Waltham Cross railway station
Waltham Cross railway station, opened in 1840, is a railway station located 12.4 miles NNE of central London that serves the suburban town of Waltham Cross and the neighbouring town of Waltham Abbey. It is on the West Anglia Main Line, and train services are provided by Abellio Greater Anglia, during the London 2012 Summer Olympic Games, Waltham Cross and Cheshunt stations were the main rail stations used to access the Lee Valley White Water Centre for the whitewater slalom events. The first station, together with the line from Stratford to Broxbourne, was opened by the Northern & Eastern Railway on 15 September 1840. Originally called Waltham and renamed to Waltham Cross, it is on a site to the south of the road between Waltham Cross and Waltham Abbey, in 1885 the station was relocated to the current site. A subsequent renaming to Waltham Cross and Abbey was rescinded, the lines through Waltham Cross were electrified on 5 May 1969. In 2011, a redevelopment was carried out at the station in preparation for the London 2012 Olympics.
From 2 January 2013, Oyster cards are accepted at the station, the station is in Travelcard zone 7. On Sunday, the typical off peak service is two trains per hour to Stratford via Tottenham Hale and two trains per hour to Hertford East, train times and station information for Waltham Cross railway station from National Rail
Cambridge railway station
Cambridge railway station serves the city of Cambridge in eastern England. It stands at the end of Station Road, off Hills Road,1 mile south-east of the city centre and it is the busiest railway station in the East of England, used by almost 11 million passengers in 2015/16. These routes are electrified at 25 kV AC overhead, except for the Ipswich to Ely and Cambridge to Norwich lines, the station has the third-longest platform in England on the national rail network. The following year, an act was passed, extending the rights to build a railway through to Cambridge itself. In 1844, the Northern and Eastern Railway was leased by the Eastern Counties Railway, the 1844 act covered an extension of the line north of Cambridge to Brandon in Suffolk forming an end on connection to the line through to Norwich. Robert Stephenson was appointed engineer and on 29 July 1845, the station opened with services operating from Bishopsgate station in London via Stratford, in the years following the opening of the main line from Cambridge through to Norwich in 1845, other railways were built to Cambridge.
Initially, some of these planned to have separate stations but opposition from the university saw them all using the same station. The first line to arrive was the St Ives to Huntingdon line which opened in 1847 and was built by the East Anglian Railway. The following year, the Eastern Counties Railway opened a line between St Ives and March which saw passenger services although the coal traffic was diverted onto this route. In 1851, a line from Newmarket to Cambridge was opened which partly used the alignment of the Newmarket. In 1854, the Newmarket line was extended eastwards to meet the Eastern Union Railway line at Bury St Edmunds, a parliamentary act in 1848 was granted to the Royston and Hitchin Railway to extend their line from Royston. Although Cambridge was its goal, Parliament sanctioned only an extension as far as Shepreth, the line was completed in 1851 and initially the GNR, who had leased the Royston and Hitchin Railway in the interim, ran a connecting horse-drawn omnibus service.
In 1862, the Bedford and Cambridge Railway opened, originally a local undertaking, it was soon acquired by the London & North Western Railway and saw services between Oxford and Cambridge introduced. Thus Cambridge became a GER station in 1862, the University of Cambridge helped block 19th-century attempts to create a central station. The GER opened the line from Marks Tey via Sudbury. The Midland Railway built a line from Kettering to Huntingdon which opened in 1866, in 1866 the Great Northern Railway again applied to run services from Kings Cross as the lease on the line to Hitchin was ending. Initially the GER opposed this but eventually agreement was reached and from 1 April 1866 services started operating between Cambridge and Kings Cross from a platform at Cambridge station. In 1882 the Great Northern and Great Eastern Joint Railway was opened, as well as becoming the major route for coal traffic from the north east to East Anglia it saw the introduction of direct services between London and York
Stratford is a district in the London Borough of Newham, in East London, England. Historically an agrarian settlement in the county of Essex, it was transformed into an industrial suburb following the introduction of the railway in 1839, Stratford is now East London’s primary retail and leisure centre. It has become the second most significant business location in the east of the capital, stratford’s early significance was as the point where the originally Roman road from Aldgate in the City, to Romford and Colchester, crossed the River Lea. At that time the branches of the river were tidal and unchannelised. The Lea valley formed a boundary between Essex on the eastern bank and Middlesex on the west, and was a formidable obstacle to overland trade. The name is first recorded in 1067 as Strætforda and means ford on a Roman road and it is formed from Old English stræt and ford. The former crossing lay at a location north of Stratford High Street. And Stretford Langthorne after a distinctive thorn tree which was mentioned in a charter of 958 AD, the western Stratford become suffixed by “-atte-Bow”, eventually becoming known simply as Bow, while over time the eastern Stratford lost its “Langthorne” suffix.
