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Brontosaurus

Brontosaurus is a genus of gigantic quadruped sauropod dinosaurs. Although the type species, B. excelsus, had long been considered a species of the related Apatosaurus, researchers proposed in 2015 that Brontosaurus is a genus separate from Apatosaurus and that it contains three species: B. excelsus, B. yahnahpin, B. parvus. Brontosaurus had a small head adapted for a herbivorous lifestyle; the various species lived during the Late Jurassic epoch in the Morrison Formation of what is now North America, were extinct by the end of the Jurassic. Adult individuals of Brontosaurus are estimated to have weighed up to 15 tonnes and measured up to 22 metres long; as the archetypal sauropod, Brontosaurus is one of the best-known dinosaurs and has been featured in film and postage stamps, as well as many other types of media. Brontosaurus was a large, long-necked, quadrupedal animal with a long, whip-like tail, fore limbs that were shorter than its hind limbs; the largest species, B. excelsus, weighed up to 15 tonnes and measured up to 22 m long from head to tail.

For comparison, the current largest land animal, the average male African bush elephant, is 3.20 m tall at the shoulder and has a body mass of 6,000 kg or 6.6 short tons. The skull of Brontosaurus has not been found, but was similar to the skull of the related Apatosaurus. Like those of other sauropods, the vertebrae of the neck were bifurcated; the spine and tail consisted of 15 cervicals, 10 dorsals, five sacrals, about 82 caudals. The number of caudal vertebrae was noted to vary within a species; the cervical vertebrae were stouter than other diplodocids, though not as stout as in mature specimens of Apatosaurus. The dorsal ribs are not fused or attached to their vertebrae, instead being loosely articulated. Ten dorsal ribs are on either side of the body; the large neck was filled with an extensive system of weight-saving air sacs. Brontosaurus, like its close relative Apatosaurus, had tall spines on its vertebrae, which made up more than half the height of the individual bones; the shape of the tail was unusual for diplodocids, being comparatively slender, due to the vertebral spines decreasing in height the farther they are from the hips.

Brontosaurus spp. had long ribs compared to most other diplodocids, giving them unusually deep chests. As in other diplodocids, the last portion of the tail of Brontosaurus possessed a whip-like structure; the limb bones were very robust. The arm bones are stout, with the humerus resembling that of Camarasaurus, those of B. excelsus being nearly identical to those of Apatosaurus ajax. Charles Gilmore in 1936 noted that previous reconstructions erroneously proposed that the radius and ulna could cross, when in life they would have remained parallel. Brontosaurus had a single large claw on each fore limb, the first three toes possessed claws on each foot. By 1936, it was recognized that no sauropod had more than one hand claw preserved, this one claw is now accepted as the maximum number throughout the entire group; the single front claw bone is curved and squarely shortened on the front end. The hip bones included the fused pubes and ischia; the tibia and fibula bones of the lower leg were different from the slender bones of Diplodocus, but nearly indistinguishable from those of Camarasaurus.

The fibula is longer than the tibia, although it is more slender. In 1879, O. C. Marsh, a professor of paleontology at Yale University, announced the discovery of a large and complete sauropod skeleton from Morrison Formation rocks at Como Bluff, Wyoming, he identified it as belonging to an new genus and species, which he named Brontosaurus excelsus, meaning "thunder lizard", from the Greek brontē/βροντη meaning "thunder" and sauros/σαυρος meaning "lizard", from the Latin excelsus, "noble" or "high". By this time, the Morrison Formation had become the center of the Bone Wars, a fossil-collecting rivalry between early paleontologists Othniel Charles Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope; because of this, the publications and descriptions of taxa by Marsh and Cope were rushed at the time. Elmer Riggs, in the 1903 edition of Geological Series of the Field Columbian Museum, argued that Brontosaurus was not different enough from Apatosaurus to warrant its own genus, so he created the new combination Apatosaurus excelsus for it.

Riggs stated. As the term'Apatosaurus' has priority,'Brontosaurus' will be regarded as a synonym". Nonetheless, before the mounting of the American Museum of Natural History specimen, Henry Fairfield Osborn chose to label the skeleton "Brontosaurus", though he was a strong opponent of Marsh and his taxa. In 1905, the American Museum of Natural History unveiled the first-ever mounted skeleton of a sauropod, a composite specimen that they referred to as the species Brontosaurus excelsus; the AMNH specimen was complete, only missing the feet, lower leg, shoulder bones, tail bones. To complete the mount, the rest of the tail was fashioned to appear as Marsh believed it should, which had too few vertebrae. In addition, a sculpted model of what the museum felt the skull of this massive creature might look like was placed on the skeleton; this was not a delicate skull like that of

