Chrysler is one of the "Big Three" automobile manufacturers in the United States, headquartered in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The original Chrysler Corporation was founded in 1925 by Walter Chrysler from the remains of the Maxwell Motor Company. In 1998, it was acquired by Daimler-Benz, the holding company was renamed DaimlerChrysler. After Daimler divested Chrysler in 2007, the company existed as Chrysler LLC and Chrysler Group LLC before merging in 2014 with Fiat S.p. A. and becoming a subsidiary of its successor Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. In addition to the Chrysler brand, FCA sells vehicles worldwide under the Dodge and Ram nameplates. Furthermore, the subsidiary includes Mopar, its automotive parts and accessories division, SRT, its performance automobile division. After founding the company, Walter Chrysler used the General Motors brand diversification and hierarchy strategy that he had seen working for Buick, acquired Fargo Trucks and Dodge Brothers, created the Plymouth and DeSoto brands in 1928.
Facing postwar declines in market share and profitability, as GM and Ford were growing, Chrysler borrowed $250 million in 1954 from Prudential Insurance to pay for expansion and updated car designs. Chrysler expanded into Europe by taking control of French and Spanish auto companies in the 1960s; the company struggled to adapt to changing markets, increased U. S. import competition, safety and environmental regulation in the 1970s. It began an engineering partnership with Mitsubishi Motors, began selling Mitsubishi vehicles branded as Dodge and Plymouth in North America. On the verge of bankruptcy in the late 1970s, it was saved by $1.5 billion in loan guarantees from the U. S. government. New CEO Lee Iacocca was credited with returning the company to profitability in the 1980s. In 1985, Diamond-Star Motors was created. In 1987, Chrysler acquired American Motors Corporation, which brought the profitable Jeep brand under the Chrysler umbrella. In 1998, Chrysler merged with German automaker Daimler-Benz to form DaimlerChrysler AG.
As a result, Chrysler was sold to Cerberus Capital Management and renamed Chrysler LLC in 2007. Like the other Big Three automobile manufacturers, Chrysler was impacted by the automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010; the company remained in business through a combination of negotiations with creditors, filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization on April 30, 2009, participating in a bailout from the U. S. government through the Troubled Asset Relief Program. On June 10, 2009, Chrysler emerged from the bankruptcy proceedings with the United Auto Workers pension fund, Fiat S.p. A. and the U. S. and Canadian governments as principal owners. The bankruptcy resulted in Chrysler defaulting on over $4 billion in debts. By May 24, 2011, Chrysler finished repaying its obligations to the U. S. government five years early, although the cost to the American taxpayer was $1.3 billion. Over the next few years, Fiat acquired the other parties' shares while removing much of the weight of the loans in a short period.
On January 1, 2014, Fiat S.p. A announced a deal to purchase the rest of Chrysler from the United Auto Workers retiree health trust; the deal was completed on January 2014, making Chrysler Group a subsidiary of Fiat S.p.. A. In May 2014, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles was established by merging Fiat S.p. A. into the company. This was completed in August 2014. Chrysler Group LLC remained a subsidiary until December 15, 2014, when it was renamed FCA US LLC, to reflect the Fiat-Chrysler merger; the Chrysler company was founded by Walter Chrysler on June 6, 1925, when the Maxwell Motor Company was re-organized into the Chrysler Corporation. Chrysler had arrived at the ailing Maxwell-Chalmers company in the early 1920s, hired to overhaul the company's troubled operations. In late 1923 production of the Chalmers automobile was ended. In January 1924, Walter Chrysler launched the well-received Chrysler automobile; the 6-cylinder Chrysler was designed to provide customers with an advanced, well-engineered car, was an automobile at an affordable price.
Elements of this car are traceable to a prototype, under development at Willys during Chrysler's tenure The original 1924 Chrysler included a carburetor air filter, high compression engine, full pressure lubrication, an oil filter, features absent from most autos at the time. Among the innovations in its early years were the first practical mass-produced four-wheel hydraulic brakes, a system nearly engineered by Chrysler with patents assigned to Lockheed, rubber engine mounts to reduce vibration. Chrysler developed a wheel with a ridged rim, designed to keep a deflated tire from flying off the wheel; this wheel was adopted by the auto industry worldwide. The Maxwell brand was dropped after the 1925 model year, with the new, lower-priced four-cylinder Chryslers introduced for the 1926 year being badge-engineered Maxwells; the advanced engineering and testing that went into Chrysler Corporation cars helped to push the company to the second-place position in U. S. sales by 1936, which it held until 1949.
