New York City Public Advocate
The office of New York City Public Advocate is a citywide elected position in New York City, first in line to succeed the mayor. The office serves as a direct link between the electorate and city government acting as an ombudsman, or watchdog, for New Yorkers; the office was created in 1993, when the New York City Council voted to rename the position of President of the City Council. Following the City Charter revision of 1989 which eliminated the powerful New York City Board of Estimate on which the president held a seat, the post was seen as ceremonial. At the time, it was thought that the post would be abolished altogether; the position survived, has been held by Democrats throughout its history. Mark Green was the first public advocate and served through his unsuccessful run for Mayor in 2001. In 2001, the City Council amended the city charter to transfer the public advocate's functions as presiding officer of the City Council to a Speaker elected from among the council members. Green's successor, Betsy Gotbaum, thus had her role limited to being the city's de facto ombudsman.
The 2009 election to succeed Gotbaum was competitive and was won by Bill de Blasio, who became the first public advocate to win the Mayor's office. The current public advocate is Jumaane Williams, following a special election on February 26, 2019; the public advocate is a non-voting member of the New York City Council with the right to introduce and co-sponsor legislation. Prior to a 2002 charter revision, the Public Advocate was the presiding officer of the Council; the public advocate serves as an ombudsman for city government, providing oversight for city agencies, investigating citizens' complaints about city services and making proposals to address perceived shortcomings or failures of those services. These duties, worded somewhat ambiguously, are laid out in Section 24 of the City Charter; the public advocate serves on the committee which selects the director of the New York City Independent Budget Office and appoints members to several boards and commissions, including one member of the New York City Planning Commission.
The public advocate serves as chair of the Commission of Public Information and Communication established by Section 1061 of the New York City Charter. Along with the Mayor and the Comptroller, the public advocate is one of three municipal offices elected by all the city's voters. In the event of a vacancy or incapacity of the mayor, the public advocate is first in line to become mayor. New York City Council#Presiding officers since 1898 New York City Public Advocate election, 2009 New York City Public Advocate election, 2013 2019 New York City Public Advocate special election Official website
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Mayor of New York City
The Mayor of the City of New York is head of the executive branch of the Government of New York City. The mayor's office administers all city services, public property and fire protection, most public agencies, enforces all city and state laws within New York City; the budget, overseen by New York City Mayor's Office of Management and Budget, is the largest municipal budget in the United States at $82 billion a year. The city employs 325,000 people, spends about $21 billion to educate more than 1.1 million students and levies $27 billion in taxes. It receives $14 billion from the state and federal governments; the mayor's office is located in New York City Hall. The mayor appoints a large number of officials, including commissioners who head city departments, his deputy mayors; the mayor's regulations are compiled in title 43 of the New York City Rules. According to current law, the mayor is limited to two consecutive four-year terms in office but may run again after a four year break, it was changed from two to three terms on October 23, 2008, when the New York City Council voted 29–22 in favor of passing the term limit extension into law.
However, in 2010, a referendum reverting the limit back to two terms passed overwhelmingly. The current mayor is Democrat Bill de Blasio, elected on November 5, 2013 and reelected to a second term on November 7, 2017. In 1665, Governor Richard Nicolls appointed Thomas Willett as the first mayor of New York. For 156 years, the mayor had limited power. Between 1783 and 1821 the mayor was appointed by the Council of Appointments in which the state's governor had the loudest voice. In 1821 the Common Council, which included elected members, gained the authority to choose the mayor. An amendment to the New York State Constitution in 1834 provided for the direct popular election of the mayor. Cornelius W. Lawrence, a Democrat, was elected that year. Gracie Mansion has been the official residence of the mayor since Fiorello La Guardia's administration in 1942, its main floor serves as a small museum. The mayor is entitled to a salary of $258,750 a year. Michael Bloomberg, mayor of the city from 2002 to 2013 and one of the richest people in the world, declined the salary and instead was paid $1 yearly.
