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Brooke County, West Virginia

Brooke County is a county in the Northern Panhandle of the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,069, its county seat is Wellsburg. The county was created in 1797 from part of Ohio County and named in honor of Robert Brooke, Governor of Virginia from 1794 to 1796. Brooke County is part of the Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-WV-OH Combined Statistical Area; the Ohio Company of Virginia petitioned the British King for 500,000 acres of land in the Ohio River Valley in 1747, but the first settlers to this area, in what became known as West Virginia's Northern Panhandle, were brothers Jonathan and Friend Cox. They staked a "tomahawk claim" to 1200 acres at the mouth of Buffalo Creek and extending along the Ohio River, their cousin George Cox staked an adjacent claim a few years later. In 1788 Charles Prather purchased 481 acres from John Cox. In 1791 the Ohio County Court incorporated the town around the post as "Charlestown".

On November 30, 1796 the Virginia General Assembly formed Brooke County, from parts of Ohio County, designated "Charlestown" as the county seat. Across the Appalachian Continental Divide to the east in Jefferson County, another Charlestown had been incorporated. In addition, Charleston had been established at the confluence of the Elk and Kanawha rivers in 1788. Addressing this confusion, the Virginia General Assembly on December 28, 1816 changed the Brooke county seat's name from "Charlestown" to Wellsburg to honor Charles Wells, Prather's son-in-law; the first Masonic Lodge west of the Allegheny Mountains was established in Wellsburg on March 4, 1799. It was under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for six years, but since December 17, 1817, it has been under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Virginia and of West Virginia; the first glass factory in Wellsburg was built in 1813, taking advantage of the easy transportation on the Ohio River. When the National Road was built about five years its first crossing of the Ohio River was via a ferry further west.

In 1818 Alexander Campbell founded the first Virginia school west of the Appalachians, which the Virginia General Assembly chartered in 1840 as Bethany College. During the American Civil War, Brooke County's elected officials helped found the new state of West Virginia, after their efforts to block secession failed at the Virginia Secession Convention of 1861. Wellsburg received a new charter in 1866 from the newly established West Virginia legislature, Samuel Marks became Wellsburg's first elected mayor. In 1863, West Virginia's counties were divided into civil townships, with the intention of encouraging local government; this proved impractical in the rural state, in 1872 the townships were converted into magisterial districts. Brooke County was divided into three districts: Buffalo, Cross Creek, Wellsburg. Wellsburg District was co-extensive with the city of Wellsburg; the districts of Follansbee and Weirton were created between 1970 and 1980. Buffalo and Cross Creek Districts were discontinued in 2008.

According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 93 square miles, of which 89 square miles is land and 3.4 square miles is water. It is the second-smallest county in West Virginia by area; the highest point of elevation in Brooke County is 1372 ft. and located about 1.5 miles south of Franklin. US 22 WV 2 WV 27 WV 27 Alt. WV 67 WV 88 WV 105 Hancock County Washington County, Pennsylvania Ohio County Jefferson County, Ohio Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 25,447 people, 10,396 households, 7,152 families living in the county; the population density was 286 people per square mile. There were 11,150 housing units at an average density of 126 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.90% White, 0.85% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.09% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. 0.39 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 10,396 households out of which 26.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.30% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.20% were non-families.

27.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.88. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.40% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 25.80% from 25 to 44, 26.00% from 45 to 64, 18.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 91.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,981, the median income for a family was $39,948. Males had a median income of $34,397 versus $19,711 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,131. About 9.50% of families and 11.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.40% of those under age 18 and 9.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 24,069 people, 10,020 households, 6,636 families living in the county; the population density was 269.8 inhabitants p

Pancham Lal

Pancham Lal is a retired Indian Administrative Service cadre. Lal held the post of Principal Secretary, in Bihar. During his administrative career, he faced opposition from several different Chief Ministers as he criticised corruption and criminal links of state ministers. Lal was a 1974 batch IAS officer. In 2002 the Commission in Saran division of Bihar, Lal was removed from his post after having labelled Indian politicians as "looters and a pack of liars" at a public function; the affair became front-page news in local newspapers in Bihar. According to Lal he had been provoked by politicians using a government function to make political speeches. In the midst of the controversy, Lok Janshakti Party leader Ram Vilas Paswan expressed support for Lal. In 2006 he alleged that two Bihar state legislators stormed his office and threatened to kill him unless he restored a motor vehicles inspector he had suspended. At the time Lal worked as Transport Commissioner. Lal retired from IAS on 31 August 2011.