In 1928, the Chrysler Corporation began dividing its vehicle offerings by price function. The Plymouth brand was introduced at the low-priced end of the market. At the same time, the DeSoto brand was introduced in the medium-price field. In 1928, Chrysler bought the Dodge Brothers automobile and
The Hiawathas were a fleet of named passenger trains operated by the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad between Chicago and various destinations in the Midwest and Western United States; the most notable of these trains was the original Twin Cities Hiawatha, which served the Twin Cities in Minnesota. The train was named for the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow; the first Hiawatha trains ran in 1935. By 1948, five routes carried the Hiawatha name: The Twin Cities Hiawatha — the main line route from Chicago through Milwaukee to St. Paul and Minneapolis, in Morning and Afternoon editions The North Woods Hiawatha — a spur route off the Chicago-Minnesota main line leading from New Lisbon to Minocqua, Wisconsin The Chippewa-Hiawatha — connected Chicago to Ontonagon in Michigan's Upper Peninsula via Milwaukee and Green Bay, Wisconsin The Midwest Hiawatha — used the Milwaukee Road's mainline across Illinois and Iowa to Sioux Falls, South Dakota and Omaha, Nebraska The Olympian Hiawatha — which traversed the Milwaukee mainline from Chicago-Twin Cities-Seattle/Tacoma.
The Twin Cities Hiawatha was the original Hiawatha, beginning service between Chicago and the Twin Cities on May 29, 1935. The Hiawatha used-styled streamlined Class A 4-4-2 steam locomotives built by the American Locomotive Company and was intended to compete directly with the Chicago and Quincy Railroad's Twin Cities Zephyrs and Chicago and North Western Railway's Twin Cities 400; the Milwaukee Road added a second train to the route on January 21, 1939, the two trains were known as the Morning Hiawatha and Afternoon Hiawatha, although the brand Twin Cities Hiawatha was employed. In 1947–1948 the Milwaukee Road again re-equipped its major passenger routes with new lightweight equipment; the Morning Hiawatha and Afternoon Hiawatha continued to operate between Chicago and Minneapolis until the latter train was discontinued on January 23, 1970. The last runs of the Morning Hiawatha were on April 30, 1971 prior to the introduction of Amtrak. With the delivery of the 1938 trainsets, the original 1935 Hiawatha equipment was reassigned to the Chicago to Omaha/Sioux City route where it ran as the Midwest Hiawatha.
The service began on December 11, 1940. The final trip for the Midwest Hiawatha from all terminals occurred on October 29, 1955. On the next day, October 30, 1955, the Milwaukee Road assumed operation of Union Pacific Railroad's City of San Francisco, City of Los Angeles, City of Denver, City of Portland and Challenger trains; the Midwest Hiawatha became two Sioux Falls-Chicago coaches that combined with the Challenger in Manilla. The Milwaukee Road dropped the name altogether in April 1956; the North Woods Hiawatha began in June 1936, branching off from the main Hiawatha route in New Lisbon, Wisconsin to serve Minocqua, Wisconsin. The Milwaukee Road dropped the Hiawatha moniker in 1956 and discontinued the service altogether in 1970. A new long-distance Hiawatha, the Olympian Hiawatha from Chicago to the Pacific Northwest, was inaugurated in 1947; the sleeper cars and Skytop sleepers were not delivered until late 1948 and early 1949, so the train ran with Pullman heavyweights on the rear end, until delivery of the new cars.
The train was designed by the famous designer Brooks Stevens of Milwaukee. Six Creek-series 8-bedroom Skytop lounge-sleepers were created, which had more windows and a more bulbous rear end than their Rapids-series parlor Skytop counterparts on the Morning Hiawatha and Afternoon Hiawatha; this train ceased operations on May 22, 1961, the surplus equipment was sold to Canadian National Railways. One car, #15 Coffee Creek from the Olympian Hiawatha, is undergoing restoration; the Chippewa began in May 1937, running north through Milwaukee and Green Bay to Michigan. It carried the Hiawatha moniker between 1948-1957 and was discontinued in 1960. Under Amtrak, which assumed control of most intercity passenger rail service in the United States on May 1, 1971, the Hiawatha name survived in two forms; the first was a Chicago–Milwaukee–Minneapolis service, known as the Hiawatha. This would be renamed the Twin Cities Hiawatha extended to Seattle and renamed the North Coast Hiawatha; this service ended in 1979.
