Tijuana is the largest city of both Baja California State and the Baja Peninsula. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana transborder urban agglomeration and the larger Southern California megalopolis; as the 6th-largest city in Mexico and center of the 6th-largest metro area in Mexico, Tijuana exerts a strong influence in education and politics – across Mexico, in transportation and art – across both Californias, in manufacturing and as a migration hub – across the North American continent. One of the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in Mexico, Tijuana maintains global city status; as of 2015, the city of Tijuana had a population of 1,641,570. Tijuana is located on the Gold Coast of Baja California, is the municipal seat and the cultural and commercial center of Tijuana Municipality. Tijuana covers 70 % of 80 % of its population. A dominant manufacturing center of the North American continent, the city maintains facilities of many multinational conglomerate companies. In the early 21st century, Tijuana became the medical-device manufacturing capital of North America.
Tijuana is a growing cultural center and has been recognized as an important new cultural mecca. The city is the most visited border city in the globe. More than fifty million people cross the border between these two cities every year; this metropolitan crossing makes the San Ysidro Port of Entry the busiest land-border crossing in the world. It is estimated that the two border crossing stations between the cities proper of San Diego and Tijuana account for 300,000 daily border crossings alone. Tijuana is the westernmost city in Mexico. According to the 2015 census, the Tijuana metropolitan area was the fifth-largest in Mexico, with a population of 1,840,710, but rankings vary, the city itself was 6th largest and the municipality 3rd largest nationally; the international metropolitan region was estimated at about 5,158,459 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in the former Californias region, 19th largest metropolitan area in the Americas, the largest bi-national conurbation, shared between US and Mexico.
Tijuana is becoming more suburbanized like San Diego. Tijuana traces its modern history to the arrival of Spanish explorers in the 16th century who were mapping the coast of the Californias; as the American conquest of northern Mexico ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Tijuana's new international position on the border gave rise to a new economic and political structure. The city was founded on July 1889 as urban development began. Known by its supposed initials, T. J. and nicknamed Gateway to Mexico, the city has served as a tourist center dating back to the 1880s. The city’s name comes from the rancho that Santiago Argüello Moraga established in 1829 on his Mexican land grant, naming it Rancho Tía Juana; the first Spanish mission call the settlement variously as'La Tía Juana','Tiguana','Tiuana','Tiwana','Tijuan','Ticuan', as well as'Tijuana'. While the Mexican city standardized to "Tijuana", the American term for both the river and a U. S. settlement, now part of San Ysidro remained "Tia Juana" until the mid-20th century.
The accepted theory among historians is that Tía Juana, as Argüello named his rancho, is derived from the word "Tiwan" in the language of the Kumeyaay – the original aboriginal inhabitants of the San Diego-Tijuana region. Urban legend, states that Tía Juana, which means Aunt Jane in Spanish, was a real person whose inn provided food and lodging to travelers. There is however no record of such an inn. In Spanish, the name is pronounced "Tee-HWAH-nah" /tiˈxwana/ – with three syllables, the "j" in Mexican Spanish pronounced as a guttural "h" sound. In English, the name is pronounced "Tee-HWAH-nuh" /tiːˈhwɑːnə/ but the incorrect pronunciation "Tee-uh-WAH-nuh" /tiːəˈwɑːnə/, based on the obsolete "Tía Juana", persists outside the San Diego area. In Southern California, Tijuana is referred to as "TJ" or T. J. Baja Californians have adopted this pronunciation as Tiyei. In Spanish the demonym for someone from Tijuana is Tijuanense, while in English the demonym is Tijuanan. A common slang term used for a person from Tijuana is Tijuanero.
The nickname Tijuas is popular among residents and visitors alike. Due to a recent increase in violence in the city, a new term is developing; the phrase Yo Tijuaneo, ¿y tú? translates to I Tijuanate, you?. This term comes from a new popular local verb Tijuanear meaning to Tijuana, describing the cosmopolitan aspects of living in the city and crossing the border; the land was inhabited by the Kumeyaay, a tribe of Yuman-speaking hunter-gatherers. Europeans arrived in 1542, when the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo toured the coastline of the area, which Sebastián Vizcaíno mapped in 1602. In 1769, Juan Crespí documented more details about the area, called the Valley of Tijuana. Junípero Serra founded the first mission of Alta California in nearby San Diego. Further settlement took place near the end of the mission era when José María de Echeandía, governor of the Baja California and Alta California, awarded a large land grant to Santiago Argüello in 1829; this large cattle ranch, Rancho Tía Juana, covered 100 km2.