He caused controversy. In a statement following his retirement, Lal rebutted claims of development under Nitish Kumar's government in Bihar, he argued that "he present bureaucracy in Bihar is the most corrupt one in the history of the state Dalits have been the worst victim of the might of the state during the NDA rule and the people from downtrodden sections have been killed by the police in fake encounters or by painting them as the Maoists". Ahead of the 2014 Lok Sabha election, he was mentioned as a potential Bharatiya Janata Party candidate in the Sasaram seat. In the end, he sided with the All India Forward Bloc and was declared as the candidate for the party in the Pataliputra seat on 18 March 2014. Commenting on his candidature, Lal stated that his foremost objective was not to win the Lok Sabha seat but "to raise the cause of the oppressed and weaker sections, who are exploited and victimized"

Pleurophascum grandiglobum

Pleurophascum grandiglobum is a moss endemic to Tasmania and was first noted by S. O. Lindberg in 1875 for its peculiar form of cleistocarpous capsule, erect growth form, lateral perichaetia, ecostate leaves, its exceedingly large and brightly coloured capsules captured the heart of the 19th-century Scandinavian bryologist, who considered the moss to be "of no less interest to the Museologist than is Rafflesia or Welwitschia to the Phanerogamist". The species belongs to a monogeneric family Pleurophascaceae, found only in temperate Australasia and includes three different species. Pleurophascum ovalifolium, heretofore known as P. grandiglobum var. decurrens, is the New Zealand taxon while the last remaining member of the genus, Pleurophascum occidentale, occurs only in Western Australia. The relationship between P. grandiglobum and P. ovalifolium has been puzzling botanists such as Sainsbury for more than 50 years, it was not until that the New Zealand representative, restricted to the vicinity of Mt Arthur on the western coast of South Island, was recognised and given a new name.

The most discerning features of P. ovalifolium that separates it from P. grandiglobum are its distally erect leaf margins and bright orange-red capsules that become discoid when mature. P. Occidentale, on the other hand, is only found along coastal heaths in the southwest of Western Australia and has different morphological characteristics compared to its two congeners; these features include: sexual organs borne terminally on secondary stems and branching, predominantly by subperigonial and subperichaetial innovation. The name Pleurophascum originates from the Greek word pleuron, meaning lateral, whereas phascon refers to an indeterminate cryptogam, together they describe the capsules of P. grandiglobum arising from short, lateral branches. Following the initial discovery of P. grandiglobum by Lindberg in 1875, Pleurophascum was believed to be a monotypic genus restricted to Tasmania for 75 years. It contains three species, Pleurophascum grandiglobum and Pleurophascum occidentale, which are endemic to Australia and one, Pleurophascum ovalifolium, is only found on the west of the great Divide in South Island, New Zealand.

Brotherus placed the genus Pleurophascum in its own suborder Pleurophascineae within the Dicranales, highlighting its characteristic ecostate leaves, the lateral placement of its sex organs, its large and cleistocarpous capsules with immersed stomata. In 1984, Vitt proposed to place Pleurophascum in a monotypic family Pleurophascaceae within the suborder Dicranineae while Buck and Goffinet suggested that it be placed within the Bryaceae or the Pottiaceae according to molecular and morphological studies; the ordinal and familial allocation of genus Pleurophascum thus remains as one of Australasia’s bryological curiosities and is still open to debate, with molecular techniques and ontogenetic studies being the most suitable means of unlocking its mystery. P. grandiglobum is a comose, medium-sized to robust moss with shoots that are 10 mm tall, solitary or in loose colonies, bright yellow-green above and dark brown below. The primary stem grows underground in a creeping fashion while sparse lateral branches and pale, smooth rhizoids grow from secondary branches.

