Cass County, Illinois
Cass County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 13,642, its county seat is Virginia. It is the home of Wildlife Area. Cass County was formed in 1837 out of Morgan County, it was named for Lewis Cass, a general in the War of 1812, Governor of the Michigan Territory, United States Secretary of State in 1860. Cass was serving as Andrew Jackson's Secretary of War. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 384 square miles, of which 376 square miles is land and 7.9 square miles is water. Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge Illinois River Little Sangamon River Sangamon River In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Virginia have ranged from a low of 15 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −28 °F was recorded in February 1934 and a record high of 114 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.35 inches in January to 4.86 inches in May.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 13,642 people, 5,270 households, 3,561 families residing in the county. The population density was 36.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,836 housing units at an average density of 15.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.3% white, 3.1% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 8.7% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 16.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 22.6% were German, 21.0% were American, 10.6% were Irish, 9.5% were English. Of the 5,270 households, 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families, 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.06. The median age was 38.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,544 and the median income for a family was $51,624.
Males had a median income of $37,267 versus $26,634 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,825. About 10.1% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.2% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over. For German-settled western Central Illinois, Cass County opposed the Civil War and became solidly Democratic for the next six decades. Only hatred of Woodrow Wilson’s policies towards Germany following World War I drove the county into Republican hands in the 1920 landslide. Between 1924 and 2008, the county was something of a bellwether, missing the national winner only in the close 1960 election and the drought- and farm crisis-influenced election of 1988. In the 2010s, the county has become powerfully Republican due to opposition to the Democratic Party's social liberalism. Cass County is located in Illinois's 18th Congressional District and is represented by Republican Davin LaHood. For the Illinois House of Representatives, the county is located in the 93rd district and is represented by Republican Norine Hammond.
The county is located in the 47th district of the Illinois Senate, is represented by Republican Jil Tracy. Beardstown Virginia Gurney Oak Grove Sylvan National Register of Historic Places listings in Cass County, Illinois US Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles US Board on Geographic Names US National Atlas
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Brown County Courthouse (Illinois)
The Brown County Courthouse is a government building in Mount Sterling, the county seat of Brown County, United States. Completed in 1868 and rebuilt around 1940, it is the second courthouse in the county's history. Schuyler County was formed out of pieces of Pike and Fulton counties in 1825, but the new county was large enough that inhabitants of the southern part of the county found it inconvenient to reach the county seat of Rushville. Northern residents suggested moving the seat to Ripley, near the center of the county, but southerners petitioned for a separate county in 1838, the General Assembly granted their request in early 1839 and named it for war hero Jacob Brown; the law designated Mount Sterling as the temporary county seat until a permanent seat should be chosen. Because that town's residents pledged more than $5,000 to construct public buildings, because the town was conveniently located, Brown County officials chose Mount Sterling as the new seat; the seat's location now settled, bids for the construction of a courthouse were opened in September 1839.
Designed by a Mr. Howland and built by contractor George Tebo, the courthouse was a two-story square brick building measuring 45 feet on each side. A courtroom and related spaces occupied the second floor, while county offices were located on the first floor. Indecision by the county government delayed the start of construction until the second half of 1841, while delays by Tebo caused construction to continue far into 1843. Despite taking more than two years to finish his work, Tebo was unable to erect a structure capable of long endurance: significant repairs were needed in 1859, in 1864 a county-appointed committee determined that the building was so dangerous that drastic steps — destroying and rebuilding one whole side of the building and parts of two others, building a new foundation, replacing the roof — were unlikely to render it safe for occupancy. Nearly two years passed. Preparations for choosing a design, renting rooms for temporary use, selling the old courthouse were undertaken in 1866, the new courthouse was first occupied in January 1868.
The resulting building was a two-story gable-roofed structure with a pedimented central portico, five openings on each floor of the facade, a tall cupola at the center of the roof. It lasted in this form until 1939, when fire destroyed the building, but instead of giving up on the remains and constructing a new courthouse, the county government chose to undertake a three-year rebuilding process; the body of the building is the same as before, but officials chose not to rebuild the cupola, the courthouse was given a hip roof. In the post-fire courthouse, as in the short-lived first courthouse, county offices occupy the first floor and court facilities the second; the general plan resembles the letter "H" except for the portico with its fire-surviving Doric columns. Its overall appearance mixes elements of the Italianate architectural styles; the rebuilt 1868 courthouse has continued in use into the 21st century, it remains a prominent building in the community. It lies at the end of the downtown area.
