Batman is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in 1939. Named the "Bat-Man," the character is referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, the World's Greatest Detective. Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy and owner of Wayne Enterprises. After witnessing the murder of his parents Dr. Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Bruce Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Jim Gordon, vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any inhuman superpowers, he does, possess a genius-level intellect, is a peerless martial artist, his vast wealth affords him an extraordinary arsenal of weaponry and equipment.
A large assortment of villains make up Batman's rogues gallery, including the Joker. The character became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, the following year; as the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller; the success of Warner Bros. Pictures' live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture. Batman has been licensed and featured in various adaptations, from radio to television and film, appears in merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel and video games. Kevin Conroy, Rino Romano, Anthony Ruivivar, Peter Weller, Bruce Greenwood, Jason O'Mara, Will Arnett, among others, have provided the character's voice for animated adaptations.
Batman has been depicted in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Christian Bale, Ben Affleck. In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, he had drawn a character who looked much like Superman with kind of... reddish tights, I believe, with boots... no gloves, no gauntlets... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings, and under it was a big sign... BATMAN"; the bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired as a child by Leonardo Da Vinci's sketch of an ornithopter flying device. Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, gloves. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot.
Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name. I tried Adams, Hancock... I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." He said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was familiar. Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, autobiographical details referring to Kane himself; as an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman had predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel and Zorro. Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, marked his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro and The Bat Whispers in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.
In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation: One day I called Bill and said,'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.' He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin wore, on Batman's face. Bill said,'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit. I thought that black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright:'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.' The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope, he didn't have any gloves on, we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.
Kane signed away ownership in
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Double Jeopardy (1999 film)
Double Jeopardy is a 1999 American neo noir adventure crime thriller film directed by Bruce Beresford and starring Tommy Lee Jones, Ashley Judd, Bruce Greenwood. The film is about a woman wrongfully imprisoned for murder who, while eluding her parole officer, tracks down her husband who had framed her. Libby Parsons and her husband Nick are wealthy residents of Washington. With her best friend, Angela Green offering to look after her 4-year-old son, Matty and Nick go off sailing for the weekend on their yacht. After a session of love making, Libby falls asleep, she wakes to find her husband missing and blood all over her hands, clothes and the boat's floors. A Coast Guard vessel appears and Libby is spotted holding a bloody knife she found lying on the deck. With Nick's body unaccounted for, Libby is arrested, humiliated in the media and convicted of her husband's murder. Libby asks Angela to look after Matty for the duration of her prison sentence. At first, Angela brings Matty to see Libby in prison, but after a while, these visits cease and she disappears.
Libby uses search skills and the ability to deceive people to track Angela to her phone in San Francisco. She speaks with Matty. Libby hears a door open in the background Matty exclaims, "Daddy!" right before the line goes dead. Libby realizes that Nick faked his death and framed her, leaving Matty as the sole beneficiary of his life insurance policy, as people convicted for murder are not allowed to collect the life insurance on their victims. After unsuccessfully attempting to get investigative help, she is told by a fellow inmate named Margaret that if she were to get paroled for good behavior, she could kill Nick with impunity due to the Double Jeopardy Clause in the Fifth Amendment of the U. S. Constitution, she spends the next six years in prison building up her body and committing herself to finding Matty. Libby is paroled after six years and begins searching for Nick and Matty, while living in a halfway house under the close supervision of parole officer Travis Lehman. Lehman is a tough officer.
He is a former law professor whose wife and daughter left him after the family was in a car accident with him driving under the influence of alcohol. Libby violates her curfew and is caught breaking into Matty's school on Whidbey Island to try to get Angela's records. However, as Lehman is delivering Libby back to prison via a car ferry, he handcuffs her to the car door handle, goes for a drink, he leaves the keys and Libby drives the car back and forth trying to knock off the handcuffs. Lehman returns, he uncuffs her underwater. Libby knocks out Lehman and swims to shore while he is rescued by ferry personnel, she goes to her family farm where her mother gives her cash to enable her to search for her husband and child. Libby discovers that Angela has died in Colorado in a home gas explosion, which looks like an accident staged by Nick. Libby recognizes a Wassily Kandinsky painting in a newspaper photo. Tracing it through an art dealer's database leads her to New Orleans, where she finds Nick running a luxury hotel under an assumed name, Jonathan Devereaux.