Its on-decurrent, costaless leaves are concave, blunt or apiculate, crowded at stem apices, forming elongate comae in fertile plants. Leaf margins are recurved above or nearly to the leaf base and entire or with a few irregular teeth; the perichaetia borne on lateral branches surrounds several archegonia mixed with uniseriate paraphyses, upon fertilisation, swells to 5–7 mm long. The perigonia is scattered on short lateral branches found on secondary stems, enclosing up to 70 short antheridia and uniseriate paraphyses; the large, globose capsule is unmistakable when present and is held suspended on a long setae 18–25 mm in length, with the capsule itself being 2.6-4.9 mm in diameter. At the apex of the inoperculate capsule is a small apiculus, the calyptra perched atop as a tiny beak. At the base of the capsule there is an abundance of stomata present. Capsules mature between spring to late-autumn, changing from pale green to orange and splitting open at the side to release smooth, oval spores 35-57 µm in diameter.

Its broad altitudinal range contributed to the extended fruiting period. It is important to note that the capsules of P. grandiglobum are always globuse and never transition into a bright orange-red discoid as do the mature capsules of P. ovalifolium. P. grandiglobum can be found throughout the west and central highlands of Tasmania, extending up to the Neasey Plains in the northwest and down to Mt Esperance and Birch Inlet in the southeast. This spectacular, terrestrial moss is only known to inhabit the wet or boggy soils on the subalpine Tasmanian button-grass moorlands, where sea level is around 1400 m. In the southwest, the species favour peaty to gravelly quartzitic substrates while at higher elevations it grows in wet flushes amongst other bryophytes, or in boggy sedgelands dominated by Gleichenia alpina, Astelia alpina, the Sprengelia incarnate. D

Jaguaré Bezerra de Vasconcelos

Jaguaré Bezerra de Vasconcelos known as Jaguaré in Brazil and as Jaguare de Besveconne Vasconcellos in France, was a Brazilian association football goalkeeper. When playing with CR Vasco da Gama, he won the championship of Rio de Janeiro, he played for FC Barcelona, Sporting CP and SC Corinthians Paulista. The most successful period of his career was in the 1930s with the French club Olympique Marseille. In Brazil, he is considered to be the person who popularised the use of gloves by goalkeepers. Jaguaré, who had no formal education, worked as a stevedore at the port of Rio. In his leisure time he enjoyed physical exercise and played football on the grounds of his neighbourhood of Saúde, a quarter close to the port, still marked today by the simple accommodations of the local labourers. There he impressed Espanhol, a defender with CR Vasco da Gama, who took him to a training session of his club in 1928, he impressed the other club members and established himself as the new goalkeeper, after he had been told how to write his name so that he could register on match sheets.

In 1929, he was part of the team. His most prominent teammates were the elegant midfielder Fausto dos Santos, considered the best of his era in Brasil, Moacir Siqueira de Queirós Russinho, who were both to play for Brazil at the World Cup of 1930. Jaguaré was called up for the national team but, between 1928 and 1929, he played in only three unofficial matches against club teams from Scotland and Argentina. Between June and August 1931, Vasco da Gama, reinforced with several players such as Nilo and Carvalho Leite from Botafogo FC, players from Rio, went on a trip to Europe; this was only the second trip to Europe by a Brazilian club, following that of CA Paulistano in 1925. In twelve matches in Portugal and Spain, against teams such as: FC Barcelona, FC Porto, S. L. Benfica and Sporting CP in Lisbon, the team of Vasco, coached by Harry Welfare, won eight times. Jaguaré and Fausto dos Santos must have made an impression in the two matches against FC Barcelona, as both were given contracts to play for the club as professionals.

