Fulton Street (IND Crosstown Line)
Fulton Street is a station on the IND Crosstown Line of the New York City Subway, located on Lafayette Avenue between South Portland Avenue and Fulton Street in Brooklyn. It is served by the G train at all times; this station opened on July 1, 1937, when the entire Crosstown Line was completed between Nassau Avenue and its connection to the IND Culver Line. On this date, the GG was extended in both directions to Smith–Ninth Streets and Forest Hills–71st Avenue; this underground station has two side platforms. Both platforms have a lime green trim line on a darker green border and name tablets reading "FULTON ST" in white sans serif font on a dark green background and lime green border. Small black "FULTON" signs in white lettering run along the trim line at regular intervals and directional signs in the same style are below the name tablets. Blue i-beam columns run along both platforms at regular intervals with alternating ones having the standard black station name plate in white lettering; the station is close to the Crosstown Line's junction with the IND Fulton Street Line just west of Lafayette Avenue, although the two stations do not have an in-system transfer.
Riders on Manhattan-bound A and C trains can catch a glimpse of this station's platforms through the right-side windows a few seconds after leaving Lafayette Avenue. There is an employee-only connection between the two stations via the tunnels. A proposed transfer to the busy Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center complex was rejected by the MTA due to the long walking distance between the two stations; this station tracks. However, most of it has been converted to employee-use only and the staircases leading up to it from the platforms are sealed off. At the extreme north end of the station, a single staircase from each platform goes up to a single full height turnstile before a staircase goes up to either western corners of South Portland and Lafayette Avenues, the northwest one for the Queens-bound platform and the southwest one for the Church Avenue-bound platform; the exit to the Church Avenue-bound platform was closed in the mid-1980s due to concerns over maintenance expense and potential crime, but was reopened in July 2005 following community pressure.
The station's full-time fare control area is at the extreme south end of the Church Avenue-bound platform. A bank of turnstiles at platform level leads to a token booth and one staircase going up to the northeast corner of Lafayette Avenue and Fulton Street. A crossunder here connects to the Queens-bound platform. Barclays Center Brooklyn Academy of Music Brooklyn Technical High School Fort Greene Park Irondale Center Mark Morris Dance Center MoCADA nycsubway.org – IND Crosstown: Fulton Street Station Reporter — G Train The Subway Nut — Fulton Street Pictures Fulton Street entrance from Google Maps Street View South Portland Avenue entrance from Google Maps Street View Platforms from Google Maps Street View
The Metropolitan Opera is an opera company based in New York City, resident at the Metropolitan Opera House at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. The company is operated by the non-profit Metropolitan Opera Association, with Peter Gelb as general manager; as of 2018, the company's current music director is Yannick Nézet-Séguin. The Met was founded in 1880 as an alternative to the established Academy of Music opera house, debuted in 1883 in a new building on 39th and Broadway, it moved to the new Lincoln Center location in 1966. The Metropolitan Opera is the largest classical music organization in North America, it presents about 27 different operas each year from late September through May. The operas are presented in a rotating repertory schedule, with up to seven performances of four different works staged each week. Performances are given in the evening Monday through Saturday with a matinée on Saturday. Several operas are presented in new productions each season. Sometimes these are shared with other opera companies.
The rest of the year's operas are given in revivals of productions from previous seasons. The 2015–16 season comprised 227 performances of 25 operas; the operas in the Met's repertoire consist of a wide range of works, from 18th-century Baroque and 19th-century Bel canto to the Minimalism of the late 20th century. These operas are presented in staged productions that range in style from those with elaborate traditional decors to others that feature modern conceptual designs; the Met's performing company consists of a large symphony-sized orchestra, a chorus, children's choir, many supporting and leading solo singers. The company employs numerous free-lance dancers, actors and other performers throughout the season; the Met's roster of singers includes both international and American artists, some of whose careers have been developed through the Met's young artists programs. While many singers appear periodically as guests with the company, such as Renée Fleming and Plácido Domingo, long maintained a close association with the Met, appearing many times each season until they retired.