Libby confronts Nick after making a winning bid of $10,000 on him at a bachelor's auction during a fund raising party hosted at his hotel. She demands he return Matty in exchange for her silence about his real identity, while he claimed that he faked his death to collect insurance as his original business was going under, their parley is cut short when Lehman shows up at the hotel party to warn Nick that his wife is a fugitive. In the French Quarter, Libby is tipped off by a bartender who recognizes her from a wanted poster but lets her escape the police as no reward is offered. Nick agrees to bring Matty to a meeting in Lafayette Cemetery No. 3. There he uses a decoy boy to distract Libby, knocks her unconscious, locks her in a casket inside a mausoleum. Using a.38 caliber handgun she had snatched from Lehman, Libby manages to shoot the hinges off the lid of the casket and escape the mausoleum by throwing a flower vase through a stained glass window. While tracking Libby in New Orleans, Lehman himself becomes suspicious of Nick's death and begins to believe Libby's story, based on the clues uncovered in his search.
He finds a picture of a different Nicholas Parsons when searching the Washington State DMV records to prove his suspicions, confirms them when he uncovers six DMV records under that name, including Nick's DMV application and photograph. After intercepting and capturing Libby in the city as she makes her way to Nick's hotel, the two end up teaming up. Lehman visits Nick in his office under the pretense of asking for money to keep his identity secret, he records a remark by Nick that he had murdered his wife, the only witness to his true past, Libby enters, holding Nick at gunpoint. Nick is given a choice of surrendering to the authorities or getting shot by his vengeful wife, who he believes would go free for this deed because of double jeopardy. Nick pulls out a hidden gun, shoots Lehman, fires at Libby. Lehman manages to bring Nick down. Nick gets the upper hand in the scuffle, but before he can kill the wounded parole officer, Libby shoots Nick dead. Lehman promises to help Libby get pardoned, together they travel to Matty's boarding school in Georgia.
Matty, now eleven years old, recognizes his mother, they embrace with Lehman watching them. Tommy Lee Jones as Travis Lehman Ashley Judd as Elizabeth "Libby" Parsons Bruce Greenwood as Nicholas "Nick" Parsons/Simon Ryder/Jon
Truman Garcia Capote was an American novelist, short story writer, screenwriter and actor. Several of his short stories and plays have been praised as literary classics, including the novella Breakfast at Tiffany's and the true crime novel In Cold Blood, which he labeled a "nonfiction novel". At least 20 films and television dramas have been produced from his work. Capote rose above a childhood troubled by divorce, a long absence from his mother, multiple migrations, he had discovered his calling as a writer by the age of 8, for the rest of his childhood he honed his writing ability. Capote began his professional career writing short stories; the critical success of one story, "Miriam", attracted the attention of Random House publisher Bennett Cerf, resulted in a contract to write the novel Other Voices, Other Rooms. Capote earned the most fame with In Cold Blood, a journalistic work about the murder of a Kansas farm family in their home. Capote spent four years writing the book aided by his lifelong friend Harper Lee, who wrote To Kill a Mockingbird.
A milestone in popular culture, In Cold Blood was the peak of Capote's literary career. In the 1970s, he maintained his celebrity status by appearing on television talk shows. Born in New Orleans, Capote was the son of 17-year-old Lillie Mae Faulk and salesman Archulus Persons, his parents divorced when he was 4, he was sent to Monroeville, where, for the following four to five years, he was raised by his mother's relatives. He formed a fast bond with his mother's distant relative, Nanny Rumbley Faulk, whom Truman called "Sook". "Her face is remarkable – not unlike Lincoln's, craggy like that, tinted by sun and wind", is how Capote described Sook in "A Christmas Memory". In Monroeville, he was a neighbor and friend of author Harper Lee, who based the character Dill on Capote; as a lonely child, Capote taught himself to read and write before he entered his first year of school. Capote was seen at age 5 carrying his dictionary and notepad, began writing fiction at age 11, he was given the nickname "Bulldog" around this age.
