Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating
USS Cod is a Gato-class submarine, the only vessel of the United States Navy to be named for the cod, named after the world's most important food fish of the North Atlantic and North Pacific. Her keel was laid down by the Electric Boat Company of Groton, Connecticut on 21 July 1942; the submarine's five diesel engines were built by General Motors' Cleveland Diesel plant located on the west side of Cleveland. She was launched on 21 March 1943, commissioned on 21 June 1943 with Commander James C. Dempsey in command. Dempsey had won fame by sinking the first Japanese destroyer lost in the war while in command of a tiny, World War I-era submarine, she is now permanently moored as a museum ship in Cleveland, is open to visitors. Cod arrived in Australia, on 2 October 1943 to prepare for her first war patrol, she sailed from there 20 days later. Penetrating the South China Sea, she contacted few targets, launched an attack only once, on 29 November, with unobserved results. Returning to Fremantle, Western Australia, to refit from 16 December 1943 to 11 January 1944, Cod put to sea for her second war patrol in the South China Sea, off Java, off Halmahera.
On 16 February, she surfaced to sink a sampan by gunfire, on 23 February, torpedoed a Japanese merchantman. She sent another to the bottom on 27 February, Taisoku Maru and two days attacked a third, only to be forced deep by a concentrated depth charging delivered by a Japanese escort ship. Refitting at Fremantle again from 13 March – 6 April 1944, Cod sailed to the Sulu Sea and the South China Sea off Luzon for her third war patrol. On 10 May, she attacked a escorted convoy of 32 ships and sank the destroyer Karukaya and cargo merchantman Shohei Maru before the escorts drove her down with depth charges. Returning to Fremantle to replenish on 1 June, she left again 3 July on her fourth war patrol, under the command of Commander James "Silver Leader" Adkins, she ranged from the coast of Luzon to Java. She sank the converted net tender, Seiko Maru on 3 August, a landing craft, LSV-129, on 14 August, once more successful, returned to Fremantle 25 August. Cod put to sea on her fifth war patrol 18 September 1944, bound for Philippine waters.
She made her first contact, a cargo ship, Tatsushiro Maru on 5 October, sank it. Two days she inflicted heavy damage on a tanker. Contacting a large convoy on 25 October, Cod launched several attacks without success. With all her torpedoes expended, she continued to shadow the convoy for another day to report its position. In November she took up a lifeguard station off Luzon, ready to rescue carrier pilots carrying out the series of air strikes on Japanese bases which paved the way for the invasion of Leyte that month. Cod returned to Pearl Harbor on 20 November 1944, sailed on to a stateside overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, returning to Pearl Harbor on 7 March 1945. On 24 March she sailed from Pearl Harbor for the East China Sea on her sixth war patrol. Assigned to lifeguard duty, she used her deck gun to sink a tug and its tow on 17 April, rescuing three survivors, on 24 April launched an attack on a convoy which resulted in the most severe depth charging of her career; the next day, she sent the minesweeper W-41 to the bottom.
On 26 April Cod was threatened by a fire in the aft torpedo room, but the ship's crew brought the fire under control and manually launched a torpedo in its tube before the fire could detonate it. QM2c L. E. Foley and S1c A. G. Johnson were washed overboard while freeing the torpedo room hatch. Foley was recovered the next morning, but Johnson was drowned during the night, the Cod's only fatality during the war. After refitting at Guam between 29 May and 26 June 1945, Cod put out for the Gulf of Siam and the coast of Indo-China on her seventh war patrol under the command of Lieutenant commander Edwin M. Westbrook, Jr. On 9 and 10 July she went to the rescue of a grounded Dutch submarine, O 19, taking its crew on board and destroying the Dutch boat when it could not be gotten off the reef; this was the only international submarine-to-submarine rescue in history. After returning the Dutch sailors to Subic Bay, between 21 July and 1 August Cod made 20 gunfire attacks on the junks, motor sampans, barges which were all that remained to supply the Japanese at Singapore.