The Metropolitan Opera Company was founded in 1880 to create an alternative to New York's old established Academy of Music opera house. The subscribers to the Academy's limited number of private boxes represented the highest stratum in New York society. By 1880, these "old money" families were loath to admit New York's newly wealthy industrialists into their long-established social circle. Frustrated with being excluded, the Metropolitan Opera's founding subscribers determined to build a new opera house that would outshine the old Academy in every way. A group of 22 men assembled at Delmonico's restaurant on April 28, 1880, they established subscriptions for ownership in the new company. The new theater, built at 39th and Broadway, would include three tiers of private boxes in which the scions of New York's powerful new industrial families could display their wealth and establish their social prominence; the first Met subscribers included members of the Morgan and Vanderbilt families, all of whom had been excluded from the Academy.
The new Metropolitan Opera House opened on October 22, 1883, was an immediate success and artistically. The Academy of Music's opera season folded. In its early decades the Met did not produce the opera performances itself but hired prominent manager/impresarios to stage a season of opera at the new Metropolitan Opera House. Henry Abbey served as manager for the inaugural season, 1883–84, which opened with a performance of Charles Gounod's Faust starring the brilliant Swedish soprano Christina Nilsson. Abbey's company that first season featured an ensemble of artists led by sopranos Nilsson and Marcella Sembrich, they gave 150 performances of 20 different operas by Gounod, Bellini, Verdi, Mozart, Bizet and Ponchielli. All performances were sung in Italian and were conducted either by music director Auguste Vianesi or Cleofonte Campanini; the company performed not only in the new Manhattan opera house, but started a long tradition of touring throughout the country. In the winter and spring of 1884 the Met presented opera in theaters in Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, Washington D.
C. and Baltimore. Back in New York, the last night of the season featured a long gala performance to benefit Mr. Abbey; the special program consisted not only of various scenes from opera, but offered Mme. Sembrich playing the violin and the piano, as well as the famed stage actors Henry Irving and Ellen Terry in a scene from Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice; the Metropolitan Opera began a long history of performing in Philadelphia during its first season, presenting its entire repertoire in the city during January and April 1884. The company's first Philadelphia performance was of Faust on January 14, 1884, at the Chestnut Street Opera House; the Met continued to perform annually in Philadelphia for nearly eighty years, taking the entire company to the city on selected Tuesday nights throughout the opera season. Performances were held at Philadelphia's Academy of Music, with the company presenting close to 900 performances in the city by 1961 when the Met's regular visits ceased. On April 26, 1910, the Met purchased the Philadelphia Opera House from Oscar Hammerstein I.
The company renamed the house the Metropolitan Opera House and performed all of their Philadelphia performances there unti
Faust is an opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré from Carré's play Faust et Marguerite, in turn loosely based on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust, Part One. It debuted at the Théâtre Lyrique on the Boulevard du Temple in Paris on 19 March 1859, with influential sets designed by Charles-Antoine Cambon and Joseph Thierry, Jean Émile Daran, Édouard Desplechin, Philippe Chaperon; the original version of Faust employed spoken dialogue, it was in this form that the work was first performed. The manager of the Théâtre Lyrique, Léon Carvalho cast his wife Marie Miolan-Carvalho as Marguerite and there were various changes during production, including the removal and contraction of several numbers; the tenor Hector Gruyer was cast as Faust but was found to be inadequate during rehearsals, being replaced by a principal of the Opéra-Comique, Joseph-Théodore-Désiré Barbot, shortly before the opening night. After a successful initial run at the Théâtre Lyrique the publisher Antoine Choudens, who purchased the copyright for 10,000 francs, took the work on tour through Germany, Belgium and England, with Marie Miolan-Carvalho repeating her role.
Performances in Germany followed, with Dresden Semperoper in 1861 being the first to bill the work as Margarethe rather than Faust. For many years this custom - or alternatively, staging the opera as Gretchen - continued in Germany; some sources claim this was out of respect for Part I of Goethe's poetic drama, which the opera follows closely. Others claim the opposite: that the retitling was done to emphasise Gounod's opera's reliance on Goethe's characters, to differentiate it from Spohr's Faust, which had held the stage for many years in Germany and had appeared in a three-act revision, it is possible that the 1861 Dresden title change was out of respect for Spohr's close and long association with the city. The opera was given for the first time in Italy at La Scala in 1862 and in England at Her Majesty’s Theatre, London in 1863. In 1864, when the opera was given at the same venue in English, Gounod took a theme from the prelude to the opera and wrote a new aria for the star baritone Charles Santley in the role of Valentin,'Even bravest heart may swell'.