On Saturdays, he made trips from Monroeville to the nearby city of Mobile on the Gulf Coast, at one point submitted a short story, "Old Mrs. Busybody", to a children's writing contest sponsored by the Mobile Press Register. Capote received recognition for his early work from The Scholastic Art & Writing Awards in 1936. In 1933, he moved to New York City to live with his mother and her second husband, José García Capote, a Canarian-born textile broker from La Palma, who adopted him as his stepson and renamed him Truman García Capote. However, José was convicted of embezzlement and shortly afterwards, when his income crashed, the family was forced to leave Park Avenue. Of his early days, Capote related, "I was writing sort of serious when I was about eleven. I say in the sense that like other kids go home and practice the violin or the piano or whatever, I used to go home from school every day, I would write for about three hours. I was obsessed by it." In 1935, he attended the Trinity School in New York City.
He attended St. Joseph Military Academy. In 1939, the Capote family moved to Greenwich and Truman attended Greenwich High School, where he wrote for both the school's literary journal, The Green Witch, the school newspaper; when they returned to New York City in 1942, he attended the Franklin School, an Upper West Side private school now known as the Dwight School, graduated in 1943. That was the end of his formal education. While still attending Franklin in 1943, Capote began working as a copyboy in the art department at The New Yorker, a job he held for two years before being fired for angering poet Robert Frost. Years he reflected, "Not a grand job, for all it involved was sorting cartoons and clipping newspapers. Still, I was fortunate to have it since I was determined never to set a studious foot inside a college classroom. I felt that either one was or wasn't a writer, no combination of professors could influence the outcome. I still think I was correct, at least in my own case." He left his job to live with relatives in Alabama and began writing his first novel, Summer Crossing.
Capote based the character of Idabel in Other Voices, Other Rooms on his Monroeville neighbor and best friend, Harper Lee. Capote once acknowledged this: "Mr. and Mrs. Lee, Harper Lee's mother and father, lived near, she was my best friend. Did you read her book, To Kill a Mockingbird? I'm a character in that book, her father was a lawyer, she and I used to go to trials all the time as children. We went to the trials instead of going to the movies." After Lee was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1961 and Capote published In Cold Blood in 1966, the authors became distant from each other. Capote began writing short stories from around the age of 8. In 2013, the Swiss publisher Peter Haag discovered 14 unpublished stories, written when Capote was a teenager, in the New York Public Library Archives. Random House published these under the title The Early Stories of Truman Capote. Between 1943 and 1946, Capote wrote a continual flow of short fiction, including "Miriam", "My Side of the Matter", "Shut a Final Door".
His stories were published in both literary quarterlies and well-known popular magazines, including The Atlantic Monthly, Harper's Bazaar, Harper's Magazine, The New Yorker, Prairie Schooner, Story. In June 1945, "Miriam" was published by Mademoiselle and went on to win a prize
Mad Men is an American period drama television series created by Matthew Weiner and produced by Lionsgate Television. The series premiered on July 19, 2007, on the cable network AMC. After seven seasons and 92 episodes, Mad Men's final episode aired on May 17, 2015. Mad Men is set in the 1960s–initially at the fictional Sterling Cooper advertising agency on Madison Avenue in New York City. According to the pilot episode, the phrase "Mad men" was a slang term coined in the 1950s by advertisers working on Madison Avenue to refer to themselves, a claim that has since been disputed; the plot focuses on the business of the agencies as well as the personal lives of the characters depicting the changing moods and social mores of the United States in the 1960s. The series ends November 1970 with the conclusion of season seven. Don Draper is the focus in the series as the talented creative director at Sterling Cooper and a founding partner at Sterling Cooper Draper Pryce, as are the people in his personal and professional lives.
