SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bruce Peninsula

The Bruce Peninsula is a peninsula in Ontario, that lies between Georgian Bay and the main basin of Lake Huron. The peninsula extends northwestwards from the rest of Southwestern Ontario, pointing towards Manitoulin Island, with which it forms the widest strait joining Georgian Bay to the rest of Lake Huron; the Bruce Peninsula contains part of the geological formation known as the Niagara Escarpment. From an administrative standpoint, the Bruce Peninsula is part of Bruce County, named after James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, Governor General of Canada. A popular tourist destination for camping and fishing, the area has two national parks, more than half a dozen nature reserves, the Bruce Peninsula Bird Observatory; the Bruce Trail runs through the region to its northern terminus in the town of Tobermory. The Bruce Peninsula is a key area for both animal wildlife. Part of the Niagara Escarpment World Biosphere Reserve, the peninsula has the largest remaining area of forest and natural habitat in Southern Ontario and is home to some of the oldest trees in eastern North America.

An important flyway for migrating birds, the peninsula is habitat to a variety of animals, including black bear, massasauga rattlesnake, barred owl. Until the mid-19th century, the area known as the Bruce Peninsula was territory controlled by the Saugeen Ojibway Nations; the nations included the Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Saugeen First Nation. Historical and archaeological evidence from the area concludes that at the time of first contact with Europeans, the peninsula was inhabited by the Odawa people, from whom a large number of local native people are descended. Oral history from Saugeen and Nawash suggests their ancestors have been here as early as 7500 years ago; the area of Hope Bay is known to Place of Healing. In 1836 the Saugeen Ojibway signed a treaty with Sir Francis Bond Head to cede lands south of the peninsula to the Canadian government in exchange for learning agriculture, proper housing, assistance in becoming "civilized," and for permanent protection of the peninsula. In 1854, the Saugeen Ojibway agreed to sign another treaty – this time for the peninsula itself.

In 1994, after decades on increasing First Nations activism, the Saugeen Ojibway filed a suit for a land claim for part of their traditional territory. The claim seeks the return of lands still held by the Crown and financial compensation for other lands; this claim is still active. European settlement began on the peninsula in the mid-19th century, despite its poor potential for agricultural development. Attracted by the rich fisheries and lush forest, settlers found the land known as the "Indian or Saugeen Peninsula" to be irresistible. In 1881 settlers built the first sawmill on the peninsula in Tobermory. In less than 20 years most of the valuable timber was gone and timber industry jobs declined. Fuelled by the waste left behind by the rapid logging and land clearances, intense fires sprang up around the peninsula. By the mid-1920s abundant forests of the peninsula were nearly barren; when the lamprey eel was accidentally introduced to the Great Lakes in 1932, the devastation on the fish supply made the peninsula a less attractive place to live.

Many left. The peninsula underwent a steady decline in population until the 1970s. In the late 20th century, the peninsula started to attract a new kind of the cottager. Today seasonal residents out-number permanent residents; the summer influx of tourists is so great that many attractions and infrastructure are overwhelmed by sheer numbers. In its southern Ontario portion, the Niagara Escarpment is a ridge of rock several hundred metres high in some locations, stretching 725 kilometres from Queenston on the Niagara River, to Tobermory at the tip of the Bruce Peninsula. Today, in Ontario, the Escarpment contains more than 100 sites of geological significance, including some of the best exposures of rocks and fossils of the Silurian and Ordovician periods to be found anywhere in the world; the Niagara Escarpment has origins dating to the Silurian age some 430 to 450 million years ago, a time when the area lay under a shallow warm sea. This sea lay in a depression of the Earth's crust, centered in what is now the lower peninsula of the State of Michigan.

Known geologically as the Michigan Basin, the outer rim of this massive saucer-shaped feature governs the location of the Niagara Escarpment, shaped like a gigantic horseshoe. The Escarpment can be traced from near Rochester, New York, south of Lake Ontario to Hamilton, north to Tobermory on the Bruce Peninsula, it is covered by the waters of Lake Huron, appearing as Manitoulin Island across the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and down the west side of Lake Michigan into the State of Wisconsin. As occurs with present-day water bodies, such as Hudson Bay or the Gulf of Mexico, rivers flowing into this ancient sea carried sand and clay to be deposited as thick layers of sediment. At the same time, lime-rich organic material from the abundant sea life was accumulating. Over millions of years these materials became compressed into massive layers of sedimentary rocks and ancient reef structures now visible along the Escarpment; some rock layers now consist of soft sandstones while others are made up of dolomite.

Today, fossil remains illustrating the various life forms can be found in many of the rocks as they are exposed by the action of wind and ice

Where the Blue of the Night (Meets the Gold of the Day)

"Where the Blue of the Night" was the theme Bing Crosby selected for his radio show. It was recorded in November 1931 with his Orchestra; the song was featured in a Mack Sennett movie short starring Bing Crosby. Crosby recorded the song on several occasions starting with the November 23, 1931 version with Bennie Kruger and his Orchestra, he next recorded it on July 1940 with The Paradise Island Trio. On July 17, 1945 he recorded it with John Scott Trotter and his Orchestra and his final recording was on April 21, 1954 with Buddy Cole and his Trio for his Musical Autobiography set; the song was "When the Gold of the Day Meets the Blue of the Night", but the title was changed before recording. Because Crosby contributed to the lyrics of the song, writers Roy Turk and Fred E. Ahlert included him in the songwriting credit. Although the song was popular and successful, Crosby did not take special pride in having written it, saying much "I think I'd trade anything I've done if I could have written just one hit song."

The Bing Crosby composition "At Your Command" was, number one for three weeks on the U. S. pop singles chart in 1931 and "I Don't Stand a Ghost of a Chance with You", which he co-wrote, is one of the most recorded pop and jazz standards of the 1930s. The 1931 recording of "Where the Blue of the Night" reached #4 on the Billboard pop singles chart in 1932. Crosby charted again with the song in 1940; the 1958 remake by Tommy Mara entered the Cashbox Top 100s. The song was recorded by Russ Columbo, Will Rogers, Eddie Fisher, Connie Francis, Rosemary Clooney, Hank Locklin, who reached #35 on the Billboard country chart in 1969, Jane Morgan, Glenn Cross, Johnny Knight, Bob Crosby, Phillip Crosby and Alf Pearson, Robin Ward, Harold Van Emburgh, in 1969 by The Bachelors, a popular Irish band; the song "When the Deal Goes Down" by Bob Dylan is based on the melody of this song, although performed as a waltz. Giddins, Gary. Bing Crosby: A Pocketful of Dreams. 2001. Pp. 259–60. ISBN 0-316-88188-0 and ISBN 0-316-88645-9.

Grudens, Richard. Bing Crosby – Crooner of the Century. Celebrity Profiles Publishing Co.. ISBN 1-57579-248-6. Macfarlane, Malcolm. Bing Crosby – Day By Day. Scarecrow Press, 2001. Osterholm, J. Roger. Bing Crosby: A Bio-Bibliography. Greenwood Press, 1994

Nevil Brownjohn

General Sir Nevil Charles Dowell Brownjohn, was a senior British Army officer who served as Quartermaster-General to the Forces from 1956 until his retirement in 1958. Brownjohn was commissioned into the Royal Engineers in 1915, he served in the First World War. In 1927 he was sent, to China to protect the international settlement in Shanghai. Attending the Staff College, Camberley from 1931 to 1932, he served in the Second World War, rising to be major general in charge of supplies to General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander, in 1943, he became Deputy Chief of Staff at General Eisenhower's Headquarters in 1944 before being appointed Deputy Quartermaster-General in the Middle East that year. After the war he took charge of Administration for the British Army of the Rhine and joined the Control Commission for Germany in 1947, he became Vice Quartermaster General at the War Office in 1949 and Vice Chief of Imperial General Staff in 1950. He was Chief Staff Officer at the Ministry of Defence from 1952 to 1955 when he became Quartermaster-General to the Forces.

British Army Officers 1939−1945 Generals of World War II