In 2000 direct control of the city's public school system was transferred to the mayor's office. In 2003 the reorganization established the New York City Department of Education. Tammany Hall, which evolved from an organization of craftsmen into a Democratic political machine, gained control of Democratic Party nominations in the state and city in 1861, it played a major role in New York City politics into the 1960s and was a dominant player from the mayoral victory of Fernando Wood in 1854 through the era of Robert Wagner. The Mayor of New York City may appoint several deputy mayors to help oversee major offices within the executive branch of the city government; the powers and duties, the number of deputy mayors, are not defined by the City Charter. The post was created by Fiorello La Guardia to handle ceremonial events that the mayor was too busy to attend. Since deputy mayors have been appointed with their areas of responsibility defined by the appointing mayor. There are five deputy mayors, all of whom report directly to the mayor.
Deputy mayors do not have any right to succeed to the mayoralty in the case of vacancy or incapacity of the mayor. The current deputy mayors are: First deputy mayor: Dean FuleihanAdvises the mayor on citywide administrative and policy matters. Deputy mayor for housing and economic development: Alicia GlenOversees and coordinates the operations of the Economic Development Corporation, the Department of Transportation, the Department of Buildings, the Department of City Planning, Department of Housing Preservation and Development, New York City Housing Development Corporation and related agencies. Deputy mayor for health and human services: Herminia PalacioOversees and coordinates the operations of the Human Resources Administration, Department of Homeless Services, the Administration for Children's Services, New York City Health and Hospitals, related agencies. Deputy mayor for operations: Laura AnglinDeputy mayor for strategic initiatives: J. Phillip Thompson Lilliam Barrios-Paoli 2014–2016, Anthony Shorris 2014-2017, under Bill de Blasio Daniel L. Doctoroff, Stephen Goldsmith 2010–2011, Patricia Harris 2002–2013, Robert K. Steel, Dennis M. Walcott, Howard Wolfson—under Michael Bloomberg Joe Lhota—under Rudolph Giuliani William Lynch 1990s—under David Dinkins Herman Badillo 1977–1979—under Ed Koch Robert W. Sweet 1966–1969 "The mayor has the power to appoint and remove the commissioners of more than 40 city agencies and members of City boards and commissions."
These include: New York City Police Commissioner New York City Fire Commissioner New York City Criminal Court judges New York City Marshals New York City Schools Chancellor New York City Office of Management and Budget Commissioner of Health of the City of New York The Mayor of New York City is an ex-officio board member of the following organizations: Local tabloid newspapers refer to the mayor as "Hizzoner", a corruption of the title His Honor. Spin City, a 1990s TV sitcom, starred Michael J. Fox as a deputy mayor of New York under Barry Bostwick's fictional Mayor Randall Winston. Several mayors have appeared in television and movies, as well as on Broadway, most notably in The Will Rogers Follies. In
Jacobi Medical Center
Jacobi Medical Center is a municipal hospital operated by NYC Health + Hospitals in affiliation with the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. The facility is located in the Morris Park neighborhood of The Bronx in New York City and is named in honor of German physician Abraham Jacobi, regarded as the father of American pediatrics. Founded in 1955 as Bronx Municipal Hospital Center, the hospital opened concurrent with the opening of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine; this was the first time a medical school and municipal hospital entered into a formal affiliation agreement at the same time they were both built—and their relationship continues to this day. Jacobi is a primary clerkship site for 3rd- and 4th-year medical students from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Jacobi offers residency training programs in Internal Medicine and Radiology, it offers many joint residency programs with Montefiore Medical Center. Jacobi provides health care for some 1.2 million New York City area residents.
It is one of the 11 acute care hospitals of NYC Health + Hospitals and a partner in the North Bronx Healthcare Network with the North Central Bronx Hospital. As one of the largest medical facilities of NYC, Jacobi houses the Bronx's only burn unit and Level I trauma center; the hospital houses a Level III neonatal intensive care unit and FDNY EMS Station 20. Jacobi had over 320,000 clinical visits and over 100,000 emergency department visits in 2016. Jacobi houses the only Snakebite Treatment Center in the tri-state area. At the turn of the century, the area where Jacobi Medical Center would be established was known for the Morris Park Racecourse built by millionaire John A. Morris in 1889. In the early 20th century however, a fire destroyed the grandstand, the racetrack closed. Much of the land was sold for residential development. In 1949, a 64-acre parcel was purchased by the New York City Department of Hospitals to establish a tertiary care facility and teaching hospital with a campus-like health care environment – one which would be located well away from urban congestion, traffic noise and fumes.
