Follo is a comune in the Province of La Spezia in the Italian region Liguria, located about 80 kilometres southeast of Genoa and about 8 kilometres northeast of La Spezia, between the Val di Vara, the Gulf of La Spezia and the Val di Magra plain. Follo borders the following municipalities: Beverino, Calice al Cornoviglio, La Spezia, Riccò del Golfo di Spezia, Vezzano Ligure. Official website
Rocchetta di Vara
Rocchetta di Vara is a comune in the Province of La Spezia in the Italian region Liguria, located about 70 kilometres southeast of Genoa and about 11 kilometres north of La Spezia. Rocchetta di Vara borders the following municipalities: Beverino, Borghetto di Vara, Calice al Cornoviglio, Zeri, Zignago
Arcola is a comune in the Province of La Spezia in the Italian region Liguria, located about 80 kilometres southeast of Genoa and about 7 kilometres northeast of La Spezia. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 10,145 and an area of 16.4 square kilometres. The municipality of Arcola contains the frazioni Baccano, Fresonara, Romito Magra and Trebbiano. Arcola borders the following municipalities: La Spezia, Sarzana, Vezzano Ligure. Www.comune.arcola.sp.it/
Columbanus known as St. Columban, was an Irish missionary notable for founding a number of monasteries from around 590 in the Frankish and Lombard kingdoms, most notably Luxeuil Abbey in present-day France and Bobbio Abbey in present-day Italy, he is remembered as a key figure in the Hiberno-Scottish mission, or Irish missionary activity in early medieval Europe. In recent years, however, as Columbanus's deeds and legacy have come to be re-examined by historians, the traditional narrative of his career has been challenged and doubts have been raised regarding his actual involvement in missionary work and the extent to which he was driven by purely religious motives or by a concern for playing an active part in politics and church politics in Francia. Columbanus taught an Irish monastic rule and penitential practices for those repenting of sins, which emphasised private confession to a priest, followed by penances levied by the priest in reparation for the sins. Columbanus is one of the earliest identifiable Hiberno-Latin writers.
Most of what we know about Columbanus is based on Columbanus' own works and Jonas of Bobbio's Vita Columbani, written between 639 and 641. Jonas entered Bobbio after Columbanus' death but relied on reports of monks who still knew Columbanus. A description of miracles of Columbanus written by an anonymous monk of Bobbio is of much date. In the second volume of his Acta Sanctorum O. S. B. Mabillon gives the life in full, together with an appendix on the miracles of the saint, written by an anonymous member of the Bobbio community. Columbanus was born in the Kingdom of Meath, now part of Leinster, in Ireland in 543, the year Saint Benedict died at Monte Cassino. Prior to his birth, his mother was said to have had visions of bearing a child who, in the judgment of those interpreting the visions, would become a "remarkable genius". Columbanus was well-educated in the areas of grammar, rhetoric and the Holy Scriptures. Columbanus left home to study under Abbot of Cluaninis in Lough Erne. Under Sinell's instruction, Columbanus composed a commentary on the Psalms.
He moved to Bangor Abbey on the coast of Down, where Saint Comgall was serving as the abbot. He stayed at Bangor until his fortieth year, when he received Comgall's permission to travel to the continent. Columbanus gathered twelve companions for his journey—Saint Attala, Columbanus the Younger, Domgal, Eunan, Saint Gall, Libran, Lua and Waldoleno—and together they set sail for the continent. After a brief stop in Britain, most on the Scottish coast, they crossed the channel and landed in Brittany in 585. At Saint-Malo in Brittany, there is a granite cross bearing the saint's name to which people once came to pray for rain in times of drought; the nearby village of Saint-Coulomb commemorates him in name. Columbanus and his companions were received with favour by King Gontram of Burgundy, soon they made their way to Annegray, where they founded a monastery in an abandoned Roman fortress. Despite its remote location in the Vosges Mountains, the community became a popular pilgrimage site that attracted so many monastic vocations that two new monasteries had to be formed to accommodate them.
In 590, Columbanus obtained from King Gontram the Gallo-Roman castle called Luxovium in present-day Luxeuil-les-Bains, some eight miles from Annegray. The castle, soon transformed into a monastery, was located in a wild region, thickly covered with pine forests and brushwood. Columbanus erected a third monastery called Ad-fontanas at present-day Fontaine-lès-Luxeuil, named for its numerous springs; these monastic communities remained under Columbanus' authority, their rules of life reflected the Irish tradition in which he had been formed. As these communities expanded and drew more pilgrims, Columbanus sought greater solitude, spending periods of time in a hermitage and communicating with the monks through an intermediary, he would withdraw to a cave seven miles away, with a single companion who acted as messenger between himself and his companions. During his twenty years in Gaul, Columbanus became involved in a dispute with the Frankish bishops who may have feared his growing influence. During the first half of the sixth century, the councils of Gaul had given to bishops absolute authority over religious communities.
As heirs to the Irish monastic tradition and his monks used the Irish Easter calculation, a version of Bishop Augustalis's 84-year computus for determining the date of Easter, whereas the Franks had adopted the Victorian cycle of 532 years. The bishops objected to the newcomers' continued observance of their own dating, which—among other issues—caused the end of Lent to differ, they complained about the distinct Irish tonsure. In 602, the bishops assembled to judge Columbanus. Instead, he sent a letter to the prelates—a strange mixture of freedom and charity—admonishing them to hold synods more and advising them to pay more attention to matters of equal importance to that of the date of Easter. In defence of his following his traditional paschal cycle, he wrote: I am not the author of this divergence. I came as a poor stranger into these parts for the cause of Our Saviour. One thing alone I ask of you, holy Fathers, permit me to live in silence in these forests, near the bones of seventeen of my brethren now dead.
When the bishops refused to abandon the matter, following Saint Patrick's canon, appealed directly to Pope Gregory I. In the third and only surviving letter, he asks "the holy Pope, his
Castelnuovo Magra is a comune in the Province of La Spezia in the Italian region Liguria, located about 90 kilometres southeast of Genoa and about 15 kilometres east of La Spezia. The municipality of Castelnuovo Magra contains the frazioni Colombiera, Palvotrisia, Molino Del Piano and Vallecchia. Castelnuovo Magra borders the following municipalities: Fosdinovo, Sarzana. Roman presence is testified by ruins of a domus agricola from imperial times. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it was held by the bishops of Luni; the town was visited by Dante Alighieri on 6 October 1306, to end a long series of conflicts between the bishops of Luni and the Marquis Malaspina and opened a new course in local history. The church of Santa Maria Maddalena in the town contains a Pieter Brueghel the Younger copy of The Crucifixion, believed to be a variation of an original by Pieter Bruegel the Elder; the artwork was believed stolen in a raid on 13 March 2019, but it was revealed that Italian police, tipped off about the possibility of the planned theft, had replaced the painting with a copy in a sting operation.
Roman Catholic Diocese of La Spezia-Sarzana-Brugnato
The Diocese of La Spezia-Sarzana-Brugnato is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Liguria, northern Italy, created in 1929. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Genoa; the historic diocese of Luni was united to the Diocese of Sarzana in 1465, to the Diocese of Brugnato in 1820, to form the current diocese. The diocese of La Spezia was created on 12 January 1929 by Pope Pius XI, into which he incorporated the diocese of Luni-Sarzana and Brugnato; the title of Luni was dropped from the name of the diocese on 12 August 1975, which became La Spezia and Brugnato. The name was hyphenated in 1986; the name Luni has been reserved since 1975 as the title of a titular diocese. The current bishop is Msgr Luigi Palletti, appointed by Pope Benedict XVI on October 20, 2012; the Luni of the Ligurian coast is sometimes confused. It was the Luni in Tuscany near Magra, another Luni was located near Blera. An alleged early bishop of the 4th century named; the same may be said of a Salorius. A real Bishop Felix, who attended the Roman synod of Pope Hilarius belongs to c.