Henri Le Sidaner

Henri Eugène Augustin Le Sidaner was an intimist painter. Sidaner was born to a French family in Port Louis, Mauritius. In 1870 he and his family settled in Dunkirk. Le Sidaner received most of his tutelage from the École des Beaux-Arts under the instruction of Alexandre Cabanel but broke away due to artistic differences. Between 1885 and 1894 Le Sidaner lived the year round at the Etaples art colony and was joined there by his childhood friend Eugène Chigot, who shared his interest in atmospheric light. Le Sidaner traveled extensively throughout France, he visited many cities around the globe, as well as villages throughout Europe. He exhibited at the Salon, the Galeries Georges Petit in Paris and the Goupil Gallery in London, settled in Gerberoy. Marcel Proust's mention of Le Sidaner's work in his novel In Search of Lost Time confirms its reputation. In Sodom and Gomorrah, the narrator mentions that an eminent barrister from Paris had devoted his income to collecting the paintings of the "highly distinguished" but "not great" Le Sidaner.

Le Sidaner Website lesjardinshenrilesidaner.fr Works

Gavin Urquhart

Gavin Urquhart is an Australian rules football player, who last played for North Melbourne Football Club. Urquhart was the 21st pick in the 2006 AFL Draft, made his senior debut on 31 May 2008, in round 10. Urquhart received a Rising Star nomination after his round 18 performance against Brisbane, when he had 22 possessions. Urquhart signed a two-year deal with North Melbourne in August 2008; the 2010 season was a poor one for Urquhart, as he struggled to overcome niggling injuries, he could only manage eight senior games. During trade week, rumours surfaced that North Melbourne were going to trade Urquart, but Kangaroos coach Brad Scott dismissed the rumours only days declaring that "he's a required player". At the end of the 2012 season, Urquhart was delisted by the Kangaroos. Subsequently, in 2014 he signed with Essendon District Football League team Airport West. Gavin Urquhart's profile on the official website of the North Melbourne Football Club Gavin Urquhart's playing statistics from AFL Tables

Suffolk Park, New South Wales

Suffolk Park is a suburb in the Byron Shire of the Northern Rivers region in New South Wales, Australia. It is five km south of Byron Bay, its population according to the 2011 Census was 3,468. The town was named after George A. Suffolk who dedicated a large parcel of land to the Byron Shire Council for community use on 16 November 1922. Suffolk Park has grown to a point of having its own identity. Situated just south of Cape Byron, Suffolk Park is a ten-minute drive from Byron Bay. Tallow Beach, which stretches 15 km from Cosy Corner at the Cape south to Broken Head lies adjacent to the suburb; the main shops are located on Clifford Street. The beach runs parallel with Alcorn Street. Other notable streets are Brandon Street; some residents of Alcorn Street were accused of appropriating Suffolk Park beach reserve into their backyards in 2008. Removal of native vegetation, private tracks to the beach and misleading signs had resulted in degradation of the coastal foreshore. Notable landmarks in the area are "Cocked-Hat Rocks", which are known by traditional Bundjalung people as "Sister's Rocks", the Suffolk Park Caravan Park, King's Beach.

There is a small shopping centre at the corner of Clifford Street and Broken Head Road that services Suffolk Park with a post office, liquor store, newsagent, pharmacy, movie rental, a few restaurants and take-aways. Suffolk Park features a small recreational area behind the fire station, Gaggin Park, through which entry to Tallow Beach is available. Suffolk Park Phoenix Football Club was formed in 2012, it is the first recognized sporting team for Suffolk Park. The home ground is in Beech Drive. In 2013, Suffolk Park FC won its first trophies as the Men's 3rd Division side won the pointscore as well as winning the grand final. In 2014 the Men's 2nd Division won the pointscore competition although lost the Grand Final on penalties. 2015 has been the club's most successful season yet with all of the club's senior teams making the Grand Final. The Men's 5th Division being both pointscore and Grand Final champions, defeating Dunoon 4-1 in the Grand Final; the Men's 1st Division team came from 3rd on the table to defeat Italo Stars in a penalty shootout after going through extra time at 0-0.

The Women's 4th Division lost their Grand Final 3-0 to neighbours Byron Bay. The club had 3 junior miniroo teams in 2015 with a 6 years, a 7 years and an 11 years team, they all enjoyed a season full of football. The geographic/political locality of Suffolk Park extends north to Byron Bay. Baywood Chase and Byron Hills were planned construction and feature many cul de sacs, which are favourite settling spots for many young families with children

Child laundering

Child laundering is a scheme whereby intercountry adoptions are affected by illegal and fraudulent means. It may involve the trafficking of children, the acquisition of children through monetary arrangements, deceit and/or force; the children may be held in sham orphanages while formal international adoption processes are used to send the children to adoptive parents in another country. Child laundering rings are expansive with multiple hierarchies of people motivated by large profits from the black markets of intercountry adoptions. With Westerners willing to spend thousands of dollars to adopt a child, enough monetary incentives are created to extend the laundering ring from the middle classes to societies' more affluent groups; these "baby broker" families subsequently forge a new identity for the laundered child, "validating" the child's legal status as an orphan and ensuring the scheme will not be uncovered. Child laundering is controversial. There is a complex hierarchy within the child laundering business which includes governments, intermediaries, birth families, adoptive families.

The people who oversee these child laundering rings are estimated to make $2,000 to $20,000 per overseas adoption. Therefore, it is advantageous for these individuals to have the necessary language and social skills in order to work with Western adoption agencies. Intermediaries are crucial in acquiring the child, for their job is to locate impoverished parents who may be willing to relinquish their children out of necessity; the people involved in recruiting and managing the adoption ring are local middle or upper class citizens, they have a negative view of the poor. Therefore, recruiters can rationalize taking these children from the biological family on the grounds that the child will be better reared in the West. Many members of foreign governments are bribed to hasten these illegitimate adoptions, to ignore the illegality of these criminal organizations. Illegal child laundering adoptions involve a hierarchy of people as described above, who manipulate the legal adoptions system in order to profit.

This process begins. Children are taken to orphanages which arrange the adoptions, where they are sometimes mistreated. After a forgery of documents to falsify a child's identity, the child is sent to the West to be united with his or her adoptive parents. There are several different ways by which "orphans" are acquired and sold within the adoption system. Parent nations are always poor, in most places, these countries have a system where impoverished parents can temporarily care for their children by placing them in orphanages, hostels or schools; this community provides poor children with care and food until the family is in a more favorable economic situation. In these cases, parents may have no intention to sever their parental rights or abandon their children. However, these institutions may take advantage of the child and family's economic and social vulnerability to illegally profit by making the child available to overseas adoption markets, netting orphanage owners thousands of dollars per child.

Another instance where children are wrongly deemed orphans is when said children become lost or separated from their families. Although institutions are required by law to make an effort to locate the family, there is no way to assess whether they do this. If these initial efforts to locate the family fail, or are declared as failures, the institution has the opportunity to capitalize on this by putting the child up for adoption. Another way in which "orphans" are acquired is through an outright purchase of the child; the recruiters for these adoption rings seek out poor, pregnant women and offer to pay for their child. Relinquishing parents may be led to believe that they will be kept in contact with the child and receive financial support from the adoptive parents, they may be told that they will be able to immigrate to live with their child once he/she is grown in a more economically developed nation. Through these methods and more, recruiters lead the birth parents to believe they are providing a better future for their child.

United States ICE agents have visited several of the orphanages in other countries associated with the business of child laundering, with shocking findings. The conditions of the babies were inhumane. Additionally, there was no experienced nurse caring for the children, the investigator termed it a "stash house." With the thousands of dollars that these orphanages receive for each adoption, the conditions children are kept in could be vastly improved for just a fraction of the racketeers' profits. The United States is responsible for most intercountry adoptions in the world: 20,000 out of the total 30,000 total orphans adopted annually; the Westerners who adopt from developing nations pay thousands of dollars to process the paperwork of one child. This provides a lucrative incentive for those involved in the process. In many cases, the prospective adoptive parents are motivated by a sense of altruism, coupled with their desire to overcome infertility and fulfill the Western standard of the nuclear family.

These adoptive parents create a demand for healthy infants that will be able to assimilate into their new home and cut off ties to their birth

Killaloe, County Clare (Civil parish)

Killaloe is a civil parish in County Clare, Ireland. The main settlement is the town of Killaloe; the parish is in the barony of Tulla. It is 87 miles from Dublin; the name is said to be a corrupt form of Kill-da-Lua, to be derived from the foundation of an abbey by St. Lua or Molua in the 6th century; the town is on the west bank of the Shannon near the falls of Killaloe, about a mile from Lough Derg. In 1837 an old bridge with 19 arches crossed the river at this point; the parish in 1837 covered 13,045 statute acres. The town became head of a diocese founded about 639 by Pope John IV; the first bishop was Saint Flannan. Turlogh O’Brien built a bridge over the River Shannon at Killaloe in 1054. Hugh O'Connor burned the town, it was burned again in 1080 and 1084. Moriertach, King of Ireland was buried in Killaloe in 1120 in a great ceremony. In 1177 the town was the scene of a ceremony in which Raymond Le Gros received the hostages of Roderic, King of Connaught, O’Brien, Prince of Thomond, who took the oath of fealty to the King of England.

The church became a pilgrim destination. Donald, King of Limerick, erected the cathedral in 1160; the town was destroyed in 1367 by Murrogh-na-Ranagh. In 1831 there were 8,887 inhabitants of the parish. Killaloe includes the townlands of Aillemore, Ballycorney, Ballygarreen, Ballyvally, Carrownakilly, Cloonfadda, Craglea, Feenlea, Gortcallyroe, Killestry, Lackabranner, Lackenbaun and Shantraud. Citations Sources