The second was a Chicago–Milwaukee corridor known as the Hiawatha Service. Although Amtrak had retained Chicago–Milwaukee service during the transition, it did not name these trains until October 29, 1972. At this time both Hiawatha and Hiawatha Service could be found on the same timetable. Amtrak used a variety of names for this service between 1976–1989 before returning to the Hiawatha Service brand, which remains today and continues to use the Milwaukee Road's route between Chicago and Milwaukee. Scribbins, Jim; the Hiawatha Story. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing Company. LCCN 70107874. OCLC 91468. Route of The Hiawatha mountain bike trail. Hiawatha Service 1945 Hiawatha advertisement Milwaukee Road Hiawathas in 1938 The Milwaukee Road Historical Association
Raymond Loewy was a Franco–American industrial designer who achieved fame for the magnitude of his design efforts across a variety of industries. He was recognized for this by Time magazine and featured on its cover on October 31, 1949, he spent most of his professional career in the United States, becoming a naturalized citizen in 1938. Among his designs were the Shell, Exxon, TWA and the former BP logos, the Greyhound Scenicruiser bus, Coca-Cola vending machines, the Lucky Strike package, Coldspot refrigerators, the Studebaker Avanti and Champion, the Air Force One livery, he was involved with numerous railroad designs, including the Pennsylvania Railroad GG1 and S-1 locomotives, the color scheme and Eagle motif for the first streamliners of the Missouri Pacific Railroad and a number of lesser known color scheme and car interior designs for other railroads. His career spanned seven decades; the press referred to Raymond Loewy as The Man Who Shaped America, The Father of Streamlining and The Father of Industrial Design.
Loewy was born in Paris in 1893, the son of Maximilian Loewy, a Jewish journalist from Austria, a French mother, Marie Labalme. Loewy distinguished himself early with the design of a successful model aircraft, which won the Gordon Bennett Cup for model airplanes in 1908. By the following year, he had commercial sales of the plane, named the Ayrel. Loewy served in the French army during World War I, attaining the rank of captain, he received the Croix de guerre. After the war he moved to New York, where he arrived in September 1919. In Loewy's early years in the United States, he lived in New York and found work as a window designer for department stores, including Macy's, Wanamaker's and Saks in addition to working as a fashion illustrator for Vogue and Harper's Bazaar. In 1929 he received his first industrial-design commission to contemporize the appearance of a duplicating machine by Gestetner. Further commissions followed, including work for Westinghouse, the Hupp Motor Company, styling the Coldspot refrigerator for Sears-Roebuck.
It was this product. He opened a London office in the mid-1930s. In 1937, Loewy established a relationship with the Pennsylvania Railroad, his most notable designs for the firm involved some of their passenger locomotives, he designed a streamlined shroud for K4s Pacific #3768 to haul the newly redesigned 1938 Broadway Limited. He followed by styling the experimental S1 locomotive, as well as the T1 class. At the Pennsylvania Railroad's request, he restyled Baldwin's diesels with a distinctive "sharknose" reminiscent of the T1. While he did not design the famous GG1 electric locomotive, he improved its appearance with welded rather than riveted construction, he added a pinstripe paint scheme to highlight its smooth contours. In addition to locomotive design, Loewy's studios provided many designs for the Pennsylvania Railroad, including stations, passenger-car interiors, advertising materials. By 1949, Loewy employed 143 designers and draftsmen, his business partners were A. Baker Barnhart, William Snaith, John Breen.
Loewy had a fruitful relationship with American car maker Studebaker. Studebaker first retained Loewy and Associates and Helen Dryden as design consultants in 1936 and in 1939 Loewy began work with the principal designer Virgil Exner, their designs first began appearing with the late-1930s Studebakers. Loewy designed a new logo to replace the "turning wheel", the Studebaker trademark since 1912. During World War II, American government restrictions on in-house design departments at Ford, General Motors, Chrysler prevented official work on civilian automobiles; because Loewy's firm was independent of the fourth-largest automobile producer in America, no such restrictions applied. This permitted Studebaker to launch the first all-new postwar automobile in 1947, two years ahead of the "Big Three." His team developed an advanced design featuring clean rearward lines. The Loewy staff, headed by Exner created the Starlight body, which featured a rear-window system that wrapped 180° around the rear seat.