After inspecting each contact to rescue friendly natives, Cod sank it by gunfire, sending to the bottom a total of 23. On 1 August, an enemy plane strafed Cod, forcing her to dive, leaving one of her boarding parties behind; the men were rescued two days by Blenny. When Cod returned to Fremantle 13 August 1945, the crew of O-19 was waiting to throw a party for their rescuers. During that celebration, the two crews learned of the Japanese surrender. To symbolize that moment, another symbol was added to Cod's battle flag: the name O-19 under a martini glass. Cod sailed for home on 31 August. Arriving in New London, on 3 November after a visit to Miami, Cod sailed to Philadelphia for overhaul, returning to New London where she was decommissioned and placed in reserve 22 June 1946. Cod was recommissioned in 1951, under the command of Captain Francis E. Rich, to participate in NATO anti-submarine training exercises. During the Cold War, Cod traveled to St. John's, Newfoundland, as well as South America.
Cod was placed in reserve. In 1959 she was towed through the St. Lawrence Seaway to Cleveland and used as a training vessel. Cod was reclassified first as an Auxiliary Submarine on 1 December 1962, as a Miscellaneous Unclassified Submarine on 30 June 1971. In 1971, Cod was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register. Cod is
Cuyahoga County, Ohio
Cuyahoga County is a county in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2016 United States Census estimates, the population was 1,249,352, making it the second most populous county in the state, its county seat is Cleveland. The county is named after the Iroquoian word Cuyahoga, which means'crooked river'; the name is assigned to the Cuyahoga River, which bisects the county. Cuyahoga County is included in OH Metropolitan Statistical Area. Former U. S. President James A. Garfield was born in. After the discovery of the New World, the land that became Cuyahoga County was part of the French colony of Canada, ceded in 1763 to Great Britain and renamed Province of Quebec. In the late 18th century the land became part of the Connecticut Western Reserve in the Northwest Territory was purchased by the Connecticut Land Company in 1795. Cuyahoga County was created on June 7, 1807 and organized on May 1, 1810, it was reduced by the creation of Huron and Lorain Counties. It was named after the Cuyahoga River. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,246 square miles, of which 457 square miles is land and 788 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county in Ohio by area. A portion of Cuyahoga Valley National Park is in the county's southeastern section. Lake County Geauga County Summit County Medina County Lorain County Portage County As of the 2010 census, there were 1,280,122 people, 571,457 households, 319,996 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,800 people per square mile. There were 621,763 housing units at an average density of 1,346 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.6% White, 29.7% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.6% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. 4.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.5% were of German, 12.8% Irish, 8.8% Italian, 8.1% Polish, 5.9% English, 3.7% Slovak and 3.1% Hungarian, ancestries. There are sizable numbers of Russians, Arabs and Greeks.
88.4% spoke English, 3.7% Spanish, 4.9% some other Indo-European language. 7.3% of the population were foreign-born. There were 571,457 households out of which 28.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.40% were married couples living together, 15.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.90% were non-families. 32.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.00% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 89.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,603, the median income for a family was $58,631; the per capita income for the county was $26,263.
About 10.30% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.40% of those under age 18 and 9.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,280,122 people, 545,056 households, 319,996 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,800.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 621,763 housing units at an average density of 1,360.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 63.6% white, 29.7% black or African American, 2.6% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.8% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 17.4% were German, 13.0% were Irish, 9.2% were Italian, 8.6% were Polish, 6.3% were English, 2.8% were American. Of the 545,056 households, 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.3% were non-families, 35.5% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age was 40.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $43,603 and the median income for a family was $58,064. Males had a median income of $47,182 versus $36,683 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,263. About 12.4% of families and 16.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.7% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over. The Cuyahoga County Council and Executive exercise direct government over unincorporated areas of Cuyahoga County; as of 2012, this consisted of two small areas: Olmsted Township. Cuyahoga County had long been led by a three-member Board of County Commissioners. In July 2008, Federal Bureau of Investigation agents began raiding the offices of Cuyahoga County Commissioners and those of a wide range of cities and villages across Cuyahoga County; the investigation revealed extensive bribery and corruption across the area, affecting hundreds of millions of dollars in county contracts and business.