In Brazil, at that time, football was still an amateur sport. However, Jaguaré, soon nicknamed Araña Negra, dos Santos, could only be used in about a dozen friendly matches, as the rules of the association prevented foreigners from participating in official matches. FC Barcelona attempted to convince both players to naturalize and take up Spanish citizenship, but both refused, despite the excellent financial considerations offered. Dos Santos Jaguaré returned to Brazil, it is reportedthat, at some point around this time, he turned up to train at his old club Vasco da Gama sporting goalkeeper gloves. This is considered to be the first use of gloves by a goalkeeper in Brazil. After he left Vasco to play professionally in Europe, however, he was no longer well regarded at the club and in Rio de Janeiro in general. To keep afloat financially, he travelled around with so-called "combinados", ad hoc teams, allowed himself to be used as a figurehead for the marketing of various festivities and other events.

From 1934 to 1935 he guarded the goal of SC Corinthians Paulista in São Paulo, where he ended up being replaced by José Hungarez, the first foreigner in the ranks of the Corinthians. Fernando Giudicelli was one of the first Brazilians to opt for a career as a professional player in Europe in an era when football in Brazil was still an amateur sport, he acted as a player agent helping South American footballers secure engagements at European clubs. In mid-1935, he convinced Jaguaré to join him playing for a club in Italy alongside the defender Marins Alves de Araújo Viana, who had also played for the Corinthians or for CA Paulista. After their voyage across the Atlantic, their first port of call was Lisbon, where they got news of the commencement of the Second Italo-Abyssinian War; because of this they decided not to continue the journey to their intended destination. However, they were soon taken on by the first Brazilians to play in club history. Giudicelli was to play only two matches for the Lisbon side moved on to play for Real Madrid and in France.

Jaguaré stayed a bit longer with Sporting. After a total of seven matches for Sporting, Jaguaré found himself replaced by João Azevedo, to remain goalkeeper of the club for the next one and a half decades. In mid 1936, he joined the French first division club Olympique Marseille, where he replaced Laurent Di Lorto, who moved to FC Sochaux-Montbéliard a major force in French football. After Jaguaré's first season with Olympique coached by the Hungarian József Eisenhoffer, alongside some exceptional players from three continents, such as: Aznar, Ben Barek, Ben Bouali, Kohut and Zatelli, they won the national championship – the first such title in club history. In the following season, Marseille could not defend finishing second behind Sochaux, but they won the Cup of France. In Jaguaré's last season with the club, 1938/39, Marseille once again finished second in the league, this time behind FC Sète. In 1937/38 he made history, scoring a penalty goal in Sète, securing the final result of 1–1. To date, this is the only goal by an Olympique Marseille goalkeeper in an official match.

On in the same match, he stopped two penalty kicks by opponents, which hit the Marseille goal posts four times. He vociferously encouraged opposing attackers to shoot, calling "chuta, chuta!". These and other eccentricities contributed to Jaguaré, nicknam


Serule is a village in Central District of Botswana. Serule, with a latitude of -21.95 and a longitude of 27.3, is a streets, roads, or railroad. The village is located along the road between Francistown and Palapye, is an important railroad junction with rails leading towards north to Francistown, south to Palapye and east to the mining town of Selebi-Phikwe, 72 km from Palapye north up the A1 road, 88 km from Francistown down south the A1 road and 60 km west of Selibe Phikwe to the T-junction; the location is situated 340 kilometers east of the approximate center of Botswana and 332 kilometers north east of the capital Gaborone. The population according to the 2001 census was 2,268 and it is estimated at more than 3000 in the latest 2011 census; the people of Serule Village comprises different ethnicities namely Bangwato, Batalaote, Bakalanga and its six wards are Mothoathubega, Mokwena, Botalaote and Leupane. A 100 square km area around Serule has an approximate population of 1515 and an average elevation of 993 meters above the sea.