In addition to the iconic bullet-nosed Studebakers of 1950 and 1951, the team created the 1953 Studebaker line, highlighted by the Starliner and Starlight coupes. The Starlight has ranked as one of the best-designed cars of the 1950s in lists compiled since by Collectible Automobile and Driver, Motor Trend. The'53 Starliner, recognized today as "one of the most beautiful cars made", was radical in appearance, as radical in its way as the 1934 Airflow. However, it was beset by production problems. To brand the new line, Loewy contemporized Studebaker's logo again by applying the "Lazy S" element, his final commission of the 1950s for Studebaker was the transformation of the Starlight and Starliner coupes into the Hawk series for the 1956 model year. The photo to the right shows a Starliner hardtop, which does not have the "C" pillar. In the spring of 1961, Studebaker's new president, Sherwood Egbert, recalled Loewy to design the Avanti. Egbert hired him to help energize Studebaker's soon-to-be-released line of 1963 passenger cars to attract younger buyers.
Despite the short 40-day schedule allowed to produce a finished design and scale model, Loewy agreed to take the job. He recruited a team consisting of experienced designers, including former Loewy employees John Ebstein; the team worked in a hous
The Studebaker Lark is a compact car, produced by Studebaker from 1959 to 1966. From its introduction in early 1959 until 1962, the Lark was a product of the Studebaker-Packard Corporation. In mid-1962, the company dropped "Packard" from its name and reverted to its pre-1954 name, the Studebaker Corporation. In addition to being built in Studebaker's South Bend, home plant, the Lark and its descendants were built in Hamilton, Canada, from 1959 to 1966 by Studebaker of Canada Limited; the cars were exported to a number of countries around the world as completed units and knocked down kits which were assembled at a local factory. Lark-based variants represented the bulk of the range produced by Studebaker after 1958 and sold in far greater volume than the contemporary Hawk and Avanti models. Beginning with the 1963 Cruiser, the Lark name was phased out of the company catalog and by early 1964, Lark-based models were being marketed under Commander and Cruiser nameplates only; the Studebaker company, which celebrated its 100th anniversary in 1952, ceased automobile production in 1966.
At the time the Lark was conceived, Studebaker-Packard Corporation was under a management contract with Curtiss-Wright Aircraft Company. Studebaker-Packard had been losing money for a few years when company president Harold E. Churchill came up with the idea of abandoning the full-size car market in favor of building a new compact car that he hoped would save the company; the Lark was ingeniously designed around the core bodyshell of the full-sized 1953–1958 Studebakers. By reducing the front and rear overhangs and shortening the wheelbase ahead of the firewall, the car could still seat six people comfortably and hold a surprising amount of luggage, it was hoped that the new model would save America's oldest vehicle manufacturer when it was launched in the fall of 1958 as a 1959 model, much like the 1939 Studebaker Champion had saved the company in the years prior to World War II. In fact, it was the Champion which Churchill took as his inspiration for the Lark. Two series of Larks were available, the Lark VI and the Lark VIII, both designations indicated engine type of the cars.
Both series were available in "Deluxe" and "Regal" trim levels. With its simple grille and tasteful use of chrome and clean lines, the Lark "flew" in the face of most of the established "longer and wider" styling norms fostered by Detroit's "Big Three" automakers. Studebaker's 1957-58 Scotsman had proved the existence of a demand for a less-flashy automobile, while the Lark was not nearly so undecorated as the Scotsman, it was unmistakably purer of line than anything Detroit would offer for 1959, save the Rambler American. Sales of the Lark were good for the 1959 and 1960 model year, thanks to the fact that Studebaker had obtained "dual" dealerships with dealers of the Big Three manufacturers that did not as yet have their own compacts to sell. Initial models included two- and four-door sedans, a two-door hardtop coupe and a two-door station wagon, with two levels of trim offered on most. Aside from American Motors Corporation's Rambler line, the Lark offered the broadest line of compacts on the U.
