argumentation, accepted parts of Buddhism that he did not see as contradictory to Catholic teaching Buddhist moral philosophy.

Italian missionaries of the Capuchin Order had been granted the Tibetan mission in 1703 by the Propaganda Fide, the branch of the Church administration that controlled Catholic missionary activity worldwide. Three Capuchins arrived in Lhasa in October 1716, promptly presented documents to Desideri that they claimed confirmed their exclusive right to the Tibetan mission by the Propaganda. Desideri contested the charge of disobedience to the Propaganda Fide, both sides complained to Rome. In the meantime Desideri helped his Capuchin co-religionists in acclimating to Tibet. While the Capuchins had no quarrel with Desideri they feared that other Jesuits would follow and displace them from Tibet and Nepal, they petitioned for his expulsion from the country. In January 1721, Desideri received the order to return to India. After a long stay in Kuti, at the Tibetan-Nepali border, he returned to Agra in 1722. At Agra Desideri was appointed head pastor of the Catholic community in the Mughal capital of Delhi.

He organized education and services for the community, had a new church built to replace the former dilapidated edifice. In 1725 he went to the French Jesuit Malabar mission in Pondicherry, set to work learning the Tamil language and carrying on the mission there. In 1727 he was sent to Rome to promote the cause of the beatification of John de Britto, a Jesuit who had died a martyr in South-India, he took along his extensive notes on Tibet, its culture and religion, began work on his Relation, which in its latest manuscript was called "Historical Notices of Tibet" while still homeward bound on a French vessel. He landed in France in August 1727, after a stay in that country, where he met with important cardinals and aristocrats and had an audience with King Louis XV, he arrived in Rome in January 1728, he took up residence in the Jesuit professed house, his time was occupied in the legal proceedings at the Propaganda Fide between himself, representing the Jesuit order, Fr. F