The investigation led to the arrest of county commissioner Jimmy Dimora.
Severance Hall is a concert hall located in the University Circle neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio. Named after patrons John L. and his sister Elisabeth Severance Allen Prentiss, the hall has been the home of the Cleveland Orchestra since its opening on February 5, 1931. Severance Hall is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Wade Park District. Prior to the construction of Severance Hall, the Cleveland Orchestra first performed in the much smaller Grays Armory in downtown Cleveland, moved two miles east to the Masonic Auditorium for concerts throughout the 1920s. However, both buildings were used by other groups and for a variety of different kinds of presentations. Most famously, the Orchestra twice had to arrange alternative concert locations from Grays Armory on short notice due to a scheduling conflict with a poultry exhibition; the Orchestra's administration came to recognize the advantages that having its own hall could bring to the ensemble's performances through consistent availability of such a hall for rehearsals, radio broadcasts, other musical purposes.
After much encouragement from the orchestra's founder Adella Prentiss Hughes and its Music Director Nikolai Sokoloff, plans for Severance Hall materialized using land offered from Western Reserve University at $1 per year and funds from public fundraising and local philanthropists. The conceiver and biggest funder of the project was industrial magnate and philanthropist John Long Severance, who donated $1 million towards development and named the hall after his deceased wife Elisabeth Dewitt Severance. Despite the economic difficulties of the Great Depression, construction began in 1929 and finished in 1931. Designed by local firm Walker and Weeks, the steel framed stone-clad building is placed on the diagonal facing the intersection of Euclid Avenue and East Boulevard; the front portion housing the grand entry lobby is in the form of a domed rotunda, the auditorium and service spaces spread in a fan shape behind. The restrained classical exterior, designed to complement the nearby Neoclassical Cleveland Museum of Art, features a prominent ionic Neoclassical portico, approached by flights of stairs, with an Art Deco pediment bas relief by New York sculptor Henry Hering.
In interiors of Severance Hall are some of America's greatest examples of Art Moderne or Art Deco design, sumptuously decorated with stylised Egyptian Revival elements. The Grand Foyer, set above the former drive way drop off below, is a double height oval room, defined by surrounding rose coloured marble columns. Stylised papyrus and lotus flower patterns in a variety of forms are used to decorate all elements, from the terrazzo floor and ceiling patterns to the light fixtures and delicately cast brass doors, highlighted by gold leaf; the auditorium of Severance Hall in contrast glistens with silvery aluminium leaf, a defining modern material of the Art Deco period. The shallow domed ceiling is patterned by undulating, flowing leafy tendrils and swirls inspired by Elizabeth Point Duchesse lace wedding dress, fanning up in giant stylised papyrus shapes either side of the proscenium, from stalks around the top tier of seating. Recessed lighting makes the whole ceiling glow; some acoustic problems were soon observed in Severance Hall shortly after its opening.
These were attributed in part to the use of velvet curtains for the boxes, thick carpeting throughout much of the hall, the fact that the stage, designed for theatrical productions, had a large, sound-absorbing fly space above it. In addition, the removable stage shells created for the orchestra to play within were constructed of non-sound-reflective materials, which allowed sound from the hall's original organ to be heard from its position above the stage's fly space; the 6,025-pipe Ernest M. Skinner organ was a massive instrument for its day, but its positioning outside the auditorium itself was something of an experiment and limited choices for addressing the auditorium's dry acoustics. In 1958, at the instigation of Music Director George Szell, a complete acoustical redesign of the hall was undertaken. To make the auditorium more resonant, the original proscenium and blue velvet drapes were removed and the placement of carpet was reduced to a minimum. On the stage a permanent acoustical shell was built.