S. market. Indeed, the Lark was the first car of its size to offer a V8 engine — the smaller Rambler American offered only an inline six, though the larger Rambler Rebel did offer a V8 close to the same size as Studebaker's, had since 1957; the lineup grew for 1960, when the company introduced a four-door station wagon. Two-door wagons were fast falling from favor throughout the industry, despite a minor redesign which made the two-door Lark wagon's tailgate and rear side windows more user-friendly, indeed the four-door proved the more popular of the two available wagons from Studebaker. A taxicab version of the Lark called the "Econ-O-Miler," was built on the station wagon's longer 113 in wheelbase; the extra 4.5 in of wheelbase translated into extra rear seat legroom, important in the taxi trade. For 1959 and 1960, Larks were available with either an L-head 170 cu in six-cylinder engine or the company's 259 cu in V8. Testers at the time gave high marks to the V8's performance. A V8 Lark could turn out a 0 to 60 mph time of around 10 seconds, on par with much larger cars.
By comparison, among the early Big Three compacts that arrived on the scene in 1960, only the Valiant could break the 20-second mark from 0-60 mph. None of the Big Three compacts offered a V8 until the second wave of such cars — the so-called "senior compacts" — arrived for 1961. To meet the challenge of those new cars head-on, for 1961 Studebaker created a new four-door sedan, the Cruiser, using the Econ-O-Miler taxicab body with an upgraded, more luxurious interior; the resulting car harked back to the long-wheelbase Studebaker Land Cruiser sedans of the late Forties and early Fifties. These cars can be distinguished from their lesser four-door counterparts by the 1959-60-style roofline and operational vent windows in the rear doors, while other sedans used one-piece glass in the rear doors. A new option, a canvas-covered folding sunroof dubbed the "Skytop" was introduced as an extra-cost feature for sedans and the two-door hardtop. A mild restyling, was carried out. Non-Cruiser sedans and the two-door hardtop received a squared-off roofline, a new front end design gave the Lark a broader grille and the availability of quad headlamps.
Although the styling was modified, engineering enhancements were t
Milwaukee School of Engineering
The Milwaukee School of Engineering is a private university in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The university has one of the smallest campuses in Milwaukee, at only 22 acres; the school's enrollment of 2,846 includes 204 graduate students. As of Fall 2016 the university has a total of 135 faculty, of which half are full-time. Through the eight academic departments the university offers 16 bachelor's degrees, 10 of those being in engineering. Despite being undergraduate focused, the university offers 11 master's degrees in business and nursing; the academic calendar functions on a quarter system year-round, with four ten-week terms: fall, winter and summer, although the majority of the students do not attend the summer quarter. MSOE is known for its unique track system, which outlines the courses a student should take in order to graduate. MSOE fields 19 varsity teams known as the "Raiders" and most teams play in the NCAA Division III as part of the Northern Athletics Collegiate Conference. Milwaukee School of Engineering was founded in 1903 by Oscar Werwath and called the School of Engineering.
Werwath's goal was to meet the needs of the work force for the growing engineering field. Werwath was the first person to plan an American educational institution based on an applications-oriented curriculum; the first classes began in the fall of 1903 at Rheude's Business College. By fall, 1905, the enrollment reached 100, exceeding the capacity of the business college; the school was subsequently moved to a new building with help from Louis Allis. In spring, 1906, the school graduated its first class. In 1911 the school relocated to the Stroh building, just south of downtown Milwaukee; that same year the School of Engineering offered its first degree in electrical engineering. During this time Werwath recruited school sponsors from companies around Milwaukee, including Allen Bradley; this resulted in a cooperative program where students could be employed at local businesses to help pay for their tuition. In 1912 the School of Engineering initiated its first student publication, in 1913 the school gained its first fraternity, Phi Delta Omega.
In 1912 Wisconsin provided official recognition to the School of Engineering, granting its programs a state license in both vocational training and engineering education. On March 17, 1917, an official charter was given to the School of Engineering to grant the bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering; this day is now celebrated every year on campus with student-led events. The School of Engineering approved the first units of Reserve Officers' Training Corps and Student Army Training Corps. By 1920, the School of Engineering consisted of four specific programs focused around electricity. Werwath developed a new curriculum "to equip the student in college-level engineering standards needed for the degree award combined with parallel hands-on training." At the same time the academic calendar called. This allowed for students to graduate with collegiate engineering degrees in 3 years, or 4 if they chose not to take the summer quarter. In the summer of 1919 52 Bachelor's degree graduates as well as 11 faculty were offered admission to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers.