This campus of healthcare services was called the Bronx Municipal Hospital Center, providing acute care at Jacobi Hospital as well as adjacent tuberculosis care at Van Etten Hospital. Although built on a spread-out campus, the site selection for Jacobi as the function of the tensions of the Cold War. With its easy access to highways, navigable waterways and airports, Jacobi was built on a site ideally suited for use as a large war-time evacuation center, its placement in an outer borough with plans calling for the creation of vast sub-basements were deliberate measures to avoid fallout from a possible nuclear attack. Following several years of construction, Van Etten Hospital opened in September 1954 with 500 beds, named in honor of Dr. Nathan B. Van Etten, a well-known Bronx practitioner with deep concern for the sick poor. About one year on November 1, 1955, Jacobi Hospital, opened its doors for pediatric and infant care, with 898 beds. Although coincidental, Yeshiva University had at this same time secured a charter with the New York State Board of Regents to establish a new medical school.
When it came time for site selection, University advisers recommended establishment of the school adjacent to and affiliated with the new municipal hospital in the Bronx, construction of, by well underway. Hospital representatives found the arrangement an attractive one; as a result, an affiliation agreement was created between the new Albert Einstein College of Medicine and the hospital campus, a mutually beneficial teaching and patient care relationship which continues to this day. From early on, Jacobi’s medical accomplishments and innovations in patient care were many. In the 1950s, it was the first municipal hospital which provided an emergency department staffed with pediatric house officers as well as medical house officers. Van Etten, its chronic care affiliate, established several new protocols for the treatment of tuberculosis patients, most notably the eventual elimination of the face masks which had heightened patients’ fear and isolation, the establishment of the first Home Care Program for tuberculosis in NYC.
Jacobi’s clinicians in pediatrics made significant contributions in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease in children, identified congenital abnormalities which caused renal tubular acidosis in children, were the first to describe a prolonged jaundice in infants. Jacobi psychiatrists were the first to create a psychiatric day hospital in a municipal facility, allowing patients to receive treatment during the day while living at home. In the 1960s, surgeons at Jacobi performed the world’s first successful clinical coronary artery bypass surgery. Cardiac catheterization on postoperative day 14 showed; the patient remained free of angina for a year. He died at Jacobi on June 1961, of a posterior wall myocardial infarction. Autopsy was not performed, the long-term patency of the anastomosis was not established, they established the first NIH Clinical Research Center for the care and study of critically injured patients in the country. The center’s work with burned patients led it to develop a new effective method of hyperalimentation, adapted in burn protocols worldwide.
Van Nest, Bronx
Van Nest is a working-class neighborhood geographically located in the East Bronx section of the Bronx, New York City. Going clockwise, its boundaries are Bronxdale Avenue to the northeast, the Amtrak tracks to the southeast, Bronx Park to the west. Van Nest is considered the older of the two communities. Morris Park Avenue and White Plains Road are the primary commercial thoroughfares through Van Nest; the neighborhood is part of Bronx Community Board 11, its ZIP Codes include 10460 and 10462. The area is patrolled by the 49th Precinct of the New York City Police Department; the neighborhood got its name from the former Van Nest station on the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, named after the father of Abraham R. Van Nest, a director of the railroad. Van Nest is considered the older of both communities. A short railroad spur was constructed off the main line from the Van Nest station to serve the adjacent Morris Park Racecourse, the site of thoroughbred horse racing from 1889 to 1904.
Between 1892 and 1896, lots were subdivided from farmland by the Van Nest Land & Improvement Company. Before the city graded the streets in 1895, the flat terrain and accumulation of rainwater in low-lying areas resulted in this area being nicknamed "Mud West"; the multi-legged intersection of Van Nest Avenue, Unionport Road, Victor Street is still known as the "Five Corners" by many old timers and locals. Van Nest has a population under 15,000; the neighborhood has a concentration of Puerto Ricans and contains a significant African American population. A small longstanding Italian and Albanian population exist east of White Plains Road near Morris Park; the majority of residents rent. 20% of the population lives below the poverty line. For census purposes, the New York City government classifies Van Nest as part of a larger neighborhood tabulation area called Van Nest/Morris Park/Westchester Square. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Van Nest/Morris Park/Westchester Square was 29,250, a change of 2,115 from the 27,135 counted in 2000.