The new shell consisted of thick wooden walls surrounding the orchestra in a series of convex curves. The heavy wood walls were further filled with sand to heights of up to nine feet to make them less absorbent and more reflective of sound; the result was a new, vibrant-sounding space which complemented the refined, brilliant sound of the orchestra under Szell's direction. Visually, the severe new Modernist stage clashed with the elegant Art Deco design of the auditorium. In addition, the organ's pipe chambers were sealed off from the auditorium by the new shell; this made the organ all but non-functional, its sound being transferred into the auditorium via microphones and speakers. In 1970 the building's drive-through street-level entrance paved with tile was closed as the use of taxis and chauffeured vehicles had declined. A dining area was set up in the resulting space. On, one of the access corridors on the ground floor was closed off to create space for a dressing room for women orchestra members.
Beginning in 1998, the Hall underwent expansion. The renovated building reopened in January 2000, wi
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, located on the shore of Lake Erie in downtown Cleveland, Ohio and archives the history of the best-known and most influential artists, producers and other notable figures who have had some major influence on the development of rock and roll. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation was established on April 20, 1983, by Atlantic Records founder and chairman Ahmet Ertegun. In 1986, Cleveland was chosen as the Hall of Fame's permanent home. Founder Ahmet Ertegun assembled a team that included attorney Suzan Evans, Rolling Stone magazine editor and publisher Jann S. Wenner, attorney Allen Grubman, record executives Seymour Stein, Bob Krasnow, Noreen Woods; the Foundation began inducting artists in 1986. The search committee considered several cities, including Philadelphia, Detroit, New York City, Cleveland. Cleveland lobbied for the museum, with civic leaders in Cleveland pledging $65 million in public money to fund the construction, citing that WJW disc jockey Alan Freed both coined the term "rock and roll" and promoted the new genre—and that Cleveland was the location of Freed's Moondog Coronation Ball credited as the first major rock and roll concert.
Freed was a member of the hall of fame's inaugural class of inductees in 1986. In addition, Cleveland cited radio station WMMS, which played a key role in breaking several major acts in the U. S. during the 1970s and 1980s, including David Bowie, who began his first U. S. tour in the city, Bruce Springsteen, Roxy Music, Rush among many others. A petition drive was signed by 600,000 fans favoring Cleveland over Memphis, Cleveland ranked first in a 1986 USA Today poll asking where the Hall of Fame should be located. On May 5, 1986, the Hall of Fame Foundation chose Cleveland as the permanent home of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum. Author Peter Guralnick said. Cleveland may have been chosen as the organization's site because the city offered the best financial package; as The Plain Dealer music critic Michael Norman noted, "It was $65 million... Cleveland wanted it here and put up the money." Co-founder Jann Wenner said, "One of the small sad things is we didn't do it in New York in the first place," but added, "I am delighted that the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum is in Cleveland."
During early discussions on where to build the Hall of Fame and Museum, the Foundation's board considered the Cuyahoga River. The chosen location was along East Ninth Street in downtown Cleveland by Lake Erie, east of Cleveland Stadium. At one point in the planning phase, when a financing gap existed, planners proposed locating the Rock Hall in the then-vacant May Company Building, but decided to commission architect I. M. Pei to design a new building. Initial CEO Dr. Larry R. Thompson facilitated I. M. Pei in designs for the site. Pei came up with the idea of a tower with a glass pyramid protruding from it; the museum tower was planned to stand 200 ft high, but had to be cut down to 162 ft due to its proximity to Burke Lakefront Airport. The building's base is 150,000 square feet; the groundbreaking ceremony took place on June 7, 1993. Pete Townshend, Chuck Berry, Billy Joel, Sam Phillips, Ruth Brown, Sam Moore of Sam and Dave, Carl Gardner of the Coasters and Dave Pirner of Soul Asylum all appeared at the groundbreaking.
The museum was dedicated on September 1, 1995, with the ribbon being cut by an ensemble that included Yoko Ono and Little Richard, among others, before a crowd of more than 10,000 people. The following night an all-star concert was held at the stadium, it featured Chuck Berry, Bob Dylan, Al Green, Jerry Lee Lewis, Aretha Franklin, Bruce Springsteen, Iggy Pop, John Fogerty, John Mellencamp, many others. In addition to the Hall of Fame inductees, the museum documents the entire history of rock and roll, regardless of induction status. Hall of Fame inductees are honored in a special exhibit located in a wing that juts out over Lake Erie. Since 1986, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame has selected new inductees; the formal induction ceremony has been held in New York City 26 times. As of 2018, the induction ceremonies alternate each year between New Cleveland; the 2009 and 2012 induction weeks were made possible by a public–private partnership between the City of Cleveland, the State of Ohio, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, local foundations, civic organizations and individuals.
Collectively these entities invested $5.8 million in 2009 and $7.9 million in 2012 to produce a week of events, including free concerts, a gospel celebration, exhibition openings, free admission to the museum, induction ceremonies filled with both fans and VIPs at Public Hall. Millions viewed the television broadcast of the Cleveland inductions; the economic impact of the 2009 induction week activities was more than $13 million, it provided an additional $20 million in media exposure for the region. The 2012 induction week yielded similar results. There are seven levels in the building. On the lower level is the Ahmet M. Ertegun Exhibition Hall, the museum's main gallery, it includes exhibits on the roots of roll. It featu
West Side Market
The West Side Market is the oldest operating indoor/outdoor market space in Cleveland, Ohio. It is located at the corner of West 25th Lorain Avenue in the Ohio City neighborhood. On December 18, 1973, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places; the market began operating across the street from its current location. Josiah Barber and Richard Lord, prominent businessmen and both former mayors of Ohio City before it was incorporated into Cleveland, donated the tract of land to Ohio City's government, stipulating that the land be used for an open-air neighborhood market; the market space became a center of the Ohio City community for the following three decades, other benefactors donated adjacent lands that allowed the marketplace to expand. In 1868, a one-story, wooden framed building was erected on the site, the newly christened Pearl Street Market was opened. Thanks to brisk population growth in Cleveland and Ohio City in the latter part of the 19th century, the market outgrew its space yet again.
In 1902, lands were purchased across the street from the Pearl Market site, to allow for market expansion and eventual construction of additional indoor market space. Cleveland architectural firm Hubbell and Benes was contracted to create the new indoor space and, after nearly a decade of planning and construction, the current West Side Market building was finished in 1912 at a cost of nearly $680,000; the Neo-Classical/Byzantine building is a brick construct with a large interior concourse that provides nearly 100 stalls for sellers, an 85-stall outdoor produce arcade that wraps around the side and rear of the main building. In addition, the building has a large clock tower, visible from most of Ohio City in the building's early days. In 1915, the permanent building spurred sellers to establish the West Side Market Tenants' Association, a coalition founded to help maintain the market and organize for future improvements and additions; this organization still exists at the Market today. Periodic upgrades maintained and improved the overall conditions.
A fuller, $1.1 million modernization was undertaken in 1953 to add lower-level storage areas and upgrade stalls in the arcade. Another renovation, this one for $5 million, took place after the Market was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973; the market's profile rose in the latter portion of the 20th century. Politicians passing through Cleveland stopped in to sample the array of foods that the Market has on sale on any given day; the Market began sponsoring major food festivals in the neighborhood, which drew people from all corners of Cleveland and abroad. Despite the successes of the 1980s, the Market began to face financial straits as Cleveland itself was experiencing monetary struggles. A large portion of the Market's subsidies from the city dried up, leaving tenants of the Market to pay higher rents to keep the Market open, yet the Market was renovated throughout the 1990s and into the 21st century. A 2004 project enclosed the arcade portion of the market, adding space heating there, completed major interior and architectural renovations to the main building.