This number was translated into French for subsequent productions as ‘Avant de quitter ces lieux’ and has become one of the most familiar pieces from the opera. In 1869 a ballet had to be inserted before the work could be played at the Opéra: it became the most performed opera at that house. With the change from spoken dialogue to sung recitatives, plus the musical and balletic additions, the opera was thus transformed into a work following the conventions of grand opera. Although the opera is still performed, it no longer sits in the "top twenty" performed worldwide, it was Faust with which the Metropolitan Opera in New York City opened for the first time on 22 October 1883. It is the eighth most performed opera there, with 753 performances through the 2012-2013 season, it was not until the period between 1965 and 1977 that the full version was performed, all performances in that production included the Walpurgisnacht ballet. Place: Germany Time: 16th century Faust's cabinet Faust, an aging scholar, determines that his studies have come to nothing and have only caused him to miss out on life and love.
He stops each time when he hears a choir. He curses science and faith, asks for infernal guidance. Méphistophélès appears and, with a tempting image of Marguerite at her spinning wheel, persuades Faust to buy Méphistophélès's services on earth in exchange for Faust's in Hell. Faust's goblet of poison is magically transformed into an elixir of youth, making the aged doctor a handsome young gentleman. At the city gates A chorus of students and villagers sings a drinking song. Valentin, leaving for war with his friend Wagner, entrusts the care of his sister Marguerite to his youthful friend Siébel. Méphistophélès appears, provides the crowd with wine, sings a rousing, irreverent song about the Golden Calf. Méphistophélès maligns Marguerite, Valentin tries to strike him with his sword, which shatters in the air. Valentin and friends use the cross-shaped hilts of their swords to fend off what they now know is an infernal power. Méphistophélès is joined by the villagers in a waltz. Marguerite appears and Faust declares his admiration, but she refuses Faust's arm out of modesty, a quality that makes him love her more.
Marguerite's garden The lovesick boy Siébel leaves a bouquet for Marguerite. Faust sends Méphistophélès in search of a gift for Marguerite and sings a cavatina idealizing Marguerite as a pure child of nature. Méphistophélès brings in a decorated box containing exquisite jewelry and a hand mirror and leaves it on Marguerite's doorstep, next to Siébel's flowers. Marguerite enters, pondering her encounter with Faust at the city gates, sings a melancholy ballad about the King of Thule. Marthe, Marguerite's neighbour, says it must be from an admirer. Marguerite tries on the jewels and is captivated by how they enhance her beauty, as she sings in the famous aria, the Jewel Song. Méphistophélès and Faust join the
B (New York City Subway service)
The B Sixth Avenue Express is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored orange since it uses the IND Sixth Avenue Line in Manhattan; the B operates on weekdays only, servicing between 145th Street in Harlem and Brighton Beach in Brooklyn, making express stops in Manhattan and in Brooklyn and local stops between 145th and 59th Streets in Manhattan. During rush hours, service extends beyond 145th Street and originates and terminates at Bedford Park Boulevard, making local stops in the Bronx; the B does not operate during late nights. The B used to run exclusively in Manhattan, from 168th Street in Washington Heights to 34th Street–Herald Square in Midtown Manhattan. In 1967, with the Chrystie Street Connection, the B started running via the BMT West End Line and BMT Fourth Avenue Line in Brooklyn. A short-lived yellow B service ran via the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan and the BMT West End Line in Brooklyn from 1986 to 1988 due to Manhattan Bridge renovation, while orange B service traveled the pre-1967 route between 168th and 34th Streets.
After 1989, the B north of 47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center used the IND Eighth Avenue Line to 168th Street on weekdays, the IND 63rd Street Line on evenings and weekends. Late night service ran as a shuttle on the West End Line. Weekday service was rerouted to the Concourse Line in 1998, while off-peak service along 63rd Street ceased in 2000; the B started using the Brighton Line in 2004 after work on the north side of the Manhattan Bridge was completed. The designation B was intended for express trains originating from the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan and operating in Midtown Manhattan on the IND Sixth Avenue Line. However, the original B service, beginning with the opening of the Sixth Avenue Line on December 15, 1940, ran as a rush-hour only local service between 168th Street–Washington Heights and 34th Street–Herald Square; this service was designated BB, conforming with the Independent Subway System convention using double letters to indicate local services. The Chrystie Street Connection and the express tracks of the Sixth Avenue Line opened on November 26, 1967, radically changing service.
