The Brooklyn Bridge is a hybrid cable-stayed/suspension bridge in New York City, spanning the East River between the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. Opened on May 24, 1883, the Brooklyn Bridge was the first fixed crossing across the East River, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world at the time, with a main span of 1,595.5 feet and a deck height of 127 ft above mean high water. The span was called the New York and Brooklyn Bridge or the East River Bridge but was renamed the Brooklyn Bridge in 1915. Proposals for a bridge connecting Manhattan and Brooklyn were first made in the early 19th century, which led to the construction of the current span, designed by John A. Roebling, his son Washington Roebling oversaw the construction and contributed further design work, assisted by the latter's wife, Emily Warren Roebling. While construction started in 1870, numerous controversies and the novelty of the designed construction process caused the actual construction to be prolonged over thirteen years.
Since opening, the Brooklyn Bridge has undergone several reconfigurations, having carried horse-drawn vehicles and elevated railway lines until 1950. To alleviate increasing traffic flows, numerous bridges and tunnels were built to the north and south. Following gradual deterioration, the Brooklyn Bridge has been renovated several times, including in the 1950s, 1980s, 2010s; the Brooklyn Bridge is the southernmost of four toll-free vehicular bridges connecting Manhattan Island and Long Island, with the Manhattan and Queensboro Bridges to the north. Only passenger vehicles and pedestrian and bicycle traffic are permitted. A major tourist attraction since its opening, the Brooklyn Bridge has become an icon of New York City. Over the years, the bridge has been used as the location of various stunts and performances, as well as several crimes and attacks; the Brooklyn Bridge has been designated a National Historic Landmark, a New York City landmark, a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark.
The Brooklyn Bridge, the world's first major steel-wire suspension bridge, uses a hybrid cable-stayed/suspension bridge design, with both horizontal and diagonal suspender cables. Its stone towers are neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches; the New York City Department of Transportation, which maintains the bridge, says that its original paint scheme was "Brooklyn Bridge Tan" and "Silver", although a writer for The New York Post states that it was entirely "Rawlins Red". To provide sufficient clearance for shipping in the East River, the Brooklyn Bridge incorporates long approach viaducts on either end to raise it from low ground on both shores. Including approaches, the Brooklyn Bridge is a total of 6,016 feet long when measured between the curbs at Park Row in Manhattan and Sands Street in Brooklyn. A separate measurement of 5,989 feet is sometimes stated, the distance from the curb at Centre Street in Manhattan; the main span between the two suspension towers is 85 feet wide. Navigational clearance is 127 ft above mean high water.
During construction Joseph Henderson, a harbor pilot regarded as one of the most experienced and trustworthy of New York's Sandy Hook Pilots, had been asked to determine the height above MHW for the Brooklyn Bridge's main span. A 1909 Engineering Magazine article said that, at the center of the span, the height above MHW could fluctuate by more than 9 feet due to temperature and traffic loads, while more rigid spans had a lower maximum deflection; the side spans, between each suspension tower and each side's suspension anchorages, are 930 feet long. At the time of construction, engineers had not yet discovered the aerodynamics of bridge construction, bridge designs were not tested in wind tunnels, it was coincidental that the open truss structure supporting the deck is, by its nature, subject to fewer aerodynamic problems. This is because John Roebling designed the Brooklyn Bridge's truss system to be six to eight times as strong as he thought it needed to be. However, due to a supplier's fraudulent substitution of inferior-quality cable in the initial construction, the bridge was reappraised at the time as being only four times as strong as necessary.
The main span and side spans are supported by a structure containing six trusses running parallel to the roadway, each of, 33 feet deep. The trusses allow the Brooklyn Bridge to hold a total load of 18,700 short tons, a design consideration from when it carried heavier elevated trains; these trusses are held up by suspender ropes. Crossbeams run between the trusses at the top, diagonal and vertical stiffening beams run on the outside and inside of each roadway. An elevated pedestrian and cycling promenade runs in between the two roadways and 18 feet above them, it runs 4 feet below the level of the crossbeams, except at the areas surrounding each tower. Here, the promenade rises to just above the level of the crossbeams, connecting to a balcony that overhangs the two roadways; the path is 10 to 17 feet wide. Each of the side spans is reached by an approach ramp; the 971-foot approach ramp from the Brooklyn side is shorter than the 1,567-foot approach ramp from the Manhattan side. The approaches are supported by Renaissance-style arches made of masonry.
The approach ramp contains nine arch or iron-girder bridges across side streets in Manhattan and Brooklyn. The Brooklyn Bridge is supported by four main cables, which descend from the tops of the suspension tower
Makuharihongō Station is a railway station in Makuharihongo, Hanamigawa Ward, Chiba City, Chiba Prefecture, operated by East Japan Railway Company and the private railway operator Keisei Electric Railway. The Keisei section of the station is named Keisei Makuharihongō Station. JR East - Makuharihongō Station Sōbu Main Line Keisei - Keisei Makuharihongō Station Chiba Line Makuharihongō Station consists of two separate sections; the northern section is operated by JR East, the southern is operated by Keisei Electric Railway. The station building is elevated and located above the platforms, connected to the Teppozuka Overbridge; the JR East station consists of a single island platform serving two tracks. The station has reserved seat ticket machines; the Keisei section of the station consists of a single island platform serving two tracks. The JR East station opened on October 1, 1981; the Keisei section opened on August 7, 1991. In fiscal 2018, the JR East station was used by an average of 29,796 passengers daily.
In fiscal 2018, the Keisei station was used by an average of 8,225 passengers daily. JR East Makuhari Depot Keiyō Road Makuhari Interchange Ōnomatsu stable Kaihimmakuhari Station — A 14-minute bus ride from Makuharihongō Station. Makuhari Messe — A three-minute walk from the NTT bus stop, a nine-minute bus ride from Makuharihongō Station. Keisei Bus and Chiba Seaside Bus operate local bus services from the following Makuharihongō Station bus stops. List of railway stations in Japan JR East station information Keisei station map Keisei Bus Makuhari Shintoshin route map Keisei Bus Narashino route map
The Allis-Chalmers M7 snow tractor was designed for use by the U. S. Army Air Corps as a rescue vehicle in remote northern bases; the M7 snow tractor was standardized in August 1943, was downgraded to Limited standard in November 1944. It was intended to pull a one-ton M19 snow trailer; the tractor used many Allis Chalmers farm tractor components. It used many MB jeep powertrain components to lessen the military's spare parts inventory requirements; the distinguishing feature of the M7 was the track system. The M7’s track ran on two rubber belts with four steel cables inside; the machine had a tendency to have the tracks come off in use. Another feature of both the tractor and trailer is. Prototyping of the machine that became the M7 included several machines by Emmett Tucker At least one of the prototypes, a T26E3, still exists. Something over ten percent of production, over 30 units, still survive; the track system and track plate width look to have been borrowed from the early versions of the Weasel, although the M7 tracks are shorter with fewer plates.
Saginaw Products made the M19 ski-wheel trailers. Two production batches are known, one in 1944 and one in 1950; the M19 trailer had a net weight of 640 lbs, a payload of 2,000 lbs. It had a wooden body on a steel hollow-section frame, with hood, hoops and end panels all detachable, it was equipped with a heater and two stretchers, plus a rear pintle hitch so that trailers could be doubled up; the two-bolt mounting pintle hitch was unique to the M7 and M19, would not accommodate an ordinary MB / GPW jeep trailer lunette. They had three main functions, it is quite that the 1944 batch did not run to as much as 1,000 units, as 600 would have supplied two trailers for every M7 that Allis Chalmers built. Estimated total production would be around 750 but many 1950 trailers seem to have survived due to careful use by the Norwegian Army; the 1944 originals had several noted weak points which can all be attributed to the lightness of construction The 1944 tow bar frames had holes for bolting through the drag chains - 1950 trailers had no holes and drag chain ends welded to the tow frame.
The 1944 skis were wood / ply with metal brackets and strake - 1950 trailers had metal sheath underneath, with strake welded to it. The 1944 front support legs were quite short - 1950 support legs were lengthened by a couple of inches; the 1944 units came with ordinary MB / GPW split combat rims, 1950 units came with 15" solid rims, which were interchangeable and might have been from M series jeeps. In addition to those points they tried to recover as much weight by lightening; the 1944 heavy rectangular bracket for mounting the heater was replaced by a much lighter flimsy unit on the 1950 production. The type of plug and socket for the lights and auxiliary power looks to have been updated. Despite this rework all M19s are prone to damage; the trailer body will bend noticeably when loaded away from the axle line and stays out of flat. The tow frame is a fabrication work of art, being split and welded, but this results in a lot of work and since they appear not to have been coated internally when new, most are now quite weak as a result of internal rusting.
The canvas covers were insulated by quilting, had one green side and one white side, plus flaps and reinforcement for the various heater and ventilation exhaust outputs - many of which were doubled to allow the covers to be reversible. The low tow hitch position and small tow ring means they were only suitable for towing behind an M7, as they dragged at quite an angle when hitched to a Weasel. An M7 tractor could tow two loaded M19 trailers on solid going such as an ice or snow-covered road, when rougher ground was to be traversed it would drop one unit and shuttle them across the rougher ground one at a time. G-numbers, trailer is G195 M-numbers M29 Weasel TM 9-774 TM 9-1774 The American Arsenal ISBN 1-85367-470-2 M7 Restoration Trailers Wright Museum - M7 Snow Tractor