465. The episcopal see of Luni dates at least from the fifth century. In the late sixth century are found Bishop Terentius and Bishop Venantius, the recipient of a number of mandates of Gregory the Great. Under Bishop Felerandus, in the 8th century, the purported relic of the Blood of Christ is said to have been brought to Luni. In 641 the town of Luni was attacked by the Lombard king Rothari, who had the houses and towers destroyed; the inhabitants fled. When Rothari departed, the survivors returned and rebuilt, but in 849 the Saracens attacked and destroyed everything. Recovery was assisted by the Carolingians and the Ottonians. Bishop Ceccardus was murdered by barbarians; the Saracens again wrought complete devastation. On 26 May 1133 Pope Innocent II removed the territory of Brugnato from the diocese of Luni and erected it into a separate diocese. On 30 June 1183, the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa granted Bishop Pietro the county of Luni, the shoreline, the port of Amelia. Bishop Walterius and the magistrates of Sarzana engaged in extensive consultations to make explicit all of their mutual rights and obligations as the Bishop moved his official seat to Sarzana, where in fact the bishops had been living for some time.
The pact was signed on 24 June 1201. Bishop Walterius and the Canons of the Cathedral negotiated a pact, approved by Pope Innocent III on 7 March 1202 in the bull In eminenti sedis. On 25 March 1204, Pope Innocent III confirmed the transfer of the seat of the diocese of Luni to the town of Sarzana. In 1217, Pope Honorius III removed the territory of Porto Venere from the diocese of Luni and assigned it to Genoa; when Luni was abandoned, the episcopal see was fixed at Sarzana at Sarzanello, at Castelnuovo. In October 1254, Bishop Guglielmo approved the transfer to Nicolò Fieschi the castles of Tivegna and Castiglione, the woods of Padivarmo. In June 1257, Pope Alexander IV authorized Cardinal Ottobono Fieschi of Genoa, the nephew of Pope Innocent IV, to act as judge in all pending and future cases involving litigation between the bishop of Luni and the commune of Sarzana. On 4 June 1259, the Podestà and councilors of Sarzana to represent them in litigation with the Bishop of Luni before Cardinal Ottobono.
On 30 July 1260, Cardinal Ottobono found in favor of Bishop Marsucco. In 1306 Dante went to Sarzana, succeeded in settling a dispute between Bishop Antonio Camulla and the Marchese Franceschino Malaspina, the most important of the diocese's vassals; the poet's sojourn here inspired a few terzine of the Divine Comedy. On 13 February 1355 Emperor Charles IV conferred on the bishops of Luni the title of prince of the Holy Roman Empire. Antonio M. Parentuccelli, a cousin of Pope Nicholas V, built the episcopal palace and the church of S. Maria delle Grazie; the original cathedral in Luni had been dedicated to the Virgin Mary. In December 1187, Pope Gregory VIII granted the petition of the Bishop and Canons of Luni to transfer the episcopal seat to Sarzana, but he died before the transaction could be completed; the transfer was accomplished with the consent of Innocent III in 1204. The Cathedral church in Sarzana was dedicated to S. Basilio, to the Assumption of the Body of the Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven.
The Chapter of the Cathedral was composed of two dignities, the Archdeacon and the Provost, twenty Canons. In addition, there was a Penitentiary Prebend. In 1709 there were only thirteen Canons. A diocesan synod was an important meeting of the bishop of a diocese and his clergy, its purpose was to proclaim the various decrees issued by the bishop. Bishop Thomas de Benedictis presided over a diocesan synod in 1494. Cardinal Benedetto Lomellini held. A synod was held by Bishop Giovanni Battista Bracelli on 12 September 1582. Bishop Giovanni Battista Salvago held his first diocesan synod in 1591, his second synod took p
Bonassola is a comune in the Province of La Spezia in the Italian region Liguria, located about 60 kilometres southeast of Genoa and about 20 kilometres northwest of La Spezia. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 945 and an area of 9.3 square kilometres. The municipality of Bonassola contains the frazioni Montaretto, Serra and San Giorgio. Bonassola borders the following municipalities: Levanto. During World War Two, two American fifteen men missions tried to land and blow up a railway tunnel between Framura and Bonassola. Both missions failed but the second mission's soldiers were executed and buried in a mass grave by the German Army. Media related to Bonassola at Wikimedia Commons La Francesca www.comune.bonassola.sp.it/ Bonassola