Although "Tia Juana" means "Aunt Jane" in Spanish, the name was an adaptation of
Brujeria is a Mexican extreme metal band formed in Tijuana, Mexico in 1989. Their name comes from the Spanish word for "witchcraft", their songs, which are sung in Spanish, are focused on Satanism, anti-Christianity, immigration, narcotics smuggling, politics. Portraying a Mexican image and with a heavy anti-American stance, the majority of the band's members are Mexican-born, with some being American, Swedish or British. Brujeria alumni include Fear Factory guitarist Dino Cazares and drummer Raymond Herrera, as well as Billy Gould, Nicholas Barker, Jeff Walker and Shane Embury, they perform under pseudonyms and portray themselves as a Latino band consisting of drug lords, concealing their identities due to being wanted by the FBI. In videos and photographs of the band, they are shown wearing bandanas, balaclavas and are shown wielding machetes. Brujeria was formed at a party in 1989 in the spirit of creating a grindcore and death metal band representative of the Latino/Chicano community, its members, the guitarist Dino Cazares, Jello Biafra, drummer Pat Hoed, bass guitarist Billy Gould and vocalist Juan Brujo, used pseudonyms as most were in other known bands.
Their first single, "¡Demoniaco!", was released in 1990. In 1992 "Machetazos" was released and with it came the band's first line-up change. Jello Biafra departed the group, Pinche Peach was introduced as an additional vocalist and Raymond Herrera took on the drums. "Machetazos" and "El Patrón" were produced and distributed through Jello Biafra's record label Alternative Tentacles. The band was criticized from its inception for its lyrics about drugs and Satanism; these topics, while the subjects of many other death metal acts, were inspired by the actions of Adolfo Constanzo, Cuban-American born Mexican drug smuggler, practitioner of Palo Mayombe, serial killer. Controversy was created by the cover of their first album Matando Güeros, which featured a severed head being held by a hand. Subsequently, the image of the head would become an emblem of the band, transforming themselves into their mascot known as Coco Loco, is seen on album covers and merchandise; the severed head is of a drug dealer in a photo taken from a Mexican publication.
This album saw the addition of Shane Embury on bass guitar. In 1995 they released their second full-length Raza Odiada, with the usual themes but with significant changes in their music and for many critics and fans their best work to date. Raza Odiada featured the single "La Ley De Plomo", whose music video proved successful on music channels such as MTV, featuring late at night on heavy metal shows; the group started to become popular, but decided to remain anonymous and declined all offers to organize concerts, confounding supporters, who were eager to see them live. Two years came the EP Marijuana, featuring a cover-parody of the popular song "The Macarena" and four live songs from its first official concert. 1999 saw the release of Spanglish 101, a compilation of label Kool Arrow Records' artists, protesting against the dominance of English. On this album the band released a couple of new tracks: "Marcha de Odio" which would be included in their next album, Brujerizmo and "Don Quijote Marijuana", an issue that attracted attention for its techno-dance style different from the band's heavy metal sound.
In 2000, 5 years after the last LP, Brujerizmo was released, which incorporated Nicholas Barker as a second drummer, Jesse Pintado on the guitar and Gaby Dominguez, as "Pititis", who represents a female demon as the female vocalist. The next release was a compilation, called Mextremist! Greatest Hits, released in 2001, which included classic tracks, alternate versions, remixes, a multimedia track with video, some new themes, such as the collaboration with Mucho Muchacho on "Narco-Peda" and "Asesino" which featured Tony Campos of Static-X; the record, rather than being a compilation, was more like a disc of rarities and b-sides, since most of the songs were not the album versions, but the versions on the EPs and singles. The disc included a video cover for the Magazine 60 song "Don Quichotte" named "Don Quijote Marihuana" 2002 came with many plans for the band, first they went to record new material for their eagerly awaited fourth album. However, this seems to have been put on hold due to altercations between Cazares and Herrera related to the temporary breakup Fear Factory.
