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Brookings County, South Dakota

Brookings County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 31,965, making it the fifth-most populous county in South Dakota, its county seat is Brookings. The county was created in 1862 and organized in 1871. Brookings County comprises SD Micropolitan Statistical Area; the county was founded July 3, 1871, was named for Wilmot Wood Brookings, a politician and pioneer of southeastern South Dakota. Medary was the first county seat, from 1871 to 1879. Brookings County is on the east side of South Dakota, its east boundary line abuts the west boundary line of the state of Minnesota. The Big Sioux River flows south-southeastward through the east central part of the county; the county terrain consists of sloped flatlands, marked by numerous lakes and ponds in the western part. The area is devoted to agricultural use; the county has a total area of 805 square miles, of which 782 square miles is land and 13 square miles is water. Brookings Regional Airport Arlington Municipal Airport As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 28,220 people, 10,665 households, 6,217 families in the county.

The population density was 36 people per square mile. There were 11,576 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.36% White, 0.31% Black or African American, 0.90% Native American, 1.34% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. 0.88 % of the population were Latino of any race. 39.2 % were of 23.2 % Norwegian and 5.7 % Irish ancestry. There were 10,665 households out of which 28.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.00% were married couples living together, 6.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.70% were non-families. 29.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.97. The county population contained 20.80% under the age of 18, 26.80% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 17.30% from 45 to 64, 10.90% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females there were 102.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,438, the median income for a family was $48,052. Males had a median income of $30,843 versus $22,074 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,586. About 6.20% of families and 14.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.10% of those under age 18 and 7.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 31,965 people, 12,029 households, 6,623 families in the county; the population density was 40.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,137 housing units at an average density of 16.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.2% white, 2.7% Asian, 0.9% American Indian, 0.8% black or African American, 0.9% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 47.9% were German, 24.3% were Norwegian, 11.9% were Irish, 6.9% were English, 6.1% were Dutch, 2.0% were American.

Of the 12,029 households, 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.9% were non-families, 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 26.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $45,134 and the median income for a family was $63,338. Males had a median income of $40,425 versus $30,023 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,995. About 5.9% of families and 19.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.2% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. Aurora Bushnell Sinai Lake Poinsett Ahnberg Medary Brookings County voters are reliably Republican. In only two national elections since 1932 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Brookings County, South Dakota Brookings County, SD government website

Bobbitt reaction

The Bobbitt reaction is a name reaction in organic chemistry. It is named after the american chemist James M. Bobbitt; the reaction allows the synthesis of 1-, 4-, N-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines and 1-, 4-substituted isoquinolines. The reaction scheme below shows the synthesis of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline from benzaldehyde and 2,2-diethylethylamine. A possible mechanism is depicted below: First the benzaliminoacetal 3 is built by the condensation of benzaldehyde 1 and 2,2-diethylethylamine 2. After the condensation the C=N-double bond in 3 is hydrogenated to form 4. Subsequently, an ethanol is removed. Next, the compound 5 is built including the cyclization step. After that the C=C-double bond in 5 is hydrogenated. Thus, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline 6 is formed; the Bobbitt reaction has found application in the preparation of some alkaloids such as carnegine, lophocerine and salsoline. Pomeranz–Fritsch reaction

Capitulation (treaty)

A capitulation is a treaty or unilateral contract by which a sovereign state relinquishes jurisdiction within its borders over the subjects of a foreign state. As a result, the foreign subjects are immune, for most civil and criminal purposes, from actions by courts and other governmental institutions in the state that makes the capitulation. In Turkey arrangements termed capitulations, treaties confirmatory of them, have been made between the Porte and other states by which foreigners resident in Turkey are subject to the laws of their respective countries. In the 9th century, the caliph Harun al-Rashid granted guarantees and commercial facilities to such Franks, subjects of the emperor Charlemagne, as should visit the East with the authorization of their emperor. After the break-up of the Frankish empire, similar concessions were made to some of the independent Italian city-states that grew up on its ruins. Thus, in 1098, the prince of Antioch granted a charter of this nature to the city of Genoa.

Saladin, sultan of Babylon, granted a charter to the town of Pisa in 1173. The Byzantine Emperors followed this example, Genoa and Venice all obtained capitulations; the explanation of the practice is to be found in the fact that the sovereignty of the state was held in those ages to apply only to its subjects. The privilege of citizenship was considered too precious to be extended to the alien, long an outlaw, but when the numbers and power of foreigners residing within the state became too great, it was found to be politic to subject them to some law, it was held that this law should be their own. When the Turkish rule was substituted for that of the Byzantine emperors, the system in existence was continued; the treaty of 1641 between the Netherlands and Portugal contains the first European formula. Cromwell continued the commercial treaty policy in order to obtain a formal recognition of the Commonwealth from foreign powers, his treaty of 1654 with Sweden contains the first reciprocal most favored nation clause: Article IV provides that the people and inhabitants of either confederate shall have and possess in the countries, lands and kingdoms of the other as full and ample privileges, as many exemptions and liberties, as any foreigner doth or shall possess in the dominions and kingdoms of the said confederate.

The government of the Restoration replaced and enlarged the Protectorate arrangements by fresh agreements. The general policy of the Commonwealth was maintained, with further provisions on behalf of colonial trade. In the new treaty of 1661 with Sweden the privileges secured were those that any foreigner should enjoy in the dominions and kingdoms on both sides; the English capitulations date from 1569, secured the same treatment as the Venetians, French and the subjects of the emperor of Germany. The extensive employment of Swiss mercenaries by the French monarchy between 1444 and 1792, was governed by contracts. Concluded between the French monarchy and individual Swiss cantons or noble families, these documents were known as "capitulations", because of a standard format which involved the division of the document into capitula. While differing in details, the usual agreement covered commitments such as the number of soldiers to be provided, payments or other benefits, immunity from French law.

Conclave capitulation ahidnâme This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Capitulation". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Capitulations". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press

John de Lugo

John de Lugo, a Spanish Jesuit and Cardinal, was an eminent theologian of the Baroque. He was born in November, 1583 in Madrid, though he used to call himself a "Hispalensis", because his family seat was at Seville. Both his father and his mother were of noble birth. At the age of three years he could read written books. Like his elder brother, Francis, he was sent by his father to the University of Salamanca to study law, but Francis entered the Society of Jesus where he became a distinguished theologian and John soon desired to follow his brother. He twice asked his father for permission to join the order but, having failed to receive it, joined in any case in 1603. After completing his studies he was appointed professor of philosophy at Medina del Campo in 1611 and professor of theology at Valladolid where he taught for five years, his fame as a professor of theology attracted the attention of the General of the Jesuits, Muzio Vitelleschi and de Lugo was summoned to Rome where he arrived early in June 1621.

It is said that his lectures before being printed were spread by copyists in other countries. When the General of the Society ordered him to print his works, he obeyed and without help had the material for the first three volumes prepared within five years; when the fourth volume, De justitia et jure, was about to be published, his superiors thought it proper that he should dedicate it to Pope Urban VIII. The fine carriage sent by the Barberini to bring him as a cardinal to the pope's palace, he called his hearse; this put an end to de Lugo's teaching. As Cardinal, he had occasion to place his learning at the service of the Church in the deliberations of the took part in the Roman congregations of the Holy Office and of the Council. At the death of Pope Urban, de Lugo participated in the papal conclave of 1644. Being a creature of the Barberini, most considered he would vote in favour of their French faction candidate, Giulio Cesare Sacchetti. Instead, he surprised the College of Cardinals and declared himself in favour of the Spanish candidate, Giovanni Battista Pamphili, elected and took the name Pope Innocent X.

He died at Rome on 20 August 1660, age seventy-seven, being assisted by his fellow Jesuit Cardinal Francesco Sforza Pallavicino, one of his most devoted disciples. According to his wish, he was buried near the tomb of the order's founder St. Ignatius of Loyola so that "his heart might rest where his treasure was", as is said in his epitaph, his generosity to the poor was renowned, although his income was small, he daily distributed among them bread and remedies, such as quinquina newly discovered, which the people at Rome used for a time to call Lugo's powder. The works of Juan de Lugo, some of which have never been printed, cover nearly the whole field of moral - and dogmatic theology; the first volume, De Incarnatione Domini, of which the short preface is well worth reading to get an idea of de Lugo's method, came out in 1633. It was followed by De sacramentis in genere. In composition of this important treatise, he was aided by his knowledge of law acquired in his younger days at Salamanca, it was this work which he dedicated and presented to the pope in person and which may be said to have gained for him a cardinal's hat.

De Lugo wrote to other works: De virtuto fidei divinæ, Responsorum morialum libri sex, published by his former pupil, fellow Jesuit and friend, Cardinal Francesco Sforza Pallavicino. In these six books de Lugo gives, after thorough discussion, the solution of many difficult cases in moral theology; the seventh volume, "De Deo, de Angelis, de Actibus humanis et de Gratia", was published over fifty years after the author's death. Other works on theology and on philosophy: "De Anima", "Philosophia", "Logica", "De Trinitate", "De Visione Dei", etc. are still preserved in manuscripts in the libraries of Madrid, Karlsruhe, Mechlin etc. Among the unprinted works, the analysis of Arnauld's book, De frequenti Communione and the Memorie del conclave d'Innocenzo X: Riposta al discorso... che le corone hanno jus d'eschiudere li cardinali del Pontificato may be of special interest. What he intended in his writings was not to give a long treatise, exhaustive from every point of view. Other features of his theological conception

Factor price equalization

Factor price equalization is an economic theory, by Paul A. Samuelson, which states that the prices of identical factors of production, such as the wage rate, or the rent of capital, will be equalized across countries as a result of international trade in commodities; the theorem assumes that there are two goods and two factors of production, for example capital and labour. Other key assumptions of the theorem are that each country faces the same commodity prices, because of free trade in commodities, uses the same technology for production, produces both goods. Crucially these assumptions result in factor prices being equalized across countries without the need for factor mobility, such as migration of labor or capital flows. A simple summary of this theory is when the prices of the output goods are equalized between countries as they move to free trade the prices of the factors will be equalized between countries. Whichever factor receives the lowest price before two countries integrate economically and become one market will therefore tend to become more expensive relative to other factors in the economy, while those with the highest price will tend to become cheaper.

In a competitive market the return to a factor of production depends upon the value of its marginal productivity. The marginal productivity of a factor, like labor, in turn depends upon the amount of labor being used as well as the amount of capital; as the amount of labor rises in an industry, labor's marginal productivity falls. As the amount of capital rises, labor's marginal productivity rises; the value of productivity depends upon the output price commanded by the good in the market. An often-cited example of factor price equalization is wages; when two countries enter a free trade agreement, wages for identical jobs in both countries tend to approach each other. The result was first proven mathematically as an outcome of the Heckscher-Ohlin model assumptions. Stated the theorem says that when the prices of the output goods are equalized between countries as they move to free trade the prices of the input factors will be equalized between countries; this theory was independently discovered by Abba Lerner in 1933 but was published much in 1952.

The "Lerner Diagram" remains a key analytical tool in teaching international trade theory. List of international trade topics

Sonny Myers

Harold "Sonny" Myers was an American professional wrestler, involved in the business for sixty years. Myers held prominent heavyweight championships in several territories, most notably the Central States territory, where he was the NWA Central States Heavyweight Champion fourteen times, he held various tag team championships, as well as a brief reign as NWA World Heavyweight Champion having defeated Orville Brown in November 1947. His championship was forgotten when the National Wrestling Alliance was formed a year recognizing Brown as champion. After wrestling Myers acted as sheriff in Buchanan County and promoted a Sonny Myers Carnival for 22 years. Sonny Myers died after a long illness on May 7, 2007. Central States Wrestling NWA Central States Heavyweight Championship NWA Central States Tag Team Championship - with Bobby Graham NWA North American Tag Team Championship - with Pat O'Connor and Ron Etchison NWA United States Heavyweight Championship NWA World Tag Team Championship - with Thor Hagen and Pat O'Connor Gulf Coast Championship Wrestling NWA Southern Junior Heavyweight Championship Southwest Sports, Inc.

NWA Texas Heavyweight Championship 1 St. Louis Wrestling Club NWA Missouri Heavyweight Championship Western States Sports NWA North American Heavyweight Championship NWA Southwest Heavyweight Championship NWA Southwest Tag Team Championship - with Dizzy Davis, Leo Garibaldi, Larry Chene 1Myers' first reign with the title occurred prior to the formation of the National Wrestling Alliance and prior to the NWA assuming control over the championship. Sonny Myers biography/obituary at SLAM! Wrestling