The Browning Hi Power is a single-action, semi-automatic handgun available in the 9mm and.40 S&W calibers. It was based on a design by American firearms inventor John Browning, completed by Dieudonné Saive at Fabrique Nationale of Herstal, Belgium. Browning died in several years before the design was finalized; the Hi-Power is one of the most used military pistols in history, having been used by the armed forces of over 50 countries. After 82 years of continuous production, the Hi-Power was discontinued in 2017 by Browning Arms, but it remained in production in some countries, under license; the Hi Power name alludes to the 13-round magazine capacity twice that of contemporary designs such as the Luger or Colt M1911. The pistol is referred to as an HP, GP, BAP, or BHP; the terms P-35 and HP-35 are used, based on the introduction of the pistol in 1935. Several sources indicate that the official name was "High Power", while it was manufactured in Belgium by Fabrique Nationale prior to the German occupation in World War II.
Production of the weapon moved to a John Inglis and Company plant in Canada. Production returned to Belgium after the war, in 1944 or 1945. Nonetheless, the term Hi Power has been the most used in articles over the past decades, regardless of the year of manufacture. Versions of the handgun continued to be made at the FN factory in Belgium under Wehrmacht control, with the designation "9mm Pistole 640"; the Browning Hi-Power was designed in response to a French military requirement for a new service pistol, the Grand Rendement, or alternatively Grande Puissance. The French military required that: the arm must be compact the magazine have a capacity of at least 10 rounds the gun have a magazine disconnect device, an external hammer, a positive safety the gun be robust and simple to disassemble and reassemble the gun be capable of killing a man at 50 metresThis last criterion was seen to demand a caliber of 9 mm or larger, a bullet mass of around 8 grams, a muzzle velocity of 350 m/s, it was to accomplish all of this at a weight not exceeding 1 kg.
FN commissioned John Browning to design a new military sidearm conforming to this specification. Browning had sold the rights to his successful M1911 U. S. Army automatic pistol to Colt's Patent Firearms, was therefore forced to design an new pistol while working around the M1911 patents. Browning built two different prototypes for the project in Utah and filed the patent for this pistol in the United States on 28 June 1923, granted on 22 February 1927. One was a simple blowback design. Both prototypes utilised the new staggered magazine design to increase capacity without unduly increasing the pistol's grip size or magazine length; the locked breech design was selected for further testing. This model was striker-fired, featured a double-column magazine that held 16 rounds; the design was refined through several trials held by the Versailles Trial Commission. In 1928, when the patents for the Colt Model 1911 had expired, Dieudonné Saive integrated many of the Colt's patented features into the Grand Rendement design, in the Saive-Browning Model of 1928.
This version featured the removable barrel bushing and take down sequence of the Colt 1911. By 1931, the Browning Hi-Power design incorporated a shortened 13-round magazine, a curved rear grip strap, a barrel bushing, integral to the slide assembly. By 1934, the Hi-Power design was ready to be produced, it was first adopted by Belgium for military service in 1935 as the Browning P-35. France decided not to adopt the pistol, instead selecting the conceptually similar but lower-capacity Modèle 1935 pistol; the Browning Hi-Power has undergone continuous refinement by FN since its introduction. The pistols were made in two models: an "Ordinary Model" with fixed sights and an "Adjustable Rear Sight Model" with a tangent-type rear sight and a slotted grip for attaching a wooden shoulder stock; the adjustable sights are still available on commercial versions of the Hi-Power, although the shoulder stock mounts were discontinued during World War II. In 1962, the design was modified to replace the internal extractor with an external extractor, improving reliability.
Standard Hi-Powers are based on a single-action design. Unlike modern double-action semi-automatic pistols, the Hi-Power's trigger is not connected to the hammer. If a double-action pistol is carried with the hammer down with a round in the chamber and a loaded magazine installed, the shooter may fire the pistol either by squeezing the trigger or by pulling the hammer back to the cocked position and squeezing the trigger. In contrast, a single-action pistol can only be fired with the hammer in the cocked position. In common with the M1911, the Hi-Power is therefore carried with the hammer cocked, a round in the chamber and the safety catch on; the Hi-Power, like many other Browning designs, operates on the short-recoil principle, where the barrel and slide recoil together until the barrel is unlocked from the slide by a cam arrangement. Unlike Browning's earlier Colt M1911 pist
Joseph "Jack" O'Brien is an Australian representative rower. He is an Australian national champion, has represented at under-aged and senior world championships and won two gold medals at the World Rowing Cups II and III in the 2019 international representative season. O'Brien was educated at St Joseph's College Hunters Hill, his senior club rowing has been from the Sydney University Boat Club. O'Brien's first state representation for New South Wales came in 2017 when he was selected in the New South Wales youth eight to contest the Noel F Wilkinson Trophy at the Interstate Regatta within the Australian Rowing Championships, he stroked that crew to Interstate Championship victories in both 2017 and 2018. In 2019 O'Brien was selected in the New South Wales men's senior eight which won the King's Cup at the Interstate Regatta. At the New South Wales State Championships in February 2020 rowing with Jack Hargreaves, he won the men's elite pair. O'Brien made his Australian representative debut in the coxed four at the World Junior Rowing Championships in 2016.