Mad Men won critical acclaim for its writing, directing, visual style and historical authenticity. The show was the first basic cable series to receive the Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series, winning in each of its first four seasons, it is regarded as one of the greatest television series of all-time. In 2000, while working as a staff writer for Becker, Matthew Weiner wrote the first draft as a spec script for the pilot of what would be called Mad Men. Television producer David Chase recruited Weiner to work as a writer on his HBO series The Sopranos after reading the pilot script in 2002. "It was lively, it had something new to say," Chase said. "Here was someone who had written a story about advertising in the 1960s, was looking at recent American history through that prism."Weiner and his representatives at Industry Entertainment and ICM tried to sell the pilot script to HBO, which expressed an interest, but insisted that David Chase be named executive producer which Chase declined, despite his enthusiasm for Weiner's writing and the pilot script.
HBO CEO Richard Plepler, who became a fan of the show and congratulated AMC on their success with it named passing on Mad Men as his biggest regret from his time at HBO, calling it "inexcusable" and attributing their doing so to "hubris". Weiner moved on to Showtime, which passed. Lacking a suitable network buyer, they tabled sales efforts until years when a talent manager on Weiner's team, Ira Liss, pitched the series to AMC's Vice President of Development, Christina Wayne; the Sopranos was completing its final season and the cable network happened to be getting into the market for new series programming. "The network was looking for distinction in launching its first original series," according to AMC Networks president Ed Carroll, "and we took a bet that quality would win out over formulaic mass appeal." Weiner listed Alfred Hitchcock as a major influence on the visual style of the series the film North by Northwest. He was influenced by director Wong Kar-wai in the music, mise en scène, editorial style.
Weiner noted in an interview that M*A*S*H and Happy Days, two television shows produced in the 1970s about the 1950s, provided a "touchstone for culture" and a way to "remind people that they have a misconception about the past, any past." He said that "Mad Men would have been some sort of crisp, soapy version of The West Wing if not for The Sopranos." Peggy's "psychic scar for the entire show, after giving away that baby", Weiner said, is "the kind of thing that would have never occurred to me before I was on The Sopranos". Tim Hunter, the director of a half-dozen episodes from the show's first two seasons, called Mad Men a "very well-run show", he said: They have a lot of production meetings during pre-production. The day the script comes in we all meet for a first page turn, Matt starts telling us how he envisions it. There's a "tone" meeting a few days where Matt tells us how he envisions it, and there's a final full crew production meeting where Matt again tells us how he envisions it...
The pilot episode was shot at Silvercup Studios in New York City and various locations around the city. It is available in high definition for showing on AMC HD and on video-on-demand services available from various cable affiliates; the writers, including Weiner, amassed volumes of research on the period in which Mad Men takes place so as to make most aspects of the series—including detailed set design, costume design, props—historically accurate, producing an authentic visual style that garnered critical praise. On the scenes featuring smoking, Weiner stated: "Doing this show without smoking would've been a joke, it would've been sanitary and it would've been phony." Each episode had a budget between US$2–2.5 million. Robert Morse was cast in the role of senior partner Bertram Cooper. Weiner collaborated with cinematographer Phil Abraham and production designers Robert Shaw and Dan Bis
In Greek mythology, Chiron was held to be the superlative centaur amongst his brethren, as he was called as the "wisest and justest of all the centaurs". Chiron was notable throughout Greek mythology for his youth-nurturing nature, his personal skills tend to match those of his foster father Apollo, who taught the young centaur the art of medicine, music, hunting and prophecy, made him rise above his beastly nature. Chiron was known for his knowledge and skill with medicine, thus was credited with the discovery of botany and pharmacy, the science of herbs and medicine. Like satyrs, centaurs were notorious for being wild, overly indulgent drinkers and carousers, violent when intoxicated, uncultured delinquents. Chiron, by contrast, was intelligent and kind, because he was not related directly to the other centaurs due to his parentage, he was the son of the Titan Cronus and the Oceanid Philyra, thus possible brother to Dolops and Aphrus, the ancestor and eponym of the Aphroi, i.e. the native Africans.