For these reasons, it lies at the northern end of the Mount Sterling Commercial Historic District, a historic district, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1987. Brown County Courts
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
The Illinois River is a principal tributary of the Mississippi River 273 miles long, in the U. S. state of Illinois. The river drains a large section of central Illinois, with a drainage basin of 28,756.6 square miles. The drainage basin extends into Wisconsin, a small area of southwestern Michigan; this river was important among Native Americans and early French traders as the principal water route connecting the Great Lakes with the Mississippi. The French colonial settlements along the rivers formed the heart of the area known as the Illinois Country. After the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal and the Hennepin Canal in the 19th century, the role of the river as link between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi was extended into the era of modern industrial shipping, it now forms the basis for the Illinois Waterway. The Illinois River is formed by the confluence of the Kankakee River and the Des Plaines River in eastern Grundy County 10 miles southwest of Joliet; this river flows west across northern Illinois, passing Morris and Ottawa, where it is joined by the Mazon River and Fox River.
At LaSalle, the Illinois River is joined by the Vermilion River, it flows west past Peru, Spring Valley. In southeastern Bureau County it turns south at an area known as the "Great Bend", flowing southwest across western Illinois, past Lacon and downtown Peoria, the chief city on the river. South of Peoria, the Illinois River goes by East Peoria and Creve Coeur, Pekin, Illinois, in Tazewell County, Illinois, it is joined by the Mackinaw River and passes through the Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge. Across from Havana, the Illinois is joined by the Spoon River coming from Fulton County and across from Browning, it is joined by the Sangamon River, which passes through the state capital, Illinois; the La Moine River flows into it five miles southwest of Beardstown, south of Peoria and Pekin and north of Lincoln and Springfield. Near the confluence of the Illinois with the La Moine River, it turns south, flowing parallel to the Mississippi across southwestern Illinois. Macoupin Creek joins the Illinois on the border between Greene and Jersey counties 15 miles upstream from the confluence with the Mississippi.
For the last 20 miles of its course, the Illinois is separated from the Mississippi River by only about five miles, by a peninsula of land that makes up Calhoun County. The Illinois joins the Mississippi near Grafton 25 miles northwest of downtown St. Louis and about 20 miles upstream from the confluence of the Missouri River and the Mississippi. South of Hennepin, the Illinois River is following the ancient channel of the Mississippi River; the Illinoian Stage, about 300,000 to 132,000 years ago, blocked the Mississippi near Rock Island, diverting it into its present channel. After the glacier melted, the Illinois River flowed into the ancient channel; the Hennepin Canal follows the ancient channel of the Mississippi upstream of Rock Island. The modern channel of the Illinois River was shaped in a matter of days by the Kankakee Torrent. During the melting of the Wisconsin Glacier about 10,000 years ago, a lake formed in present-day Indiana, comparable to one of the modern Great Lakes; the lake formed behind the terminal moraine of a substage of that glacier.
Melting ice to the north raised the level of the lake so that it overflowed the moraine. The dam burst, the entire volume of the lake was released in a short time a few days; because of the manner of its formation, the Illinois River runs through a deep canyon with many rock formations. It has an "underutilized channel", one far larger than would be needed to contain any conceivable flow in modern times. Flooding along the Illinois River The Illinois River valley was one of the strongholds of the Illinois Confederation of Native Americans; the French first met the natives here in 1673. The first European settlement in the state of Illinois was the Jesuit mission founded in 1675 by Father Jacques Marquette on the banks of the Illinois across from Starved Rock at the Grand Village of the Illinois. Marquette wrote of the river, “We have seen nothing like this river that we enter, as regards its fertility of soil, its prairies and woods. There are many small rivers; that on which we sailed is wide and still, for 65 leagues."In 1680, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle built the first fort in Illinois, Ft. St. Louis, at Starved Rock.
It was relocated to the present site of Creve Coeur, near Peoria, where the Jesuits relocated. The Peoria Riverfront Museum contains a gallery, "Illinois River Encounter," that attempts to interpret the museum through an aquarium tank and displays of the river's geology, social history and commercial use. From 1905 to 1915, more freshwater fish were harvested from the Illinois River than from any other river in the United States except for the Columbia River; the Illinois River was once a major source of mussels for the shell button industry. Overfishing, habitat loss from heavy siltation, water pollution have eliminated most commercial fishing except for a small mussel harvest to provide shells to seed pearl oysters overseas, it is commercially fished downstream of the Rt. 89 bridge at Spring Valley. However, an infestation of invasive Asian Carp has crowded out many game fish in the river; the Illinois River is still an important sports fishing waterway with a good sauger fishery. The Illinois forms part of a modern waterway that connects the Great
Mount Sterling, Illinois
Mount Sterling is a city in and the county seat of Brown County, United States. The population was 2,025 at the 2010 census. Mount Sterling was organized in 1854, it did not have a court house until 1868 although it was designated the county seat from when the county was organized. According to the 2010 census, Mount Sterling has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,070 people, 934 households, 535 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,923.5 people per square mile. There were 1,048 housing units at an average density of 973.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.55% White, 0.14% African American, 0.34% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, 0.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.97% of the population. There were 934 households out of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.7% were non-families.
39.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, 21.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,434, the median income for a family was $40,363. Males had a median income of $29,333 versus $19,258 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,755. About 4.7% of families and 10.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.5% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over