International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Cardwell is a tropical coastal town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region in Far North Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Cardwell had a population of 1,309 people; the Bruce Highway National Highway 1 and the North Coast railway line are the dominant transport routes. Cardwell suffered significant damage from Cyclone Yasi, a category 5 cyclone, in February 2011. West of Cardwell the rugged topography of the Cardwell Range intercepts the trade winds resulting in high rainfall; the coastal escarpment is covered in rainforest which transitions to the west to eucalypt woodland and tropical savanna. Cardwell Range biodiversity has been protected by the introduction of Forestry Reserves, National Parks and Queensland World Heritage Wet Tropics Areas. Seaward lies the Coral Sea, the Great Barrier Reef and Lagoon, Rockingham Bay and Hinchinbrook Channel. Islands are visible from Cardwell including protected areas i.e. Hinchinbrook Island, Goold Island and the Brook Islands Group. Oyster Point is one kilometre south of Cardwell.
This location experienced one of Australia's important conservation battles. With the establishment of Port Hinchinbrook, the Marina Public Boat Ramp provides year round access to the protected marine environments of Hinchinbrook Channel, Estuaries and Great Barrier Reef; the Cardwell Jetty is an important infrastructure asset, where visitors can socialize and view the coastal scenery. The Aboriginal heritage is defined by Language Groups; the first Europeans settled in the area in January 1864 in order to create a port called "Port Hinchinbrook". Subsequently, the town was renamed after 1st Viscount Cardwell. Cardwell was the first port settlement on the Queensland coast north of Port Denison; the first party of non-indigenous people to settle at Rockingham Bay arrived in January 1864 and was led by George Elphinstone Dalrymple. They were 20 in number including James Morrill, William Alcock Tully, Arthur Jervoise Scott, Lieut. Marlow of the Native Police and his troopers Norman and Warbragen. Dalrymple brought his "black boy" servant, an Aboriginal man from Stradbroke Island that he called "Cockey".
They came from Bowen on the small schooner Policeman, under the command of ex-Native Police officer Captain Walter Powell, with the 3 ton cutter Heather Bell in tow. Dalrymple's main purpose in establishing a settlement in Rockingham Bay was to create a port as close as possible to the Valley of Lagoons Station of which he was part owner. Soon after disembarking from the Policeman, he endeavoured to create a road from the coast to the Valley of Lagoons by expanding existing native paths. A few miles inland from the landing site was a beautiful aboriginal village and bora ground surrounded by native banana plantations that reminded Dalrymple of villages in Ceylon; the Warrgamay people in the area and on nearby Hinchinbrook Island were described as numerous and having some of the largest spears and wooden swords recorded in Australia. Having told the local people through his interpreter that he had come to take possession of their lands, Dalrymple bizarrely expressed frustration at the supposed inability of the aboriginals to understand the concept of "Thou shalt not steal".
James Morrill was more factual in his account of the founding of Cardwell writing that "I said to that they must clear out..as we wished to occupy the land and would shoot any who approached, that we were strong and that another party would soon follow", he described how a group of Aboriginals "were set upon by Dalrymple's men and rather cut up."Cardwell Post Office opened on 10 July 1864. In March 1865, Lieutenant Blakeney and seven troopers of the Native Police spent two days clearing the area around Cardwell of Aboriginal presence by "burning camps and dispersing the natives."In the late 1860s and early 1870s, Cardwell became a transport hub for prospectors heading to the Etheridge Shire goldfields 200 km inland from the town. Captain John Moresby visited Cardwell in 1871 and wrote that "various tribes of aborigines roam about the vicinity, not unnaturally regard the white men, who are dispossessing them of their homes, as mortal enemies. They..suffer terrible retaliation at the hands of our countrymen, who employ native troopers, commanded by white men to hunt down and destroy the offenders when the opportunity offers".
In January 1872, two British dugong fishermen named Henry Smith and Charles Clements were killed at nearby Goold Island by resident Aboriginals. Wet weather prevented an immediate punitive expedition of four boats of armed local white men who were eager that "the blacks" be "taught that what they do is punishable by death". However, within the same month the Native Police forces of Sub-Inspectors Crompton and Johnstone completed a punitive mission and returned to Cardwell with three young Aboriginal children from the island; the eldest of the children was ten and "they were given away in Cardwell to domesticate them."The Cardwell Library opened in 2008. Cardwell has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Valley of Lagoons Road, Damper Creek: Stone Bridge, Dalrymple Gap Track 51 Victoria Street: Cardwell Divisional Board Hall 53 Victoria Street: Cardwell Post Office Cardwell has a granite monument erected in memory of Walter Jervoise Scott, a pioneer of the Valley of Lagoons; the monument was sent from Great Britain by his brothers intended for his grave at Valley of Lagoons.