The Bridge was repaired and upgraded many times over the centuries until eventually demolished and replaced in the 19th Century, in 1135 the Cistercian Order founded Stratford Langthorne Abbey, known as West Ham Abbey. This became one of the largest and most wealthy monasteries in England, the Abbey lay between the Channelsea River and Marsh Lane. Nothing visible remains on the site, as after it dissolution by Henry VIII in 1538, local landowners took away much of the stone for their own buildings and the land was subsequently urbanised. A stone window and a carving featuring skulls – thought to have been over the door to the charnel house – remain in All Saints Church, the Great Gate of the abbey survived in Bakers Row until 1825. The coat of arms of the Abbey can be seen over the doorway to the Old Court House, in Tramway Avenue. The chevrons from this device, originally from the arms of the Mountfitchet family, the same arms were adopted by the new London Borough of Newham in 1965. The industrialisation of Stratford started slowly and accelerated rapidly in the early Victorian era, Stratford was originally an agricultural community, whose proximity to London provided a ready market for its produce.
By the 18th century, the area around Stratford was noted for potato growing, Stratford became a desirable country retreat for wealthy merchants and financiers, within an easy ride of the City. When Daniel Defoe visited Stratford in 1722, he reported that it had. increased in buildings to a strange degree and he continues that. this increase is, generally speaking, of hansom large houses. An early industrial undertaking at Stratford was the Bow porcelain factory, the site of the factory was to the north of Stratford High Street near the modern Bow Flyover, it was the subject of archaeological excavations in 1921 and 1969
Ware railway station
Ware railway station is in Ware in Hertfordshire, England. It is on the Hertford East Branch Line, and train services are provided by Abellio Greater Anglia, Ware station is unusual in that it has only a single bidirectional platform and track on what is otherwise a double track railway. The station building dates back to the opening of the line in 1843, the typical off-peak service is two trains per hour to London Liverpool Street via Tottenham Hale, and two trains per hour to Hertford East. The Oyster card system was extended through to Hertford East and became operational at Ware on 19 October 2015, Ware railway station has a level crossing on the western side of the platform. Train times and station information for Ware railway station from National Rail
Roydon railway station
Roydon railway station serves the village of Roydon in Essex, England. The station, and all trains serving it, are operated by Abellio Greater Anglia, the station has an unusual staggered platform layout, the two platforms do not face each other and are on opposite sides of a level crossing. The station maintains a ticket office, which is open during weekday peak hours. The station was designed by Francis Thompson and opened by the Northern and Eastern Railway in 1844, the main station building was abandoned by British Railways in 1978 and remained unoccupied until being converted into a restaurant. The main station building was given Grade II listed status on 30 April 1971, the stations signal box, built in 1876, is one of only two surviving examples of the GER Type I signal box
Hertford East railway station
Hertford East railway station is one of two stations in Hertford in Hertfordshire, the other being Hertford North station. The station is 24 1⁄4 miles north of London Liverpool Street and is the terminus of the Hertford East Branch of the West Anglia Main Line with train services provided by Abellio Greater Anglia. There are two platforms, although one is only used during peak times and primarily for trains to. The station was listed in 1974 as a Grade II* listed building, the typical off-peak service from the station is two trains per hour to/from London Liverpool Street via Tottenham Hale. During peak times a few trains operate via Seven Sisters as well as additional services to/from Stratford station via Tottenham Hale, on Sundays the typical off peak service are two trains per hour to Stratford via Tottenham Hale. These services are operated by British Rail Class 317 units, the Oyster card system has been extended to Hertford East and became operational on 19 October 2015. There is a kiosk and a service at the station.
