The Brothers Grimm, Jacob Ludwig Karl and Wilhelm Carl, were German academics, cultural researchers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century. They were among the first and best-known collectors of German and European folk tales, popularized traditional oral tale types such as "Cinderella", "The Frog Prince", "The Goose-Girl", "Hansel and Gretel", "Rapunzel", "Rumpelstiltskin", "Sleeping Beauty", "Snow White", their classic collection, Children's and Household Tales, was published in two volumes—the first in 1812 and the second in 1815. The brothers were born in the town of Hanau in Hesse-Cassel and spent most of their childhood in the nearby town of Steinau, their father's death in 1796 affected the brothers for many years after. They attended the University of Marburg where they began a lifelong dedication to researching the early history of German language and literature, including German folktales; the rise of Romanticism during the 18th century had revived interest in traditional folk stories, which to the Grimms and their colleagues represented a pure form of national literature and culture.
The Brothers Grimm established a methodology for collecting and recording folk stories that became the basis for folklore studies. Between the first edition of 1812–1815 and the seventh edition of 1857, they revised their collection many times, so that it grew from 156 stories to more than 200. In addition to collecting and editing folk tales, the brothers compiled German legends. Individually, they published a large body of literary scholarship. Together, in 1838, they began work on a massive historical German dictionary which, in their lifetimes, they completed only as far as the word Frucht. Many of the Grimms' folk tales have enjoyed enduring popularity; the tales are available in more than 100 languages and have been adapted by filmmakers including Lotte Reiniger and Walt Disney, with films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Sleeping Beauty. During the 1930s and 40s, the tales were used as propaganda by the Third Reich. Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm was born on 4 January 1785, his brother Wilhelm Carl Grimm was born on 24 February 1786.
Both were born in Hanau, in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel within the Holy Roman Empire, to Philipp Wilhelm Grimm, a jurist, Dorothea Grimm née Zimmer, daughter of a Kassel city councilman. They were the second- and third-eldest surviving siblings in a family of nine children, three of whom died in infancy. In 1791, the family moved to the countryside town of Steinau, when Philipp was employed there as district magistrate; the family became prominent members of the community. Biographer Jack Zipes writes that the brothers were happy in Steinau and "clearly fond of country life"; the children were educated at home by private tutors, receiving strict instruction as Lutherans that instilled in both a lifelong religious faith. They attended local schools. In 1796, Philipp Grimm died of pneumonia, plunging his family into poverty, they were forced to relinquish their servants and large house. Dorothea depended on financial support from her father and sister, the first lady-in-waiting at the court of William I, Elector of Hesse.
Jacob was the eldest living son, he was forced at age 11 to assume adult responsibilities for the next two years. The two boys adhered to the advice of their grandfather, who continually exhorted them to be industrious; the brothers left Steinau and their family in 1798 to attend the Friedrichsgymnasium in Kassel, arranged and paid for by their aunt. By they were without a male provider, forcing them to rely on each other, they became exceptionally close; the two brothers differed in temperament. Sharing a strong work ethic, they excelled in their studies. In Kassel, they became acutely aware of their inferior social status relative to "high-born" students who received more attention. Still, each brother graduated at the head of his class: Jacob in 1803 and Wilhelm in 1804. After graduation from the Friedrichsgymnasium, the brothers attended the University of Marburg; the university was small with about 200 students and there they became painfully aware that students of lower social status were not treated equally.
They were disqualified from admission because of their social standing and had to request dispensation to study law. Wealthier students received stipends, but the brothers were excluded from tuition aid, their poverty kept them from university social life. The brothers were inspired by their law professor Friedrich von Savigny, who awakened in them an interest in history and philology, they turned to studying medieval German literature, they shared Savigny's desire to see unification of the 200 German principalities into a single state. Through Savigny and his circle of friends—German romantics such as Clemens Brentano and Ludwig Achim von Arnim—the Grimms were introduced to the
Joe Bodolai was an American film and television producer and writer. Born and raised in the United States, Bodolai was opposed to the Vietnam War and moved to Canada in order to avoid being drafted, he moved back to the United States in 1981 to write for twenty episodes of Saturday Night Live before returning to Canada. He is best known for producing such television shows as It's Only Rock & Roll, Comics!, The Kids in the Hall and helping to launch the careers of the young talent featured on those shows. He co-wrote the first draft of the film Wayne's World with Mike Myers. Bodolai was a founder of The Comedy Network, helping the new channel secure its licence from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission in 1996, expected to be named the new channel's head by its owners, he was disappointed when he was not decided to return permanently to the United States. Bodolai was found dead on December 2011 in a Hollywood hotel room of an apparent suicide. No suicide note was found, though on December 23 a long post was added to his blog, entitled "If this were your last day alive what would you do?"
Ulupō Heiau on the eastern edge of Kawai Nui Marsh in Kailua, Hawaiʻi, is an ancient site associated in legend with the menehune, but with high chiefs of Oʻahu, such as Kakuhihewa in the 15th century and Kualiʻi in the late 17th century. It may have reached the peak of its importance in 1750, before being abandoned after Oʻahu was conquered in the 1780s; the site became a territorial park in 1954, was restored in the early 1960s, marked with a bronze plaque by the State Commission on Historical Sites in 1962, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. The massive stone platform of the heiau measures 140 by 180 feet, with outer walls up to 30 feet high, its size and scale indicating both its cultural importance and the chiefly power of its patrons. Many of the stones may have been transported from as far as Kualoa, more than 10 miles away. Although it began as an agricultural heiau with springs feeding crops of taro, sweet potato, sugarcane along the fringes of the 400-acre Kawai Nui pond full of mullet and other fish.
However, the great warrior chief Kualiʻi may have converted it to a heiau luakini, with an altar, an oracle tower, thatched hale, wooden images. Kailua, with its ample supplies of pond fish, irrigated fields, canoe landings, was a center of political power for Koʻolaupoko, which vied with Waialua for control of Oʻahu. After defeating the forces of Oʻahu high chief Kahahana in the 1780s, Maui chief Kahekili lived in Kailua, as did Kamehameha I after conquering Oʻahu in 1795. In years, Queen Kalama, consort of Kamehameha III, inherited most of the land in Kailua after the death of her husband in 1854, most of it acquired in 1917 by Harold Kainalu Long Castle for his Kaneohe Ranch; the acquisition of land for Kaneohe Ranch brought about changes to the area due to the grazing and ranching of livestock. Cazimero, T.. Ulupō Heiau State Monument, Kailua, Oʻahu. Honolulu: State of Hawaiʻi, Dept. of Land and Natural Resources, Division of State Parks