BB trains were combined with the former T service, which ran on the BMT West End Line in Brooklyn and the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan. This created a through service from 168th Street to Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue via the Sixth Avenue Line express tracks and the Manhattan Bridge. During middays, service to and from Brooklyn terminated at West 4th Street. During late night hours and Sundays when B service did not operate, TT shuttles continued to operate on the West End Line. On July 1, 1968, the B was rerouted to terminate at 57th Street in Midtown Manhattan during middays and evenings, extending to 168th Street only during rush hours; the West End Line shuttles were made part of the B route. On June 1, 1976, the New York City Transit Authority announced changes in subway service that were expected to save $12.6 million annually and were the third phase of the agency's plan to realign subway service to better reflect ridership patterns and reduced ridership. As part of the changes, which took effect on August 30, 1976, B service began running between 57th Street and Coney Island during all times, replacing K service, alternate B trains commenced operating between 168th Street and Coney Island during rush hours.
On December 14, 1976, the NYCTA announced severe cuts in bus and subway service in order to cut its budget by $30 million over the following 18 months in order to achieve a balanced budget, at the request of the Emergency Financial Control Board. As part of the cuts, late night B service was cut back to running as a shuttle between 36th Street and Coney Island via the West End Line; this change took effect on August 27, 1977. The 57th Street station was to be closed during late nights. However, a B shuttle operated during late nights, running between 47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center and 57th Street; the NYCTA approved four changes in subway service on April 27, 1981, including an increase in B service. The changes were made as part of the $1 million, two-year Rapid Transit Sufficiency Study, were expected to take place as early as 1982, following public hearings and approval by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority board; as part of the changes, midday B service was going replacing AA service.
B service on the West End Line and Fourth Avenue Line express was to be supplemented by a new rush hour T train, running between Bay Parkway and Chambers Street on the Nassau Street Line. On June 1, 1983, the NYCTA proposed changes to increase service along Sixth Avenue and better connecting the line to the Bronx and Queens; as part of the changes, B train service would run to 168th Street at all times, with service to 57th Street during non-rush hours replaced by a new H train running between 57th Street and World Trade Center. With the extension of B service to 168th Street, AA service would be eliminated; the changes would have gone into effect in spring or summer pending approval by the MTA board. The reconstruction of the Manhattan Bridge between 1986 and 2004 affected B service as the bridge's north side tracks, which led to the Sixth Avenue Line, were closed multiple times; these closures severed the connection between the southern portions of the route. B service was split into two different services starting on April 26, 1986, with an expected completion date of October 26, 1986.
The closure of the bridge's north side tracks caused the return of pre-November 1967 service patterns, before the opening of the Chrystie Street Connection: The orange B duplicated the former BB service, an
Edwin Thomas Booth was an American actor who toured throughout the United States and the major capitals of Europe, performing Shakespearean plays. In 1869, he founded Booth's Theatre in New York; some theatrical historians consider him the greatest American actor, the greatest Prince Hamlet, of the 19th century. His achievements are overshadowed by his relationship with his brother, actor John Wilkes Booth, who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln. Booth was born in Bel Air, into the English American theatrical Booth family, he was the illegitimate son of the famous actor, Junius Brutus Booth, an Englishman, who named Edwin after Edwin Forrest and Thomas Flynn, two of Junius' colleagues. He was the elder brother of John Wilkes Booth, himself a successful actor who gained notoriety as the assassin of President Lincoln. Nora Titone, in her book My Thoughts Be Bloody, recounts how the shame and ambition of Junius Brutus Booth's three illegitimate actor sons, Junius Brutus Booth, Jr. Edwin Booth, John Wilkes Booth, spurred them to strive, as rivals, for achievement and acclaim—Edwin, a Unionist, John Wilkes, a Confederate and the assassin of Abraham Lincoln.