The market's centennial was celebrated in 2012. Most residents of the neighborhood, many Clevelanders in general, still do a large portion of their shopping at the Market; the market is open to customers Mondays and Wednesdays from 7:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Fridays and Saturdays from 7:00 a.m to 6:00 p.m. and Sundays from 12 p.m to 6:00 p.m. The market attracts tourists from all parts of the United States, who tour the market and learn about its history. Guided tours are offered, its national profile has been boosted in recent years by coverage on various programs produced by the Travel Channel and Food Network. Many stalls have remained under individual family control for much of the life of the Market, in a few cases dating back to its 1912 opening; the market's tenants and sellers reflect the cultural diversity of the surrounding neighborhood and Cleveland as a whole. The current roster of tenants includes those of Irish, Slovene, Hungarian, Polish and Middle Eastern descents, among others. In the September 2010 issue of Food Network Magazine, the West Side Market was named America's "Best Food Lovers' Market."
On January 30, 2013, the market was temporarily closed after a fire left soot damage. In 2016 city officials announced that starting April 3 of that year the market would add regular Sunday hours for the first time in its history. Official website City of Cleveland: West Side Market Profile Crain's Cleveland Business: Cleveland Landmarks Page West Side Market livecam
Cleveland Museum of Natural History
The Cleveland Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum located five miles east of downtown Cleveland, Ohio in University Circle, a 550-acre concentration of educational and medical institutions. The museum was established in 1920 by Cyrus S. Eaton to perform research and development of collections in the fields of anthropology, astronomy, geology, wildlife biology, zoology. Donald Johanson was the curator of the museum when he discovered "Lucy," the skeletal remains of the ancient hominid Australopithecus afarensis; the current Curator and Head of the Physical Anthropology Department is Yohannes Haile-Selassie. In 2002, the new Fannye Shafran Planetarium was built near the entrance to the museum, containing displays on the planets in the Solar System, historical instruments of exploration, such as compasses and astrolabes. Museum collections total more than four million specimens and include specimens of paleontology, archaeology, ornithology, a variety of other scientific subjects.
A beloved full-scale model of a Stegosaurus on the lawn delights Cleveland children. Some of the more important specimens are: An extensive collection of Late Devonian fossil fish from the Cleveland Shale, including several mounted skulls of the arthrodire placoderm Dunkleosteus. Nine hundred monkey and ape skeletons, more than 3,100 human skeletons; the only specimen of the small tyrannosaur Nanotyrannus lancensis. The holotype of the Haplocanthosaurus sauropod; the most complete mount of a Coelophysis bauri. Mounted taxidermy remains of Balto the sled dog. An extensive mineralogy collection that includes the Jeptha Wade gem collection. Replica skeletons of Triceratops and Jane, a juvenile tyrannosaurid. Multiple mastodon and mammoth specimens. A cast of an Australopithecus afarensis skeleton, an early hominid affectionately dubbed Lucy. A new Tyrannosaurus skeleton, now on display; the Museums Allosaurus is on display. A collection of 30,000 plant fossils acquired from the University of Cincinnati by former curator of paleobotany, Shya Chitaley.
A Foucault Pendulum underneath in which the Bicentennial Education Time Capsule was buried in 1996 and will be opened in 2046 The museum has made many discoveries over the years. In Vertebrate Paleontology, both the remains of a Titanicthis in Ohio and a new ceratopsian, Albertaceratops nesmoi, have been made. Both are expected to go on display eventually; the Hamann-Todd Collection is a collection of more than 3100 human skeletons and over 900 primate skeletons that were assembled starting in 1893. The collection was housed at Western Reserve University Medical School in a new medical building, built for that purpose; the first floor of this building contained the Hamann Museum of Comparative Anthropology and Anatomy. However, due to the costs of storing the bones, the collection was transferred to the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. In 1893, Carl August Hamann initiated the collection, its administration was taken over by T. Wingate Todd after Hamann was named dean of Western Reserve University's medical school in 1912.
Todd managed to assemble the great majority of the human skeletons in the collection, over 3000, before his death in 1938. The Ralph Perkins II Wildlife Center and Woods Garden presented by Key Bank, which includes live animals and plants native to Ohio, opened on September 3, 2016. Jones-Kern, Kevin. "Skeletons Out of the Closet". Explorer. Retrieved 2006-07-09. Cleveland Museum of Natural History