The chieftaincy of the village is headed by Kgosi Oletile Modisa, a Motalaote who took over in 2001 from the chief Tau Lesego. Oletile Modisa is the elder son of the village founding father Kgosi Gabana. Kgosi Modisa is assisted by Kgosi Mmese; the newly formed ward Mothoathubega is developing quite drastically with modern houses being erected. The headman of the ward is Mr Letebele matswelenyane; the ward houses the likes of Tsholofelo Lenyena, a prominent high school mathematics teacher. The people of Serule are conservative and the majority of the village tend to lean towards the ruling Botswana Democratic Party; the Botswana National Front's presence in the village died following the birth of the Botswana Congress Party which continues to be the other party present in the village although without much following. The Councillor of Serule is Seno Fane Mokhondo under the ticket of the ruling Botswana Democratic Party. Incumbent Councillor Seno Fane Mokhondo is a recipient of the 2006 Presidential Certificate of Honour.

The Presidential Certificate of Honour is described as “a certificate awarded for long and faithful service to Botswana.” The country's current Minister of Defense and Justice is the village's representative at Botswana National Assembly in the Serowe North East Constituency, under the ruling party. Previous legislators who have represented Serule include former president Festus Gontebanye Mogae and former cabinet minister Lephimotswe Boyce Sebetlela. Although Serule is a small village with a small population, over the past decades there have been significant growth in terms of infrastructural development; the housing system is evidently at par with urban and modern houses. Much of the amenities that can be seen in other parts of Botswana and urban places are present in Serule. Botswana's Number 10. In the village are Little Tomy Day Care Centre, Serule Primary School, Bonwatlou Junior School, Serule Clinic, a post office, its strategic position along the country's main A1 road has led to the establishment of the WeightBridge for trucks and other big vehicles in the early 2000s.

The village enjoys a significant kilometres of tarred roads within. Present is the Majoje monument, situated in the Majoje hills, like a museum of the village; the people of Serule Village are farmers and depend much on agriculture although there is a significant number of natives who eke out a living from both formal and informal employment within the village and outside in urban areas. A majority of them are into subsistence farming, they own livestock in cattleposts of Makgorwane, Libu and Seokane. Majoje lands are the most common place for the natives where they till the land for agricultural production. Small scale manufacturing for household items is evident as well as traces of handicrafts and wood carvings. There is a high rate of harvesting of the seasonal caterpillar of a Mopane worm known as Phane. Phane is an important source of protein for millions of indigenous Southern Africans and a valuable source of income where it is sold after being harvested and dried. In 2007, BSE-listed A-Cap Resources, which has a prospecting licence covering 4, 500 square kilometres in the area, has announced the discovery of new uranium deposits in Serule Village, where drilling began in 2008.

The company announced 158 million pounds of uranium in November 2009. Uranium as a low CO2 energy source is controversial after the Fukushima disasters. Railway stations in Botswana

5 News

5 News is the news programme of British broadcaster Channel 5 produced by ITN from their main newsroom on Grays Inn Road, London. From 1 January 2005, Sky News was awarded the contract to provide the news for Channel 5, replacing ITN, which had provided the channel's news service from the channel's launch in 1997. On 14 February 2011, the service was rebranded back to its original name, 5 News, having been called Five News from 2002 until 2011. On 20 February 2012 the contract returned to original provider ITN. On 5 November 2015 5 News at 5 anchor Emma Crosby announced she was leaving 5 News after four years to have a baby. Sian Williams replaced her on 4 January 2016 after months of interim anchors from Channel 5's team of on-screen journalists. On 31 October 2016, a new look for the 5 News set was shown for the first time, featuring the shape of a 5 within the desk. There is a new look for weather, now associated with the Met Office. Following the departure of weathergirl Sian Welby, former GMTV weather presenter Clare Nasir took over the role on Monday 31 October 2016.

5 News was one of the new station's flagship programmes when it launched on 30 March 1997. One of the launch newsreaders was Rob Butler, who would appear on Lily Savage's Blankety Blank in 2001, it was produced by ITN, which at the time provided the news for Channel 4 and ITV. It was announced on 9 March 2004 that Sky had won the new contract to provide Channel 5 with its news bulletins; the first Sky-produced bulletin was planned for 3 January 2005 but the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami brought this forward two days in a short Saturday evening update. In January 2009, the contract with Sky was extended to 2012. Five News pioneered a number of innovations in style and content of news and won numerous awards in its early years. On 18 February 2008, Five News was given a refreshed look with new theme music, titles, the titles were refreshed in October of that year to coincide with Five's rebrand; the 7pm edition was rebranded Five News at 7 and saw the return of presenters standing up to read the news.

On 10 August 2009, Channel 5 announced that its Five News at 7 programme would be axed in the autumn of 2009 along with newscaster Isla Traquair, who had presented it. On 28 August 2009, at the end of the programme, Isla announced that it was her last appearance, on 4 September, Matt Barbet presented the last programme. Five News at 7 was replaced by the hour-long Live from Studio Five, a nightly magazine programme featuring a mix of news and chat, airing from 6:30pm weeknights, from 14 September 2009; the show rivalled the BBC One programme The One Show. In November 2009, James Partridge of facial disfigurement charity Changing Faces presented the lunchtime news bulletins all week. On 2 August 2010, Five News at 7 was reinstated, after a change of ownership of the channel. Live from Studio Five was cut to 30 minutes as a result. On 14 October 2010, Natasha Kaplinsky announced that she was leaving Channel 5 at the end of 2010, having spent much of her three years at the broadcaster on maternity leave.

In February 2011, Emma Crosby was appointed as Kaplinsky's replacement and presenter of the 7pm bulletin, with Barbet hosting the 5pm edition. The service was relaunched as 5 News on 14 February 2011 to match Channel 5's rebranding, with Crosby making her first appearance. On the 2 September 2011 it was announced that David Kermode, at-the-time editor, would leave 5 News in order to take up an editorial spot on Daybreak, he was replaced by Geoff Hill. On 9 January 2012, due to the production handover from Sky News to ITN, the 7pm edition of 5 News was moved to the earlier timeslot of 6:30pm in place of the axed OK! TV; the ITN produced 5 News bulletins relaunched on 20 February 2012 with newscasters Matt Barbet and Emma Crosby retaining their roles as lead newscasters. The bulletin's website and social media offerings were relaunched at this time. On 11 June 2012 it was announced, he left on 26 July 2012 with Emma Crosby now presenting both editions. In September 2013, ITN announced that Geoff Hill was to leave 5 News to become the new Editor of ITV News.

The following month ITN announced that ITV News' Head of Output, Cristina Nicolotti Squires would become the new Editor of 5 News in November 2013. On 16 April 2014, it was announced on Twitter that following Matt Barbet's departure from Daybreak, he would be returning to 5 News and ITN to present 5 News Tonight – a new show at 6:30pm, replacing NewsTalk Live, on 28 April 2014. Emma Crosby would continue to present 5 News at 5pm. On 5 November 2015, Emma Crosby announced. Sian Williams from BBC News was to replace her in early 2016. On 31 October 2016, a new look for 5 News was aired; the 5 News team went back to their old home at the ITN building. The new studio and set included the desk in the shape of a 5; until March 2009, Channel 5 had a dedicated team of weather presenters. Sky News weather presenters provided forecasts for the channel; this changed in November 2010 when Sian Welby joined Channel 5 as weather presenter, with former BBC and ITV meteorologist Kirsty McCabe providing cover. As of October 2016, Channel 5 Weather is in partnership with the Met Office, with former GMTV weather presenter Clare Nasir fronting forecasts.

5 News provided afternoon and evening updates on the hour, every hour during the week. A'ticker' was used during these updates, the first seen on a terrestrial news broadcast, outside of a simulcast with a news channel; this was switched to a weather ticker before being dropped in 2007. A presenter standing up or'perching' rather than sitting behind a desk; this feature was banned by the channel in 2007