In early appearances, Booth performed alongside his father, making his stage debut as Tressel or Tressil in Colley Cibber's version of Richard III in Boston on September 10, 1849. His first appearance in New York City was in the character of Wilford in The Iron Chest, which he played at the National Theatre in Chatham Street, on the 27th of September 1850. A year on the illness of the father, the son took his place in the character of Richard III. After his father's death in 1852, Booth went on a worldwide tour, visiting Australia and Hawaii, gaining acclaim of his own during an engagement in Sacramento, California, in 1856. Before his brother assassinated Lincoln, Edwin had appeared with his two brothers, John Wilkes and Junius Brutus Booth Jr. in Julius Caesar in 1864. John Wilkes played Marc Antony, Edwin played Brutus, Junius played Cassius, it was a benefit performance, the only time that the three brothers appeared together on the same stage. The funds were used to erect a statue of William Shakespeare that still stands in Central Park just south of the Promenade.
Afterwards, Edwin Booth began a production of Hamlet on the same stage, which came to be known as the "hundred nights Hamlet", setting a record that lasted until John Barrymore broke the record in 1922, playing the title character for 101 performances. From 1863 to 1867, Booth managed the Winter Garden Theatre in New York City staging Shakespearean tragedies. In 1863, he bought the Walnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia. After John Wilkes Booth's assassination of President Lincoln in April 1865, the infamy associated with the Booth name forced Edwin Booth to abandon the stage for many months. Edwin, feuding with John Wilkes before the assassination, disowned him afterward, refusing to have John's name spoken in his house, he made his return to the stage at the Winter Garden Theatre in January 1866, playing the title role in Hamlet, which would become his signature role. Edwin's acting style was distinctly different from that of his father. While the senior Booth was, like his contemporaries Edmund Kean and William Charles Macready and bombastic, favoring characters such as Richard III, Edwin played more naturalistically, with a quiet, more thoughtful delivery, tailored to roles like Hamlet.
Booth was married to Mary Devlin from 1860 to 1863, the year of her death. They had one daughter, born on December 9, 1861, in London, he remarried, wedding his acting partner Mary McVicker in 1869, became a widower again in 1881. In 1869, Edwin acquired his brother John's body after writing to President Andrew Johnson pleading for it. Johnson released the remains, Edwin had them buried, unmarked, in the family plot at Green Mount Cemetery in Baltimore. In 1888, Booth founded The Players, a private club for performing and visual artists and their supporters, dedicated his home on Gramercy Park to it, his final performance was, fittingly, in his signature role of Hamlet, in 1891 at the Brooklyn Academy of Music. Edwin Booth saved Abraham Lincoln's son, from serious injury or death; the incident occurred on a train platform in New Jersey. The exact date of the incident is uncertain, but it is believed to have taken place in late 1864 or early 1865. Robert Lincoln recalled the incident in a 1909 letter to Richard Watson Gilder, editor of The Century Magazine.
The incident occurred while a group of passengers were late at night purchasing their sleeping car places from the conductor who stood on the station platform at the entrance of the car. The platform was about the height of the car floor, there was of course a narrow space between the platform and the car body. There was some crowding, I happened to be pressed by it against the car body while waiting my turn. In this situation the train began to move, by the motion I was twisted off my feet, had dropped somewhat, with feet downward, into the open space, was helpless, when my coat collar was vigorously seized and I was pulled up and out to a secure footing on the platform. Upon turning to thank my rescuer I saw it was Edwin Booth, whose face was of course well known to me, I expressed my gratitude to him, in doing so, called him by name. Booth did not know the identity of the man whose life he had saved until some months when he received a letter from a friend, Colonel Adam Badeau, an officer on the staff of General Ulysses S. Grant.
Badeau had heard the story from Robert
G (New York City Subway service)
The G Brooklyn-Queens Crosstown is an 11.4-mile-long rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored light green; the G operates at all times between Court Square in Long Island City and Church Avenue in Kensington, making local stops along its entire route. The G is the only non-shuttle service in the system. Since the 2000s, several improvements have been made to the G, including a route extension in Brooklyn and a full-route audit that identified solutions for issues on the G service; the G serves two stations in Queens: Court Square and 21st Street, which are both in Long Island City. Prior to 2010, it served all stations on the IND Queens Boulevard Line between Court Square and 71st Avenue in Forest Hills. In 1939 and 1940, the then-designated GG used the now-demolished IND World's Fair Line to access the 1939 New York World's Fair. From 1976 to 2009, the GG, which became the G, had its southern terminal at Smith–Ninth Streets.