Covering an area of 829.61 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 35.3 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 27.3% White, 11.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 10.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 48.3% of the population. The entirety of Community District 11, which comprises Van Nest, Morris Park, Allerton, had 116,180 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 79.9 years. This is lower than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are youth and middle-aged adults: 22% are between the ages of between 0–17, 30% between 25–44, 24% between 45–64; the ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 9% and 14% respectively. As of 2017, the median household income in Community District 11 was $48,018. In 2018, an estimated 21% of Van Nest and Allerton residents lived in poverty, compared to 25% in all of the Bronx and 20% in all of New York City.
One in eight residents were unemployed, compared to 9 % in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 55% in Van Nest and Allerton, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 58% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Van Nest and Allerton are considered high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying. Van Nest is dominated by single family homes of various types. There are some tenements scattered across the neighborhood; the total land area is one square mile. Architectural styles are diverse in Van Nest, started as a residential community in 1893. Italianate, Queen Anne, Art Deco and contemporary brick and mortar are all found. Con Edison's Van Nest Service Center is located north of the Amtrak Northeast Corridor line between Unionport Road and Bronxdale Avenue, occupying the former maintenance shops of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad; the Con Edison Service Center was purchased in September 1959 from the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad for $3 million.
The former Van Nest Yards were built in 1907 and the Yards, now Con Edison Service Center consists of 940,000 square feet. Van Nest Park is bound by White Plains Road to the east, Unionport Road to the west, Van Nest Avenue to the north. Mead Street bisects Van Nest Park from Van Nest Memorial Square. Van Nest Park was acquired by New York City in August 1913, the present location of Van Nest Memorial Square. In April 1922, the land was placed under Parks' jurisdiction; the monument, which stands at the center of the original park, was erected in April 1926 by the Van Nest Citizens' Patriotic League, who were, at one time, located at 1800 Hunt Avenue. The monument was designed by architect Arthur G. Waldreaon; the park, like the neighborhood, was named after a saddle maker. Three of the four granite panels have the names of fallen soldiers from World War I, Vietnam; the main facing panel has a tribute to fallen soldiers from World War II. By 1938, the park expanded to include not only a playground equipment.
The monument was rededicated by the Italian-American War Veterans' Bronx County Post #39 in October,1973. Memorial and Veterans' Day services have been reinstituted in previous years to pay respect to the deceased, as well as current and former servicemen and women; the monument are
New York City Police Department
The City of New York Police Department, more known as the New York Police Department and its initials NYPD, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the City of New York, New York in the United States. Established on May 23, 1845, the NYPD is one of the oldest police departments in the United States, is the largest police force in the United States; the NYPD headquarters is at 1 Police Plaza, located on Park Row in Lower Manhattan across the street from City Hall. The department's mission is to "enforce the laws, preserve the peace, reduce fear, provide for a safe environment." The NYPD's regulations are compiled in title 38 of the New York City Rules. The New York City Transit Police and New York City Housing Authority Police Department were integrated into the NYPD in 1995 by New York City Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani. In June 2004, there were about 45,000 sworn officers plus several thousand civilian employees; as of December 2011, that figure increased to over 36,600, helped by the graduation of a class of 1,500 from the New York City Police Academy.
As of Fiscal Year 2018, the NYPD's current authorized uniformed strength is 38,422. There are approximately 4,500 Auxiliary Police Officers, 5,000 School Safety Agents, 2,300 Traffic Enforcement Agents, 370 Traffic Enforcement Supervisors employed by the department; the Police Benevolent Association of the City of New York, the largest municipal police union in the United States, represents over 50,000 active and retired NYC police officers. The NYPD has a broad array of specialized services, including the Emergency Service Unit, K9, harbor patrol, air support, bomb squad, counter-terrorism, criminal intelligence, anti-gang, anti-organized crime, public transportation, public housing; the NYPD Intelligence Division & Counter-Terrorism Bureau has officers stationed in 11 cities internationally. In the 1990s the department developed a CompStat system of management which has since been established in other cities; the NYPD has extensive crime scene investigation and laboratory resources, as well as units which assist with computer crime investigations.
The NYPD runs a "Real Time Crime Center" a large search engine and data warehouse operated by detectives to assist officers in the field with their investigations. A Domain Awareness System, a joint project of Microsoft and the NYPD, links 6,000 closed-circuit television cameras, license plate readers, other surveillance devices into an integrated system. Due to its high-profile location in the largest city and media center in the United States, fictionalized versions of the NYPD and its officers have been portrayed in novels, television, motion pictures, video games; the Municipal Police were established in 1845. Mayor William Havemeyer shepherded the NYPD together, originating the phrase "New York Finest." In 1857, it was tumultuously replaced by a Metropolitan force. Twentieth-century trends struggles against corruption. Officers begin service with the rank of "probationary police officer," referred to as "recruit officer". After successful completion of five and a half to six months, sometimes longer of Police Academy training in various academic and tactical training, officers graduate from the Police Academy.
While retaining the title of "probationary police officer,"" graduates are referred to as a "police officer," or informally as a "rookie", until they have completed an additional 18 month probationary period. There are three career "tracks" in the NYPD: supervisory and specialist; the supervisory track consists of nine sworn titles, referred to as ranks. Promotion to the ranks of sergeant and captain are made via competitive civil service examinations. After reaching the civil service rank of captain, promotion to the ranks of deputy inspector, deputy chief, assistant chief and chief of department is made at the discretion of the police commissioner. Promotion from the rank of police officer to detective is discretionary by the police commissioner or required by law when the officer has performed eighteen months or more of investigative duty; the entry level appointment to detective is third specialist. The commissioner may grant discretionary grades of second and first; these grades offer compensation equivalent to that of supervisors.
A second grade detective's pay corresponds to a sergeant's and a first grade detective's pay corresponds to a lieutenant's. Detectives are police officers who perform investigatory duties but have no official supervisory authority. A "detective first grade" still falls above. Just like detectives and lieutenants can receive pay grade increases within their respective ranks. ^ †: Uniform rank that has no police powers There are two basic types of detective in the NYPD: "detective-investigators" and "detective-specialists". Detective-investigators are the type most people associate with the term "detective" and are the ones most portrayed on television and in the movies. Most police officers gain their detective title by working in the Narcotics Division of the Detective Bureau. Detectives assigned to squads are co-located within each precinct and are responsible for investigating murders, robberies and other crimes within that precinct's boundaries. Other detective-investigators are assigned to specialized units at either the major command or citywide level, investigating terrorist groups, organized crime, narcotics dealing, ext
Ritchie Torres is an American politician from the state of New York. A member of the Democratic Party, Torres is the New York City Councilmember for the 15th district, which includes Allerton, Bronx Park, Claremont Village, Crotona Park, Mount Eden, Mount Hope, Parkchester, Van Nest, West Farms and Williamsbridge in the Bronx. Torres was elected in 2013, he is the first gay candidate to be elected to legislative office in the Bronx, the youngest member of the city council. He serves as the chair of the Committee on Public Housing, is a deputy majority leader. Torres was raised by his mother in a public housing project in the Throggs Neck neighborhood of the East Bronx, where he was hospitalized for asthma as a result of the mold growing in his apartment, he attended Herbert H. Lehman High School, served in the inaugural class of the Coro New York Exploring Leadership Program, worked as an intern in the offices of the Mayor and Attorney General. Torres enrolled at New York University but dropped out at the beginning of his sophomore year, suffering from severe depression.
As he recovered, Torres resumed working for council member James Vacca becoming Vacca's housing director. In that role, Torres conducted site inspections and document conditions, ensuring critical housing issues were promptly and adequately addressed. At 24 years old, Torres ran to succeed Joel Rivera as the councilmember for the 15th district of the New York City Council; when he won the Democratic Party nomination for New York City Council, Torres became the first gay political candidate in the Bronx to win the Democratic Party nomination, is the first gay public official in the Bronx. Upon his election, Torres requested the chairmanship of the Council's Committee on Public Housing, tasked with overseeing the New York City Housing Authority. Torres serves as a Deputy Leader of the City Council, making him the only freshman Council Member to hold a leadership position. Torres has stated that he is "intent on advancing politically," and has been floated as a future candidate for mayor of New York City.
LGBT culture in New York City Housing projects Official website