Train times and station information for Hertford East railway station from National Rail
The name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are the intellectual property of the Secretary of State for Transport. The National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, and was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, the NR title is sometimes described as a brand. As it was used by British Rail, the operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail, the two networks are generally coincident where passenger services are run. Most major Network Rail lines carry traffic and some lines are freight only. About twenty privately owned operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government. The Rail Delivery Group is the association representing the TOCs and provides core services. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, and Rail Staff Travel and it does not compile the national timetable, which is the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail.
Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain, the look and feel of signage and marketing material is largely the preserve of the individual TOCs. However, National Rail continues to use BRs famous double-arrow symbol and it has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity. The trademark rights to the arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow was already prescribed for indicating a railway station, the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. It is a misconception that Rail Alphabet was used for printed material. The British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, TOCs may use what they like, examples include Futura, Frutiger, and a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail, LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former East London line of London Underground as the East London Railway of LO.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations, northern Ireland Railways were never part of British Rail, which was always confined to Great Britain, and therefore are not part of the National Rail network. National Rail services have a common ticketing structure inherited from British Rail, through tickets are available between any pair of stations on the network, and can be bought from any station ticket office
West Anglia Main Line
The West Anglia Main Line is one of the two main lines from Liverpool Street, the other being the Great Eastern Main Line to Ipswich and Norwich. It runs generally north through Cheshunt, Harlow, Bishops Stortford and Audley End to Cambridge, with branches serving Stratford, the line runs along the boundary between Hertfordshire and Essex for much of its length. In the early years the line was the route from London to Norwich. It was an important goods route for years as the southern end of a route from coalfields in Yorkshire. Detail on the routes in London are in the Lea Valley Lines article, the first section was built for the Northern and Eastern Railway from Stratford to Broxbourne and opened in 1840. It was extended northwards in stages, reaching Spellbrook,3 miles short of Bishops Stortford, in 1843 the line reached Bishops Stortford, and in the following year the Northern and Eastern Railway was leased by the Eastern Counties Railway. It was this company opened the section from Bishops Stortford to Cambridge as part of its extension to Ely.
By the 1860s the railways in East Anglia were in financial trouble, although they wished to amalgamate formally, they could not obtain government agreement for this until 1862, when the Great Eastern Railway was formed by amalgamation. Following the grouping in 1923 the line part of the London & North Eastern Railway. In 1948 following nationalisation the line passed to British Railways Eastern Region, in 1952 the branch from Elsenham to Thaxted closed to passengers, and goods services were withdrawn a year later. The Saffron Walden line closed to passengers on 7 September 1964, electrification first came in the early 1960s in sections. The route via Tottenham Hale was still operated by diesel traction, the line from Clapton Junction through Tottenham Hale to Cheshunt and from Broxbourne to Bishops Stortford was electrified on 9 March 1969 and from there to Cambridge in 1987. Stratford to Coppermill Junction was electrified in 1989, the power supply is 25 kV AC overhead line. In 1991 a branch line to Stansted Airport was opened, the Network Rail Greater Anglia Route Utilisation Strategy, published in December 2007, outlined a number of developments.
By 2014 selected stations had had their platforms extended to enable 12-car trains to Cambridge, a station was proposed near Clapton called Queens Road but never opened. Services from Liverpool Street to Cambridge, Hertford East and Stansted Airport are operated by Abellio Greater Anglia, Express services from Liverpool Street to Stansted Airport are operated by Stansted Express, a brand of Abellio Greater Anglia. Services from Stansted Airport to Cambridge are operated by CrossCountry, the line is part of the Network Rail Strategic Route 5, which comprises SRS05.01 and part of 05.05. It is classified as a London and South East commuter line, in London, the line forms the Tottenham Hale branch of the Lea Valley Lines
Hertfordshire is a county in southern England, bordered by Bedfordshire to the north, Cambridgeshire to the north-east, Essex to the east, Buckinghamshire to the west and Greater London to the south. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region, in 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 living in an area of 634 square miles. Four towns have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents, Hemel Hempstead, Watford and St Albans. Hertford, once the market town for the medieval agricultural county derives its name from a hart. Elevations are high for the region in the north and west and these reach over 240m in the western projection around Tring which is in the Chilterns. The countys borders are approximately the watersheds of the Colne and Lea, hertfordshires undeveloped land is mainly agricultural and much is protected by green belt. The countys landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, Leavesden filmed much of the UK-based $7.7 Bn box office Harry Potter film series and has the countrys studio tour.
Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill and his martyrs cross of a yellow saltire on a blue background is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire is well-served with motorways and railways, providing access to London. The largest sector of the economy of the county is in services, Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from the Anglo-Saxon heort ford, meaning deer crossing, the name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems, there is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period. It was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age and this was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. 293 the first recorded British martyrdom is believed to have taken place.
Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill. His martyrs cross of a saltire on a blue background is reflected in the flag. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire, with the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century the majority of the county was part of the East Saxon kingdom
A listed building or listed structure, in the United Kingdom, is one that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. The statutory bodies maintaining the list are Historic England in England, Cadw in Wales, Historic Scotland in Scotland, the preferred term in Ireland is protected structure. In England and Wales, an amenity society must be notified of any work to a listed building which involves any element of demolition. Owners of listed buildings are, in circumstances, compelled to repair and maintain them. When alterations are permitted, or when listed buildings are repaired or maintained, slightly different systems operate in each area of the United Kingdom, though the basic principles of the listing remain the same. It was the damage to caused by German bombing during World War II that prompted the first listing of buildings that were deemed to be of particular architectural merit. The listings were used as a means of determining whether a building should be rebuilt if it was damaged by bombing.
Listing was first introduced into Northern Ireland under the Planning Order 1972, the listing process has since developed slightly differently in each part of the UK. In the UK, the process of protecting the historic environment is called ‘designation’. A heritage asset is a part of the environment that is valued because of its historic. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have legal protection through designation. However, buildings that are not formally listed but still judged as being of heritage interest are still regarded as being a consideration in the planning process. Almost anything can be listed – it does not have to be a building and structures of special historic interest come in a wide variety of forms and types, ranging from telephone boxes and road signs, to castles. Historic England has created twenty broad categories of structures, and published selection guides for each one to aid with assessing buildings and these include historical overviews and describe the special considerations for listing each category.
Both Historic Scotland and Cadw produce guidance for owners, in England, to have a building considered for listing or delisting, the process is to apply to the secretary of state, this can be done by submitting an application form online to Historic England. The applicant does not need to be the owner of the building to apply for it to be listed, full information including application form guidance notes are on the Historic England website. Historic England assesses buildings put forward for listing or delisting and provides advice to the Secretary of State on the architectural, the Secretary of State, who may seek additional advice from others, decides whether or not to list or delist the building. In England and Wales the authority for listing is granted to the Secretary of State by the Planning Act 1990, Listed buildings in danger of decay are listed on the Historic England Heritage at Risk Register
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam about 50 miles north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867, there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area in the Bronze Age and in Roman Britain, under Viking rule, Cambridge became an important trading centre. The first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although city status was not conferred until 1951, the University of Cambridge, founded in 1209, is one of the top five universities in the world. The university includes the Cavendish Laboratory, Kings College Chapel, the citys skyline is dominated by the last two buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrookes Hospital and St Johns College Chapel tower. Anglia Ruskin University, evolved from the Cambridge School of Art, Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies spun out of the university.
More than 40% of the workforce has a higher education qualification, the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to be home to AstraZeneca, a hotel and the relocated Papworth Hospital. Parkers Piece hosted the first ever game of Association football, the Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fairs are held on Midsummer Common, and the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the M11 and A14 roads, settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since prehistoric times. The earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3, the principal Roman site is a small fort Duroliponte on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier British village. The fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street, the eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and Kettles Yard before turning northwest at Honey Hill.
It was constructed around AD70 and converted to use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteads, evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century. Their settlement—also on and around Castle Hill—became known as Grantebrycge, Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands, by the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by Bede as a little ruined city containing the burial site of Etheldreda. Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement slowly expanded on both sides of the river, the arrival of the Vikings was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878 Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank.
In 1068, two years after his conquest of England, William of Normandy built a castle on Castle Hill, like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies