Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen is an American singer and musician, both a solo artist and the leader of the E Street Band. He received critical acclaim for his early 1970s albums and attained worldwide fame upon the release of Born to Run in 1975. During a career that has spanned five decades, Springsteen has become known for his poetic and conscious lyrics and lengthy, energetic stage performances, earning the nickname "The Boss", he has recorded both rock albums and folk-oriented works, his lyrics address the experiences and struggles of working-class Americans. Born in the U. S. A. is Springsteen's most critically acclaimed and commercially successful album, proving him to be one of the most successful rock figures of the 1980s. It was certified 15x Platinum in the US and has sold 30 million copies worldwide, making it one of the best-selling albums of all time. Seven of its singles reached the top 10 of the Billboard Hot 100 including the title track, a bitter commentary on the treatment of Vietnam veterans — some of whom were Springsteen's friends.
Advocating for the rights of the common working-class man, the song made a huge political impact. Springsteen's other best-known songs include "Born to Run", "Thunder Road", "Badlands", "Hungry Heart", "Dancing in the Dark", "Glory Days", "Brilliant Disguise", "Human Touch", "Streets of Philadelphia", "The Rising". Springsteen has sold more than 135 million records worldwide and more than 64 million records in the United States, making him one of the world's best-selling music artists, he has earned numerous awards for his work, including 20 Grammy Awards, two Golden Globes, an Academy Award, a Tony Award. Springsteen was inducted into both the Songwriters Hall of Fame and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1999, received the Kennedy Center Honors in 2009, was named MusiCares person of the year in 2013, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Barack Obama in 2016. Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen was born at Monmouth Medical Center in Long Branch, New Jersey on September 23, 1949.
He is of Dutch and Italian descent. He spent his childhood in New Jersey, where he lived on South Street, his father, Douglas Frederick "Dutch" Springsteen, held other jobs. Douglas Springsteen suffered from mental health issues throughout his life which worsened in his years. Springsteen's mother, Adele Ann, was a legal secretary from the Bay Ridge neighborhood in Brooklyn and was the main breadwinner in the family. Springsteen has two younger sisters named Pamela; the latter left to pursue photography full-time. Springsteen's Italian maternal grandfather was born in Vico Equense, he emigrated through Ellis Island, could not read or write when he arrived. He became a lawyer, impressed the young Springsteen as being larger than life. Springsteen's last name is topographic and of Dutch origin translating to "jumping stone" but more meaning a kind of stone used as a stepping stone in unpaved streets or between two houses; the Springsteens were among the early Dutch families who settled in the colony of New Netherland in the 1600s.
Raised a Catholic, Springsteen attended the St. Rose of Lima Catholic school in Freehold, where he was at odds with the nuns and rejected the strictures imposed upon him though some of his music reflects a Catholic ethos and includes a few rock-influenced, traditional Irish-Catholic hymns. In a 2012 interview, he explained that it was his Catholic upbringing rather than political ideology that most influenced his music, he noted in the interview that his faith had given him a "very active spiritual life" but joked that this "made it difficult sexually". He added, "Once a Catholic, always a Catholic." He grew up hearing fellow New Jersey singer Frank Sinatra on the radio and became interested in being a musician himself when, in 1956 and 1957, at the age of seven, he saw Elvis Presley on The Ed Sullivan Show. Soon after, his mother rented him a guitar from Mike Diehl's Music in Freehold for $6 a week, but it failed to provide him with the instant gratification he desired. In ninth grade, Springsteen began attending the public Freehold High School, but did not fit in there either.
Former teachers have said he was a "loner who wanted nothing more than to play his guitar". He felt like such an outsider that he skipped the ceremony, he attended Ocean County College, but dropped out. Called for conscription in the U. S. Army when he was 19, Springsteen failed the physical examination and did not serve in the Vietnam War, he had suffered a concussion in a motorcycle accident when he was 17, this, together with his "crazy" behavior at induction, made him unacceptable for service. In 1964, Springsteen saw the Beatles' appearances on the Ed Sullivan Show. Inspired, he bought his first guitar for $18.95 at the Western Auto Appliance Store. Thereafter, he started playing for audiences with a band called the Rogues at local venues such as the Elks Lodge in Freehold. In late 1964, Springsteen's mother took out a loan to buy him a $60 Kent guitar. Springsteen memorialized this act in his song "The Wish"; the following year, he went to the house of Tex and Marion Vinyard, who sponsored young bands in town.
Khentrul Jamphel Lodrö Rinpoché is a Tibetan Buddhist Rimé Master. Shar Khentrul Jamphel Lodro Rinpoché teaches predominantly the extensive Kalachakra system according to the Jonang tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, he is the founder and spiritual director of Tong Zuk Dechen Ling. He translated the Jonang Kalachakra practice texts, pith instructions, into English and Chinese. Khentrul Rinpoché Jamphel Lodro was born in the Golok Region of Eastern Tibet, he was recognized as the reincarnation of the great Kalachakra Yogi Ngawang Chözin Gyatso. He had studied and was trained in every school of Tibetan Buddhism, he was awarded the title Rimé Master ‘Master of all Traditions’. In 2017, Khentrul Rinpoché unveiled a accurate statue of the 24 Armed Kalachakra deity to help generate the causes for World Peace. Shar Khentrul Rinpoché. A Secret Incarnation Reflections of a Tibetan Lama. Tibetan Buddhist Rimé Institute. ISBN 81-76856-40-1. Shar Khentrul Rinpoché. A Happier Life: How to develop genuine happiness and well being during every stage of your life.
Tibetan Buddhist Rimé Institute. ISBN 978-0-9944453-2-2. Shar Khentrul Rinpoché. Oceans of Diversity: An unbiased summary of views and practices emerging from the teachings of the world’s wisdom traditions. Tibetan Buddhist Rimé Institute. ISBN 978-0-9944453-0-8. Shar Khentrul Rinpoché. Demystifying Shambhala. Tibetan Buddhist Rimé Institute. ISBN 978-0-9944453-7-7. Shar Khentrul Rinpoché. Hidden Treasure of the Profound Path: A Word-by-Word Commentary on the Kalachakra Preliminary Practices. Tibetan Buddhist Rimé Institute. ISBN 978-0-9946106-90. Shar Khentrul Rinpoché. Unveiling Your Sacred Truth through the Kalachakra Path, Book One: The External Reality. Tibetan Buddhist Rimé Institute. ISBN 978-0-9944453-4-6. Shar Khentrul Rinpoché. Unveiling Your Sacred Truth through the Kalachakra Path, Book Two: The Internal Reality. Tibetan Buddhist Rimé Institute. ISBN 978-0-9946106-38. Shar Khentrul Rinpoché. Unveiling Your Sacred Truth through the Kalachakra Path, Book Three: The Enlightened Reality. Tibetan Buddhist Rimé Institute.
ISBN 978-0-9946106-69. Rimé movement Kalachakra Jonang Official Site of Khentrul Rinpoche Dzokden Foundation, the International Foundation & Community of Khentrul Rinpoche Khentrul Rinpoche's centre in Austrelia Khentrul Rinpoche's Kalachakra groups in the USA
Silverjaw minnows are part of the family Cyprinidae, which includes carps and minnows. With over 300 known species, there are more species of minnows native to North America's fresh waters than any other fish. Minnows can be hard to distinguish. All minnows have one dorsal fin, ventral fins near the anus, a lateral line system, smooth, round cycloid scales, their jaws lack teeth. Defining physical characteristics such as the number and type of fin rays, type of scales, pattern of pharyngeal teeth are used to distinguish minnows. Silverjaw minnows have a head with a flat underside and large silvery-white chambers on the sides that form their complete lateral line system. Since these fish are small, 2-3 inches in length, large numbers can exist in a small area and still find necessary resources, they are native to many rivers in the United States in a disjunct distribution. The silverjaw minnow has a lateral line system with many distinctive silvery-white pores connecting to an internal canal that helps the fish detect prey.
One key feature of all minnows is that their dorsal fin has fewer than ten supporting structures, called rays. Silverjaw minnows have eight soft-rays, their dorsal fin is over their pelvic region. They have darkly outlined scales. Another defining feature is the presence of breast scales, which distinguishes them from the longjaw minnow; these fish are edentulous. Their eyes are nearly atop their heads pointing upward, they have a compressed body with the deepest part by the back of their neck. Their long snout which projects past their subterminal mouth relates to their feeding behaviors as bottom dwelling fishes. Silverjaw minnows grow to be 2-3 inches in length; this species exhibits a disjunct distribution, existing in a northern and southern range in the United States. The northern range extends from eastern Missouri to Maryland, extending north into the southern Great Lakes and south to the Cumberland River Drainage in northern Tennessee, they inhabit the Chesapeake Bay, Ohio River, Mississippi River, Atlantic Coastal tributaries.
The southern range includes areas of Mississippi, Louisiana and Georgia. Major habitats in this range include the Apalachicola Pearl River drainage. Silverjaw minnows exist in large schools at the bottom of shallow, freshwater creeks and small to medium rivers with gravelly or sandy floors, they prefer the continuously moving water of riffles. They inhabit clear waters without silt; the silverjaw minnow is a bottom-feeder that feeds during the day on prey of the order Diptera including chironomids and cladocera. They prey at night due to the low density of prey in the benthos, their four main feeding behaviors are searching, mouthing and digging. The amount of food available and the behaviors of other individuals in the school influence which behavior is chosen. All behaviors involve skimming the bottom of the water source in search for food. Silverjaw minnows are selective feeders, they determine what food to consume through tactile senses. Silverjaw minnows have a typical life span of three to four years.
Eggs hatch between late summer. Growth of fish in their second and third summers occurs from June to the end of July. Growth stops during the winter months due to a slowed metabolic rate. Sexual maturity is obtained late in their second summer. Adults spawn in mid-spring, but spawning occurs in July for the previous year's offspring. Eggs are scattered along the bottom substrate; the fishing industry economically profits from minnows as a used bait. Minnows are an important food source for larger game fish prized by fishermen; the silverjaw minnow gets its name from silvery-looking sensory organs along its jaw. The word minnow comes from the ancient Anglo-Saxon word for myne; the scientific name, Ericymba buccata comes from the Greek worderi, meaning intensifying, the Greek wordcymba, meaning cavity, the Latin wordbuccata, meaning cheek