Enrollment surpassed 1,200 in the school's 25th anniversary. During the Great Depression when enrollment dropped, the school created a student financial fund for disadvantaged students. By 1933 enrollment had recovered to previous levels. On July 13, 1932, the School of Engineering was restructured through a charter revision and renamed "Milwaukee School of Engineering"; this allowed the formation of the Board of Regents, a group of industrial and community leaders to oversee management of the school. One of the first major actions of the board was to purchase the German-English Academy building. In 1935 the board established the Industrial Research Institute, where students and faculty could partner with nearby industries for work. MSOE received the official seal of approval from the Society for the Promotion of Engineering in 1943, as part of recognition for educational achievements; the following year, MSOE became a charter member of the National Council of Technical Schools. For the first time, the university started accepting females into its program in order to replace males who were drafted into World War II.
Following the end of the war enrollment swelled in 1946 and 1947 due to the GI Bill of Rights allowing returning service personnel to pursue a college education. By 1947 over 90% of the students were veterans. On March 20, 1948 Oscar Werwath died and his sons, Karl Werwath and Heinz Werwath became president and treasurer, respectively. Milwaukee School of Engineering has a total undergraduate enrollment of 2,675, with a gender distribution of 74 percent male students and 26 percent female students. Obtaining full institutional accreditation from the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools began in 1950, approval of accreditation was granted in 1971. By the time of the school's 50th anniversary in 1953, enrollment reached 2,300 students from 48 states and 30 foreign countries. With the beginning of the Space Race as well as emphasis on technological education, many classes at MSOE upgraded their technology and their programs; the school partnered with WISN-TV and WISN to create programming centered around science and promoting their school.
MSOE's logo was designed by industrial engineer Brooks Stevens's firm for the school's 1978 diamond jubilee. Oscar Werwath, 1903-1948 Karl Werwath, 1948-1977 Robert Spitzer, 1977-1991 Hermann Viets, 1991-2015 John Walz, 2016–present The curricula at MSOE are c
Allenton, Wisconsin is an unincorporated census-designated place in the town of Addison, Wisconsin in Washington County, Wisconsin. It is located near the intersection of Wisconsin Highway 33 and Interstate 41, it is on a line of the Canadian National Railway, parent company of the Wisconsin Central Ltd. railroad. Allenton has a post office with ZIP code 53002; as of the 2010 census, its population was 823. Allenton is located at latitude 43.421 and longitude -88.341. The elevation is 958 feet. Allenton has an area of all of it land; the Rock River cuts through the town. Brooks Stevens Design Associates, a product design firm, is based in Allenton, as is Zuern Building Products, a chain of lumber yards in Wisconsin. Allenton Elementary School, part of the School District of Slinger, is located in the community. Alfred G. Becker, Wisconsin State Assemblyman John Reiser, former general manager of Roush Racing NASCAR Busch Series and NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series race shops Robbie Reiser, former NASCAR driver, Winston Cup championship crew chief, team manager at Roush Fenway Racing
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, from the theoretical to the applied; these ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City and Cornell Tech, a graduate program that incorporates technology and creative thinking; the program moved from Google's Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.
Cornell is one of ten private land grant universities in the United States and the only one in New York. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York system, including its agricultural and human ecology colleges as well as its industrial labor relations school. Of Cornell's graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported; as a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered; as of October 2018, 58 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell University. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race.
Cornell counts more than 245,000 living alumni, its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 14 living billionaires. The student body consists of more than 14,000 undergraduate and 8,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 116 countries. Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty; the university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, 412 men were enrolled the next day. Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds.
Since 1894, Cornell fulfill statutory requirements. Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes, it was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues, civil rights, opposition to the Vietnam War. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor. Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, it has partnerships with institutions in India and the People's Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a "transnational university". On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new'Bridging the Rift Center' to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.
Cornell's main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking Cayuga Lake. Since the university was founded, it has expanded to about 2,300 acres, encompassing both the hill and much of the surrounding areas. Central Campus has laboratories, administrative buildings, all of the campus' academic buildings, athletic facilities and museums. North Campus is composed of ten residence halls that house first-year students, although the Townhouse Community houses transfer students; the five main residence halls on West Campus make up the West Campus House System, along with several Gothic-style buildings, referred to as "the Gothics". Collegetown contains two upper-level residence halls and the Schwartz Performing Arts Center amid a mixed-use neighborhood of apartments and businesses; the main campus is marked by an irregular layout and eclectic architectural styles, including ornate Collegiate Gothic and Neoclassical buildings, the more spare international and modernist structures. The more ornat