On arrival at Cardwell, it was found to b
Mount Archer National Park
Mount Archer National Park is a national park in Central Queensland, Australia, 522 kilometres northwest of Brisbane. It makes up the backdrop to the city of Rockhampton; the vegetation is open eucalypt woodland with patches of vine scrub. The rufous shrikethrush, white-browed scrubwren, powerful owl and glossy black cockatoo are some of the bird species found in the park. A road leads to the summit of Mount Archer, where there are a few bushwalking and rock climbing opportunities. Protected areas of Queensland Mount Archer National Park - Queensland Holidays
Midway Atoll is a 2.4-square-mile atoll in the North Pacific Ocean at 28°12′N 177°21′W. Midway is equidistant between North America and Asia. Midway Atoll is an unincorporated territory of the United States. Midway continues to be the only island in the Hawaiian archipelago, not part of the state of Hawaii. Unlike the other Hawaiian islands, Midway observes Samoa Time, one hour behind the time in the state of Hawaii. For statistical purposes, Midway is grouped as one of the United States Minor Outlying Islands; the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, encompassing 590,991.50 acres of land and water in the surrounding area, is administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The refuge and most of its surrounding area are part of the larger Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument; until 1993, the atoll was the home of the Naval Air Facility Midway Island. The Battle of Midway, fought between June 4 and 6, 1942, was a critical Allied victory of the Pacific campaign of World War II.
The United States Navy defended the atoll from a Japanese invasion, defeating a Japanese battle group, marking a turning point in the war in the Pacific Theater. USAAF aircraft based at the original Henderson Field on Eastern Island joined the attack against the Japanese fleet, which suffered losses of four carriers and one heavy cruiser. 40 to 60 people live on the atoll, which includes staff of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and contract workers. Visitation to the atoll is possible only for business reasons as the tourism program has been suspended due to budget cutbacks. In 2012, the last year that the visitor program was in operation, 332 people made the trip to Midway. Tours focused on both the unique ecology of Midway as well as its military history; the economy is derived from governmental sources and tourist fees. Nearly all supplies must be brought to the island by ship or plane, though a hydroponic greenhouse and garden supply some fresh fruits and vegetables; as its name suggests, Midway is equidistant between North America and Asia, lies halfway around the world longitudinally from Greenwich, UK.
It is near the northwestern end of the Hawaiian archipelago, about one-third of the way from Honolulu, Hawaii, to Tokyo, Japan. Midway island is not considered part of the State of Hawaii due to the passage of the Hawaii Organic Act, which formally annexed Hawaii to the United States as a territory, only defined Hawaii as "the islands acquired by the United States of America under an Act of Congress entitled'Joint resolution to provide for annexing the Hawaiian Islands to the United States,' approved July seventh, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight." Although it could be argued that Midway became part of Hawaii when Middlebrooks discovered it in 1859, it was assumed at the time that Midway was independently acquired by the U. S. when Reynolds visited in 1867, so was not considered part of the Territory. In defining which islands the State of Hawaii would inherit from the Territory, the Hawaii Admissions Act clarified the question excluding Midway from the jurisdiction of the state. Midway Atoll is 140 nautical miles east of the International Date Line, about 2,800 nautical miles west of San Francisco, 2,200 nautical miles east of Tokyo.
Midway Atoll is part of a chain of volcanic islands and seamounts extending from Hawaii up to the tip of the Aleutian Islands and known as the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain. It consists of a ring-shaped barrier reef nearly five miles in diameter and several sand islets; the two significant pieces of land, Sand Island and Eastern Island, provide a habitat for millions of seabirds. The island sizes are shown in the table above; the atoll, which has a small population, is designated an insular area under the authority of the United States Department of the Interior. Midway was formed 28 million years ago when the seabed underneath it was over the same hotspot from which the Island of Hawaii is now being formed. In fact, Midway was once a shield volcano as large as the island of Lana'i; as the volcano piled up lava flows building the island, its weight depressed the crust and the island subsided over a period of millions of years, a process known as isostatic adjustment. As the island subsided, a coral reef around the former volcanic island was able to maintain itself near sea level by growing upwards.