Chiron lived predominantly on Mount Pelion. A different source stated that his wife was called Nais while a certain Aristaeus was called his son. Like the other centaurs, Chiron was expelled by the Lapithae from his home. Although a centaur, Chiron's physical appearance differs somewhat from other centaurs, demonstrating his status and heritage. In traditional Greek representations of Chiron his front legs are human, rather than equine, this is in contrast to the traditional representation of centaurs, which have the entire lower body of a horse; this sets Chiron apart from the other centaurs, making him identifiable. This difference may have highlighted Chiron's unique lineage, being the son of Cronus. Chiron is depicted carrying a branch with dead hares he has caught hanging from it. Chiron is often depicted wearing clothes, demonstrating he is more civilised and unlike a normal centaur; the Education of Achilles wall painting, from the basilica in Herculaneum, is one of the most common Roman depictions of Chiron, as he teaches Achilles the lyre.
In this version we see Chiron with a equine lower body, in contrast to the ancient Greek representations. In addition to this reconfiguration, Chiron's appearance is further altered with his ears. Whereas human, Chiron's ears now match those of a satyr; this rendering creates a more bestial version of Chiron, much more akin to a standard centaur. It may be possible that due to the rise of written sources, Roman artists were inspired by written descriptions of Chiron; this may not be a deliberate reworking of the Chiron myth on the part of the Romans, but a lost nuance of the character in its migration from Greece to Rome. As F. Kelsey writes. Chiron has retained an element of clothing and gained a laurel wreath, suggesting the artist wished to portray nobility, or divinity, more consistent with the traditional view, it has been suggested that this fresco is a reproduction of an actual statue in the Roman forum. According to an archaic myth, Chiron was sired by the Titan Cronus when he had taken the form of a horse and impregnated the nymph Philyra.
Chiron's lineage was different from other centaurs, who were born from Ixion, consigned to a fiery wheel, Nephele, which in the Olympian telling Zeus invented to look like Hera. Chiron was the son of Philyra. Soon after giving birth to Chiron, Philyra abandoned her child out of disgust. Chiron orphaned, was found by the god Apollo, who decided to take him in as his son. Apollo taught to him the art of music, archery and prophecy. Apollo’s twin sister, Artemis approved of his decision and taught him more about archery and hunting. Chiron's uniquely peaceful character and intelligence is attributed to Apollo and to Artemis; some sources speculate that Chiron was a Thessalian god subsumed into the Greek pantheon as a centaur. A great healer and respected oracle, Chiron was said to be the first among centaurs and revered as a teacher and tutor. Among his pupils were many culture heroes: Asclepius, Ajax, Actaeon, Theseus, Jason, Telamon, sometimes Heracles, in one Byzantine tradition Dionysus. According to Ptolemaeus Chennus of Alexandria "Dionysus was loved by Chiron, from whom he learned chants and dances, the bacchic rites and initiations."
There is a persistent link with Peleus throughout Chiron's myth. This can be explained that the latter was the grandfather of Peleus through his daughter Endeis who married the king of Aegina, Aeacus. Chiron saved the life of Peleus when Acastus tried to kill him by taking his sword and leaving him out in the woods to be slaughtered by the centaurs. Chiron retrieved the sword for Peleus. Chiron explained to Pel
Star Trek (film)
Star Trek is a 2009 American space opera film directed by J. J. Abrams and written by Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman, it is the eleventh film in the Star Trek film franchise, is a reboot that features the main characters of the original Star Trek television series portrayed by a new cast, as the first in the rebooted film series. The film follows James T. Kirk and Spock aboard USS Enterprise as they combat Nero, a Romulan from their future who threatens the United Federation of Planets; the story takes place in an alternate reality because of time travel by both Nero and the original Spock. The alternate timeline was created in an attempt to free the film and the franchise from established continuity constraints while preserving original story elements; the idea for a prequel film which would follow the Star Trek characters during their time in Starfleet Academy was discussed by series creator Gene Roddenberry in 1968. The concept resurfaced in the late 1980s, when it was postulated by Harve Bennett as a possible plotline for what would become Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, but it was rejected in favor of other projects by Roddenberry.
