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Bruges

Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country, the seventh largest city of the country by population. The area of the whole city amounts to more than 13,840 hectares, including 1,075 hectares off the coast, at Zeebrugge; the historic city centre is a prominent World Heritage Site of UNESCO. It is oval in about 430 hectares in size; the city's total population is 117,073. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 616 km2 and has a total of 255,844 inhabitants as of 1 January 2008. Along with a few other canal-based northern cities, such as Amsterdam and St Petersburg, it is sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North. Bruges has a significant economic importance, thanks to its port, was once one of the world's chief commercial cities. Bruges is well known as the seat of the College of Europe, a university institute for European studies; the place is first mentioned in records as Bruggas, Brvccia in 840–875 as Bruciam, Brutgis uico, in portu Bruggensi, Bricge, Brycge, Bruges, Bruggas and Brugge.

The name derives from the Old Dutch for "bridge": brugga. Compare Middle Dutch brucge and modern Dutch bruggehoofd and brug; the form brugghe would be a southern Dutch variant. The Dutch word and the English "bridge" both derive from Proto-Germanic *brugjō-. Bruges was a location of coastal settlement during prehistory; this Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement is unrelated to medieval city development. In the Bruges area, the first fortifications were built after Julius Caesar's conquest of the Menapii in the first century BC, to protect the coastal area against pirates; the Franks took over the whole region from the Gallo-Romans around the 4th century and administered it as the Pagus Flandrensis. The Viking incursions of the ninth century prompted Count Baldwin I of Flanders to reinforce the Roman fortifications. Early medieval habitation starts in the 9th and 10th century on the Burgh terrain with a fortified settlement and church. Bruges became important due to the tidal inlet, important to local commerce, This inlet was known as the "Golden Inlet".

Bruges received its city charter on 27 July 1128, new walls and canals were built. In 1089 Bruges became the capital of the County of Flanders. Since about 1050, gradual silting had caused the city to lose its direct access to the sea. A storm in 1134, however, re-established this access, through the creation of a natural channel at the Zwin; the new sea arm stretched all the way to Damme, a city that became the commercial outpost for Bruges. Bruges had a strategic location at the crossroads of the northern Hanseatic League trade and the southern trade routes. Bruges was included in the circuit of the Flemish and French cloth fairs at the beginning of the 13th century, but when the old system of fairs broke down the entrepreneurs of Bruges innovated, they developed, or borrowed from Italy, new forms of merchant capitalism, whereby several merchants would share the risks and profits and pool their knowledge of markets. They employed new forms of economic exchange, including letters of credit; the city eagerly welcomed foreign traders, most notably the Portuguese traders selling pepper and other spices.

With the reawakening of town life in the twelfth century, a wool market, a woollens weaving industry, the market for cloth all profited from the shelter of city walls, where surpluses could be safely accumulated under the patronage of the counts of Flanders. The city's entrepreneurs reached out to make economic colonies of England and Scotland's wool-producing districts. English contacts brought Normandy grain and Gascon wines. Hanseatic ships filled the harbor, which had to be expanded beyond Damme to Sluys to accommodate the new cog-ships. In 1277, the first merchant fleet from Genoa appeared in the port of Bruges, first of the merchant colony that made Bruges the main link to the trade of the Mediterranean; this development opened not only the trade in spices from the Levant, but advanced commercial and financial techniques and a flood of capital that soon took over the banking of Bruges. The Bourse opened in 1309 and developed into the most sophisticated money market of the Low Countries in the 14th century.

By the time Venetian galleys first appeared. Numerous foreign merchants were welcomed in Bruges, such as the Castilian wool merchants who first arrived in the 13th century. After the Castilian wool monopoly ended, the Basques, many hailing from Bilbao, thrived as merchants and established their own commercial consulate in Bruges by the mid-15th century; the foreign merchants expanded the city's trading zones. They maintained separate communities governed by their own laws until the economic collapse after 1700; such wealth gave rise to social upheavals, which were for the most part harshly contained by the militia. In 1302, after the Bruges Matins (the nocturnal massacre of the French garrison in Bruges by the members of the local Flemish militia on 18

Ken Dewey

Kenneth Sawyer Goodman Dewey was an American performance artist and director, active in the Happening and Action Theatre movements in the U. S. and throughout Europe in the 1960s and early 70s. Dewey became Project Development Director at the New York State Council on the Arts. Dewey studied sculpture with Oronzio Mandarelli and writing with playwright Theodore Apstein while attending Columbia University as an undergraduate, he lived in San Francisco in the early 1960s and he became an assistant director at the Actor's Workshop in San Francisco. He studied mime with R. G. Davis and dance with Anna Halprin. Dewey became interested in performance art. Dewey used geography, social science and technology in his work, his projects were designed around a particular city and focused on that city's infrastructure and culture. Notable works in this vein included City Scale, Street Piece, Exit Music, Cincinnati Journey. Dewey lived and worked in European cities from 1963 to 1964, he collaborated with Mark Boyle, Allan Kaprow and others on a happening at the International Drama Festival during the 1963 Edinburgh Festival.

Ken Dewey collection, 1943-1987, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts

Bulgar calendar

The Bulgar calendar was a calendar system used by the Bulgars, a seminomadic people from Central Asia, who from the 2nd century onwards dwelt in the Eurasian steppes north of the Caucasus and around the banks of river Volga. In 681, part of the Bulgars established Bulgaria; the main source of information used for reconstruction of the Bulgar calendar is a short 15th century transcript in Church Slavonic called Nominalia of the Bulgarian Khans, which contains 10 pairs of calendar terms. Additionally, the same dating system is used in a marginal note in a manuscript by 10th century monk Tudor Doksov and in the Chatalar inscription by the 9th-century Bulgarian ruler Omurtag, who provides the Byzantine imperial dating equivalent. According to the reconstructed calendar, the Bulgars used a 12-year cyclic calendar similar to the one adopted by Turkic peoples from the Chinese calendar, with names and numbers that are deciphered as in Bulgar language; the reading, along with the "cyclic calendar" interpretation itself, was proposed by Finnish Slavist Jooseppi Julius Mikkola in 1913.

There have been various modifications and elaborations during the 20th century by scholars such as Géza Fehér, Omeljan Pritsak, Mosko Moskov and other scientists. Peter Dobrev, who supports an "Iranian" fringe theory about the origin of the Bulgars, argues the Turkic names of the animals show that the Turkic peoples had borrowed these words from the Iranian Bulgars. Reconstructions vary because some of the names are unattested, the exact form of a few is debatable; the following list is based on Mosko Moskov's description of the average mainstream interpretation, as well as his own reconstruction, takes into account the existing disagreements: Mouse Ox Uncertain Tiger / Wolf Rabbit Uncertain Dragon Snake Horse Ram Unattested Monkey Hen or Rooster Dog Boar Computer Model of the Bulgarian Calendar and comparison with the Gregorian Calendar Bulgarian Sun-Jupiter calendar Article on Bulgarian calendar Book about Old Bulgarians Ednazhden peripetiite na kalendara