They rowed to a fifth placing. In 2018 he was selected with Andrew Judge in a coxless pair to compete at both the World Rowing U23 Championships and the World Championships, they finished in seventh pace at the U/23 championships and in 13th place at the World Championships in Plovdiv. In 2019 O'Brien was selected in the Australian senior men's sweep squad for the international representative season. In an effort to qualify the men's pair for the 2020 Olympics, selectors broke up the Australian dual world champion coxless four into other boats giving O'Brien an opportunity in the four. Rowing with Tim Masters, Nicholas Purnell and Jack Hargreaves, O'Brien took the gold medal in the Australian coxless four at both the World Rowing Cup II in Poznan and at WRC III in Rotterdam. O'Brien, Hargreaves and Purnell were selected to race Australia's coxless four at the 2019 World Rowing Championships in Linz, Austria; the four were looking for a top eight finish at the 2019 World Championships to qualify for the Tokyo Olympics.
They won their heat and semi-final, thereby qualifying the boat for Tokyo 2020. Unexpectedly as race favourites, they finished last in the final for an overall world sixth place. Joseph O'Brien at FISA WorldRowing.com
The almond moth or tropical warehouse moth is a small, stored-product pest. Almond moths infest flour, bran and other grains, as well as dried fruits, it belongs to the family of snout moths, more to the tribe Phycitini of the huge snout moth subfamily Phycitinae. This species may be confused with the related Indian mealmoth or the Mediterranean flour moth, which are common pantry pests in the same subfamily. Other common names in nonbiological literature, are dried currant moth and fig moth, which invite confusion with the close relatives Cadra figulilella and Cadra calidella. Like the raisin moth, the almond moth has achieved an cosmopolitan distribution due to inadvertent transport with food products in its larval form. Adults do not eat, but may drink if water is available; the mating system is polygamous. Adult almond months are predominantly light brown in color, with smaller hind wings that are gray; when extended, its wingspan ranges from 14–22 mm. The back edges of the wings are lined with a short fringe.
Almond moth larvae are gray with darker heads. The caterpillar identifiable by the pattern of spots along its back. Almond moths are found around the world. Although it thrives best in tropical climates, it has spread to many regions around the globe due to its tendency to infest dry goods that are shipped internationally. For example, it has been transported across Polynesia with copra shipments; as almond moths exists as a pest, its habitat is some kind of dry food product, stored in a warehouse or similar industrial environment. Most they are found in dried fruits, but they have been found in nuts, beans and other grains. Larval almond moths are hatched onto a variety of dry food products, which serve as their primary food source. Although the moth infests several different kinds of food, the larvae develop most on wheat-based products. Moreover, cracked or ground seed and grain products are more ideal for larvae than whole seeds or grains because the larvae are unable to penetrate shells or hulls, which makes feeding more difficult.
The caterpillars are cannibalistic. Adult almond moths do not eat during their short lifespan but will drink water if they have access to it. Adult female moths will oviposit around 200 eggs at a time; the timing and number of eggs oviposited has been shown to vary based on several factors, including temperature, access to water, type of food source. Low temperatures delay oviposition, low humidity or lack of access to water seems to reduce the number of eggs oviposited by any given female. Preferred food source upon which to oviposit may vary with the strain of almond moth. Females will oviposit at night; the almond moth thrives best in humid environments. The ideal temperature range for development is 30-32 degrees Celsius, the ideal humidity range is 70-80%. In optimal conditions, it takes about three and a half days for eggs to hatch, the larvae go through five instars over a period ranging from 17–37 days; the pupal stages lasts around seven days in optimal humidity. Adult females live on average for ten days and adult males live for an average of six to seven days.
Xylocoris flavipes is a type of beetle which feeds preferentially on the eggs and early larval stages of the almond moth. Blattisocius tarsalis is a kind of mite which will feed on almond moth eggs throughout its life cycle, has been considered as a mechanism for controlling infestations of the almond moth. A variety of species within the order Hymenoptera are parasites of the almond moth. Several parasites of the genus Trichogramma, including T. evanescens, T. cacoeciae, T. brassicae are common among organisms in the order Lepidoptera and, as such, are known to parasitize almond moths. Trichogramma are small wasps, they will puncture the eggs of almond moths and leave their own progeny inside; these parasites will kill the larva inside and emerge from the egg themselves. Other kinds of wasps, including Bracon hebetor and Venturia canescens, parasitize almond moth larvae in the instars. Wolbachia is a type of bacteria which infects several types of invertebrates, including the almond moth. Wolbachia is transmitted from mother to offspring.
As such, Wolbachia does not directly kill the infected moth which houses it, because its primary means of spreading are through the moth's reproduction. Only moths who live to adulthood will be able to reproduce and thus spread the bacteria further. Almond moths are polygynous. Although the amount of sperm produced by males decreases across subsequent copulations, this appears to have no effect on the number of eggs laid and offspring hatched by the female. However, larger spermatophores are correlated with several outcomes. First, a large spermatophore decreases the likelihood that the recipient female will remate, if she does, a large spermatophore ensures a better chance of paternity for the first male moth. Mating decreases lifespan for both male and female moths relative to virgins. In almond moths, females will initiate courtship by attracting a male through the adoption of several positions which indicate her receptivity for copulation. Female moths will start by taking on some variation of a calling posture, which involves a bowed abdomen, spread wings, an