Following the critical and commercial failure of Star Trek: Nemesis and the cancellation of the television series Star Trek: Enterprise, the franchise's executive producer Rick Berman and screenwriter Erik Jendresen wrote an unproduced film titled Star Trek: The Beginning, which would take place after Enterprise. After the separation of Viacom and CBS Corporation in 2005, former Paramount Pictures president Gail Berman convinced CBS to allow Paramount to produce a new film in the franchise. Orci and Kurtzman, both fans of Star Trek, were approached to write the film, J. J. Abrams was approached to direct it. Kurtzman and Orci used inspiration from novels and graduate school dissertations, as well as the series itself. Principal photography commenced on November 7, 2007 and ended on March 27, 2008; the film was shot in various locations around Utah. Abrams wanted to avoid opting to use sets and locations instead. Heavy secrecy surrounded the film's production and was under the fake working title Corporate Headquarters.
Industrial Light & Magic used digital ships for the film, as opposed to the previous films in the franchise. Production for the film concluded by the end of 2008. Star Trek was promoted in the months preceding its release, it was released in the United States and Canada on May 2009, to critical acclaim. Star Trek was a box office success, grossing over $385.7 million worldwide against its $150 million production budget. It was nominated for several awards, including four Academy Awards at the 82nd Academy Awards winning Best Makeup, making it the first Star Trek film to win an Academy Award, it was followed by Star Trek Into Darkness and Star Trek Beyond. In the 23rd century, the Federation starship USS Kelvin is investigating a "lightning storm" in space. A Romulan ship, emerges from the storm and attacks the Kelvin. Narada's first officer, demands that Kelvin's Captain Robau come aboard to negotiate a truce. Robau is questioned about the current stardate and an "Ambassador Spock", whom he does not recognize.
Narada's commander, kills him, resumes attacking the Kelvin. George Kirk, Kelvin's first officer, orders the ship's personnel, including his pregnant wife Winona, to abandon ship while he pilots the Kelvin on a collision course with Narada. Kirk sacrifices his life to ensure Winona's survival. Seventeen years on the planet Vulcan, a young Spock is accepted to join the Vulcan Science Academy. Realizing that the Academy views his human mother Amanda as a "disadvantage", he joins Starfleet instead. On Earth, Kirk becomes a intelligent young adult. Following a bar fight with Starfleet cadets accompanying Nyota Uhura, Kirk meets Captain Christopher Pike, who encourages him to enlist in Starfleet Academy, where Kirk meets and befriends doctor Leonard McCoy. Three years Commander Spock accuses Kirk of cheating during the Kobayashi Maru simulation. Kirk argues; the disciplinary hearing is interrupted by a distress signal from Vulcan. With the primary fleet out of range, the cadets are mobilized. McCoy and Kirk board Pike's the Enterprise.
Realizing that the "lightning storm" observed near Vulcan is similar to the one that occurred when he was born, Kirk breaks protocol to convince Pike that the distress signal is a trap. Enterprise arrives to find Narada drilling into Vulcan's core. Narada attacks Enterprise and Pike surrenders, delegating command of the ship to Spock and promoting Kirk to first officer. Kirk, Hikaru Sulu and Chief Engineer Olson perform a space jump onto the drilling platform. Olson is killed but Kirk and Sulu disable the drill. Despite their efforts, Nero launches "red matter" into Vulcan's core, forming an artificial black hole that destroys Vulcan. Spock rescues the high council and his father Sarek; as Narada moves toward Earth, Nero tortures Pike to gain access to Earth's defense codes. Spock maroons Kirk on Delta Vega after Kirk attempts mutiny. Kirk encounters an older Spock. In that future, Romulus was threatened by a supernova. Spock's attempt to use