The original Brooklyn–Queens Crosstown Local service began on August 19, 1933, as a shuttle between Queens Plaza on the IND Queens Boulevard Line and Nassau Avenue. This service was designated GG. Starting on April 24, 1937, GG trains were extended to Forest Hills–71st Avenue during rush hours, serving as the Queens Boulevard local while E trains ran express west of Continental Avenue; the entire IND Crosstown Line was completed on July 1, 1937, including the connection to the IND Culver Line. GG service ran at all times between Forest Hills -- 71st Church Avenue. Soon after, it was cut back to Smith–Ninth Streets; the 1939 World's Fair was served by GG trains. The trains ran via the short-lived IND World's Fair Line to Horace Harding Boulevard. Trains were extended to the World's Fair Station at all times during the fair, supplemented by PM hour E trains; the fair closed on October 28, 1940, was demolished that year. As a result, GG service was truncated to Forest Hills–71st Avenue. On July 1, 1968, service was again extended to Church Avenue during rush hours.
During these times, the F train operated as an express on the IND Culver Line. This service pattern ended on August 30, 1976, due to budget cuts and because of complaints from many customers at local stations on the IND Culver Line who wanted direct access to Manhattan. Afterwards the GG was cut back to Smith–Ninth Streets. On August 27, 1977, GG service was cut back to Queens Plaza during late nights, local service along Queens Boulevard was provided by the F. Effective May 6, 1985, use of double letters to indicate local service was discontinued, so the GG was relabeled G. On May 24, 1987, the N and R services switched terminals in Queens; as part of the reroute plan, Queens Plaza became the northern terminal for the G train on evenings and late nights. Three years on September 30, 1990, G service was extended to 179th Street during late nights to replace the F, which terminated at 21st Street–Queensbridge. Beginning on March 23, 1997, due to construction on the connector between the IND 63rd Street Line and the IND Queens Boulevard Line, G trains terminated at Court Square on evenings and weekends.
On August 30, 1997, late night service was permanently cut back from 179th Street to Court Square with the F running local east of Queens Plaza replacing G service, meaning that the G only ran along the Queens Boulevard Line on weekdays. On December 16, 2001, the 63rd Street Connector opened and Court Square became the northern terminal for the G train during weekdays, while G service was extended to Forest Hills–71st Avenue at all other times, which represented the reverse of the previous pattern. Service along the IND Queens Boulevard Line was replaced by the new V train during weekdays; the G was to be truncated to Court Square at all times to make room for the V, but due to rider opposition, it was cut back only on weekdays until 8:30 pm. On July 5, 2009, the G was once again extended south at all times to Church Avenue; this was required for overhaul of the Culver Viaduct, which caused the express tracks at Smith–Ninth Streets and Fourth Avenue/Ninth Street—used to switch G trains between tracks after they terminated at Smith–Ninth Streets—to be temporarily taken out of service.
This had several benefits. First, five stations served by only the F train had more frequent service. Additionally, riders from northern Brooklyn and Long Island City had a direct route to Kensington. Since the Church Avenue terminal had four tracks to store terminating G trains, as opposed to only one storage track at Smith–9th Streets, this reduced delays on both services because terminating G trains could switch to the storage tracks without having to wait in the station for another train to leave, as had occurred at Smith–Ninth Street. On July 19, 2012, MTA officials made this extension permanent because it provided more direct connections between Kensington and north Brooklyn. Due to the MTA's financial crisis in the late 2000s, as well as continued capacity issues on the IND Queens Boulevard Line, the G was to be cut back from Forest Hills–71st Avenue to Court Square at all times beginning June 27, 2010. However, due to planned track repairs during the times the G ran on the Queens Boulevard Line, it ceased running on that line on April 19.
In addition, train headways were reduced, which inconvenienced about 201,000 weekly commuters since they had to wait longer for G trains. Flood waters from Hurricane Sandy caused significant damage to the Greenpoint Tubes under the Newtown Creek. Although the G was back in service days after the hurricane, the tube needed permanent repairs. To al
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups