Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island. Founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, it is the seventh-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. At its foundation, Brown was the first college in the U. S. to accept students regardless of their religious affiliation. Its engineering program was established in 1847, it was one of the early doctoral-granting U. S. institutions in the late 19th century, adding masters and doctoral studies in 1887. In 1969, Brown adopted a New Curriculum sometimes referred to as the Brown Curriculum after a period of student lobbying; the New Curriculum eliminated mandatory "general education" distribution requirements, made students "the architects of their own syllabus" and allowed them to take any course for a grade of satisfactory or unrecorded no-credit. In 1971, Brown's coordinate women's institution, Pembroke College, was merged into the university.
Undergraduate admissions is selective, with an acceptance rate of 6.6 percent for the class of 2023. The university comprises the College, the Graduate School, Alpert Medical School, the School of Engineering, the School of Public Health and the School of Professional Studies. Brown's international programs are organized through the Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, the university is academically affiliated with the Marine Biological Laboratory and the Rhode Island School of Design; the Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program, offered in conjunction with the Rhode Island School of Design, is a five-year course that awards degrees from both institutions. Brown's main campus is located in the College Hill Historic District in the city of Providence, Rhode Island; the University's neighborhood is a federally listed architectural district with a dense concentration of Colonial-era buildings. Benefit Street, on the western edge of the campus, contains "one of the finest cohesive collections of restored seventeenth- and eighteenth-century architecture in the United States".
As of November 2019, 8 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Brown University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Brown's faculty and alumni include 5 National Humanities Medalists and 10 National Medal of Science laureates. Other notable alumni include 8 billionaire graduates, a U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice, 4 U. S. Secretaries of State and other Cabinet officials, 54 members of the United States Congress, 56 Rhodes Scholars, 52 Gates Cambridge Scholars 49 Marshall Scholars, 14 MacArthur Genius Fellows, 23 Pulitzer Prize winners, various royals and nobles, as well as leaders and founders of Fortune 500 companies; the origin of Brown University can be dated to 1761, when three residents of Newport, Rhode Island drafted a petition to the General Assembly of the colony: Your Petitioners propose to open a literary institution or School for instructing young Gentlemen in the Languages, Geography & History, & such other branches of Knowledge as shall be desired. That for this End... it will be necessary... to erect a public Building or Buildings for the boarding of the youth & the Residence of the Professors.
The three petitioners were Ezra Stiles, pastor of Newport's Second Congregational Church and future president of Yale. Stiles and Ellery were co-authors of the Charter of the College two years later; the editor of Stiles's papers observes, "This draft of a petition connects itself with other evidence of Dr. Stiles's project for a Collegiate Institution in Rhode Island, before the charter of what became Brown University."There is further documentary evidence that Stiles was making plans for a college in 1762. On January 20, Chauncey Whittelsey, pastor of the First Church of New Haven, answered a letter from Stiles: The week before last I sent you the Copy of Yale College Charter... Should you make any Progress in the Affair of a Colledge, I should be glad to hear of it; the Philadelphia Association of Baptist Churches had an eye on Rhode Island, home of the mother church of their denomination: the First Baptist Church in America, founded in Providence in 1638 by Roger Williams. The Baptists were as yet unrepresented among colonial colleges.
Isaac Backus was the historian of the New England Baptists and an inaugural Trustee of Brown, writing in 1784. He described the October 1762 resolution taken at Philadelphia: The Philadelphia Association obtained such an acquaintance with our affairs, as to bring them to an apprehension that it was practicable and expedient to erect a college in the Colony of Rhode-Island, under the chief direction of the Baptists. Mr. James Manning, who took his first degree in New-Jersey college in September, 1762, was esteemed a suitable leader in this important work. Manning arrived at Newport in July 1763 and was introduced to Stiles, who agreed to write the Charter for the College. Stiles's first draft was read to the General Assembly in August 1763 and rejected by Baptist members who worried that the College Board of Fellows would under-represent the Baptists. A revised Charter written by Stiles and Ellery was adopted by the Assembly on March 3, 1764. In September 1764, the inaugural meeting of the College Corporation was held at Newport.
Wuppertal-Langerfeld station is a through station in the district of Langerfeld of the city of Wuppertal in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The station was opened in 1948 on a section of the Elberfeld–Dortmund railway from Döppersberg, near the current Wuppertal Hauptbahnhof, to Schwelm, opened by the Bergisch-Märkische Railway Company on 9 October 1847, it has two platform tracks and it is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 6 station. The station is served by Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn lines S 8 between Mönchengladbach and Hagen twice an hour, it is served by bus route 606 operated by Wuppertaler Stadtwerke every 60 minutes
Kim Yale was an American writer and editor of comic books for several publishers including DC Comics, Eclipse Comics, First Comics, Marvel Comics, WaRP Graphics. Yale was born in Evanston, Illinois, to the Reverend Richard A. Yale and Theresa Yale, her father was a Navy chaplain which meant that for many years she and her family moved to various locations in the United States and elsewhere before resettling in Evanston during her teen years. She earned a B. A. in English from Knox College. Yale's first published comics work appeared in 1987 in the New America limited series, a spin-off of Timothy Truman's Scout series published by Eclipse Comics, she married fellow comics creator, frequent collaborator, John Ostrander the same year. Yale and Ostrander developed the character of Barbara Gordon into Oracle, wrote her origin in the short story "Oracle: Year One" published in The Batman Chronicles #5; the two co-wrote Manhunter, a series which DC launched in the wake of the Millennium crossover. Their collaboration on Suicide Squad included the "Janus Directive" storyline in issues #27–30 and the creation of the character Dybbuk in issue #45.
Yale served as an editor for DC from 1991–1993 and oversaw licensed titles such as Advanced Dungeons and Dragons, Forgotten Realms, Star Trek, Star Trek: The Next Generation. Yale was involved with the Friends of Lulu, an organization promoting women in comics that operated from 1994-2011. Yale served as a member of the Vice-President of the New York chapter; the Kimberly Yale Award for Best New Talent, an award given by the Friends of Lulu organization, was named in her honor. Yale wrote an ongoing column in the Comics Buyer's Guide, in which she detailed her battle against breast cancer. Following her diagnosis, the cancer spread to her abdomen and pelvis, a process she described in detail to the readers of the column; the cancer made it difficult for her to write, the origin story for Oracle included in The Batman Chronicles #5 was her last project. Yale died of breast cancer in 1997 at the age of 43. Kim Yale at the Comic Book DB Kim Yale at Mike's Amazing World of Comics