That reef is now over 516 feet thick. What remains today is a shallow water atoll about 6 miles across. Following Kure Atoll, Midway is the 2nd most northerly atoll in the world; the atoll has some 20 miles of roads, 4.8 miles of pipelines, one port on Sand Island, an airfield. As of 2004, Henderson Field airfield at Midway Atoll, with its one active runway has been designated as an emergency diversion airport for aircraft flying under ETOPS rules. Although the FWS closed all airport operations on November 22, 2004, public access to the island was restored from March 2008. Eastern Island Airstrip is a disused airfield, in use by U. S. forces during the
Sulfur mustard known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards, which can form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs. They have a long history of use as a blister-agent in warfare and, along with organoarsenic compounds, are the most well-studied of such agents. Related chemical compounds with similar chemical structure and similar properties form a class of compounds known collectively as sulfur mustards or mustard agents. Pure sulfur mustards are colorless, viscous liquids at room temperature; when used in impure form, such as warfare agents, they are yellow-brown and have an odor resembling mustard plants, garlic, or horseradish, hence the name. The common name of "mustard gas" is considered inaccurate because the sulfur mustard is not vaporized, but dispersed as a fine mist of liquid droplets. Sulfur mustard was assigned the name LOST, after the scientists Wilhelm Lommel and Wilhelm Steinkopf, who developed a method of large-scale production for the Imperial German Army in 1916.
Mustard agents are regulated under the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. Three classes of chemicals are monitored under this Convention, with sulfur and nitrogen mustard grouped in Schedule 1, as substances with no use other than in chemical warfare. Mustard agents could be deployed by means of artillery shells, aerial bombs, rockets, or by spraying from warplanes or other aircraft. Sulfur mustard can be decontaminated through reaction with chloramine-T. Sulfur mustard is the organic compound with formula 2S. In the Depretz method, sulfur mustard is synthesized by treating sulfur dichloride with ethylene: SCl2 + 2 C2H4 → 2SIn the Levinstein process, disulfur dichloride is used instead: 8 S2Cl2 + 16 C2H4 → 8 2S + S8In the Meyer method, thiodiglycol is produced from chloroethanol and potassium sulfide and chlorinated with phosphorus trichloride: 3 2S + 2 PCl3 → 3 2S + 2 P3In the Meyer-Clarke method, concentrated hydrochloric acid instead of PCl3 is used as the chlorinating agent: 2S + 2 HCl → 2S + 2 H2OThionyl chloride and phosgene, the latter of, a choking agent, have been used as chlorinating agents, with the added possibility of both agents producing additional mechanisms of toxicity if they remain as impurities in the finished product.
Sulfur mustard is a viscous liquid at normal temperatures. The pure compound has a melting point of 14 °C and decomposes before boiling at 218 °C. Reaction of sulfur mustard with sodium ethoxide gives divinyl sulfide: 2S + 2 NaOEt → 2S + 2 EtOH + 2 NaCl The compound eliminates a chloride ion by intramolecular nucleophilic substitution to form a cyclic sulfonium ion; this reactive intermediate tends to cause permanent alkylation of the guanine nucleotide in DNA strands, which prevents cellular division and leads directly to programmed cell death, or, if cell death is not immediate, the damaged DNA may lead to the development of cancer. Oxidative stress would be another pathology involved in sulfur mustard toxicity. Sulfur mustard is not soluble in water but is soluble in fat, contributing to its rapid absorption into the skin. In the wider sense, compounds with the structural element BCH2CH2X, where X is any leaving group and B is a Lewis base are known as mustards; such compounds can form cyclic "onium" ions.
Examples are bisether, the amines, sulfur sesquimustard, which has two α-chloroethyl thioether groups connected by an ethylene group. These compounds have a similar ability to alkylate DNA, but their physical properties, e.g. melting points, may vary. Mustard agent has powerful vesicant effects on its victims. In addition, it is mutagenic and carcinogenic, due to its alkylating properties, it is lipophilic. Because people exposed to mustard agent suffer immediate symptoms, mustard-contaminated areas may appear normal, victims can unknowingly receive high dosages. Within 24 hours of exposure to mustard agent, victims experience intense itching and skin irritation, which turns into large blisters filled with yellow fluid wherever the mustard agent contacted the skin; these are chemical burns and are debilitating. Mustard agent vapor penetrates clothing fabrics such as wool or cotton, so it is not only the exposed skin of victims that gets burned. If the victim's eyes were exposed they become sore, starting with conjunctivitis, after which the eyelids swell, resulting in temporary blindness.
In rare cases of extreme ocular exposure to sulfur mustard vapors, corneal ulceration, anterior chamber scarring, neovascularization have occurred. In these severe and infrequent cases, corneal transplantation has been used as a treatment option. Miosis, when the pupil constricts more than usual, may occur, the result of the cholinomimetic activity of mustard. At high concentrations, if inhaled, mustard agent causes bleeding and blistering within the respiratory system, damaging mucous membranes and causing pulmonary edema. Depending on the level of contamination, mustard agent burns can vary between first and second degree burns, though they can be every bit as severe and dangerous as third degree burns. Severe mustard agent burns are fatal, with death occurring after days or weeks have passed. Mild or moderate exposure to mustard agent is unlikely to kill, though victims require
Important Bird Area
An Important Bird and Biodiversity Area is an area identified using an internationally agreed set of criteria as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations. IBA was developed and sites are identified by BirdLife International. There are over 12,000 IBAs worldwide; these sites are small enough to be conserved and differ in their character, habitat or ornithological importance from the surrounding habitat. In the United States the Program is administered by the National Audubon Society. IBAs form part of a country's existing protected area network, so are protected under national legislation. Legal recognition and protection of IBAs that are not within existing protected areas varies within different countries; some countries have a National IBA Conservation Strategy, whereas in others protection is lacking. IBAs are determined by an internationally agreed set of criteria. Specific IBA thresholds are set by national governing organizations. To be listed as an IBA, a site must satisfy at least one of the following rating criteria: A1.
Globally threatened speciesThe site qualifies if it is known, estimated or thought to hold a population of a species categorized by the IUCN Red List as Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable. In general, the regular presence of a Critical or Endangered species, irrespective of population size, at a site may be sufficient for a site to qualify as an IBA. For Vulnerable species, the presence of more than threshold numbers at a site is necessary to trigger selection. A2. Restricted-range speciesThe site forms one of a set selected to ensure that all restricted-range species of an Endemic Bird Area or a Secondary Area are present in significant numbers in at least one site and preferably more. A3. Biome-restricted speciesThe site forms one of a set selected to ensure adequate representation of all species restricted to a given biome, both across the biome as a whole and for all of its species in each range state. A4. Congregations i; this applies to'waterbird' species as defined by Delaney and Scott and is modelled on criterion 6 of the Ramsar Convention for identifying wetlands of international importance.
Depending upon how species are distributed, the 1% thresholds for the biogeographic populations may be taken directly from Delaney & Scott, they may be generated by combining flyway populations within a biogeographic region or, for those for which no quantitative thresholds are given, they are determined regionally or inter-regionally, as appropriate, using the best available information. Ii; this includes those seabird species not covered by Scott. Quantitative data are taken from a variety of unpublished sources. Iii; this is modelled on citerion 5 of the Ramsar Convention for identifying wetlands of international importance. The use of this criterion is discouraged where quantitative data are good enough to permit the application of A4i and A4ii. Iv; the site is thought to exceed thresholds set for migratory species at bottleneck sites. The assessment by expert individuals is however not reliable and a study in South America found that the coverage needed for at-risk bird conservation as chosen by computational algorithms overlapped with IBAs and suggested that such methods should be used to complement expert driven IBA site choices.
Biodiversity Biodiversity hotspot Ecology Ecoregions Important Plant Areas International Union for the Conservation of Nature Key Biodiversity Areas Protected Areas Wilderness
Capricornia Cays National Park
Capricornia Cays is both a national park and a scientific national park in Queensland, located 486 km and 472 km north of the state capital Brisbane respectively. Collectively they comprise 241 ha of coral cays. Popular recreational activities in the park includes bird and turtle watching as well as camping, swimming, boating and diving. Capricornia Cays National Park is noted for its biological diversity and for provided habitat for a number of endangered plants and animals. In particular the cays are recognized as having the largest breeding population of endangered loggerhead turtles in the South Pacific. Access to the islands via boat is available from Gladstone, Bundaberg and 1770; the cays form an Important Bird Area because they support more than 1% of the world populations of black noddies and wedge-tailed shearwaters, making up the majority of the east Australian breeding populations of these species, sometimes more than 1% of the world population of brown boobies. Seasonal closures in some areas is imposed to protect breeding seabirds.
233 mollusc species have been recorded from the islands. Capricornia Cays National Park protects eight vegetated coral cays in the Capricorn and Bunker group of islands of the southern Great Barrier Reef: Erskine Island Heron Island Lady Musgrave Island - Open for visiting, capable of 40 campers. Masthead Island - Open for visiting, capable of 60 campers, however this is limited to 30 from October to March each year to allow a less disrupted egg laying ground for turtles. North West Island - Open for visiting, capable of 150 campers. Tryon Island - Currently closed to public access due to a tree infection, the island has the capacity for 30 campers. Wilson IslandThe cays are built by corals; the area is of significance as a fishery for king prawns These eight islands are part of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and all surrounded by reefs. Vegetation on the cays is dominated by the flowering tree species, Pisonia grandis. A further six cays form Capricornia Cays National Park: One Tree Island Wreck Island Fairfax Islands, Hoskyn Islands There is no public access to these cays.
Area: 0.44 km2 Coordinates: 23°20′07″S 151°57′24″E Managing authorities: Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service IUCN category: Ia Protected areas of Queensland Capricornia Cays National Park