Herrera departed Brujeria in 2002, shortly before Fear Factory reformed without Cazeres. The band announced the launch of various side-projects for each of the band members, starting with Asesino who launched that same year, Corridos de Muerte with the band featuring Tony Campos and Emilio Marquez. There is a DVD compilation of the band called "Permission of Satan"; this DVD was produced by Juan Brujo and Henry about the recording period of the Asesino album and videos of his first three presentations of the official tour of Brujeria, The Mexecutioner Tour. Includes images of the addition of Wee Man Jason Acuña of Jackass, Satanico Army Band, Mariachi Terror, others; the DVD was homemade and distributed by Juan Brujo. Brujeria declined to do live performances in its early years, however on June 11, 1997 they played at the Whisky a Go Go club in Hollywood; the short concert itself was incorporated into the EP "Marijuana" as a side B. On October 2, 2003 the band played its first official concert in Chicago USA, began its first tour known as The Mexecutioner Tour, which concluded on January 24, 2004 in Guadalajara, Mexico.
In 2003, Roadrunner Records released a compilation of tracks from the studio albums, the band titled The Mexecutioner! - The
William David "Billy" Gould is an American musician and producer. He is best known as the bassist of Faith No More. Billy Gould was raised in a Catholic family. Gould started playing the bass while he was at Loyola High School in Los Angeles with future Faith No More keyboardist Roddy Bottum, his first band during these early years was named "The Animated," a genre-bending new wave outfit that sounded something like a cross between The Buzzcocks, XTC and Michael Jackson. That band featured future FNM vocalist Chuck Mosley on keyboards, Mark Stewart on guitar, of Negro Problem fame. In the early 1980s he moved to San Francisco to begin his studies and got involved with several underground bands. At this time, he met guitarist Jim Martin. Soon after that Gould formed a band with Bordin, keyboardist Wade Worthington, guitarist/vocalist Mike'The Man' Morris named Faith No Man, which became Faith No More once Morris was out of the band. In the mid-nineties, Gould began to work as producer and in 1997 he co-produced Faith No More's last record Album of the Year with the former Swans drummer Roli Mosimann.
Since he has become the CEO of Koolarrow Records and worked on various projects as a producer or guest musician. In February 2009, it was announced that Faith No More would reform for a tour and recording. In the 1990s Gould was in the original line-up of the Mexican grindcore band Brujeria, he was involved in several supergroups, such as Shandi's Addiction as well as Black Diamond Brigade. Furthermore, he played with Wayne Kramer and Fear Factory, produced CMX's Vainajala album, his guest appearances include recordings for Romanian band Coma, the production of "Living Targets" by German group Beatsteaks, Slovenia's Elvis Jackson,and the album "7" for the German rock band Harmful, in which he toured with them the whole year 2007 as guitar player. In 2007, Gould joined up with the all star band Fear and the Nervous System, formed by Korn guitarist James "Munky" Shaffer; the band features Bad Religion drummer Brooks Wackerman. During the same year, Gould joined as bassist in Jello Biafra's new band The Axis of Evildoers along with Ralph Spight on guitar, Jon Weiss on drums.
They made their debut at Jello Biafra's 50th-birthday celebration June 16 and 17, 2008 at the Great American Music Hall in San Francisco. The band has since been renamed Jello Biafra and the Guantanamo School of Medicine and an album Audacity of Hype was released on October 20, 2009. In 2011, he released an experimental album called "The Talking Book", a collaboration between himself and sound artist Jared Blum, known for his various projects on the Gigante Sound label. In 2012, he collaborated with Charles Hayward of This Heat and Mads Heldtberg on a project and release entitled House of Hayduk. In 2011, Billy contributed to the production of the soundtrack for the documentary "The Sequential Art", by Norwegian director Espen J. Jörgensen. In 2013, he reunited with Espen J. Jörgensen to provide synth, edits and beats for a'groovy and experimental EP' titled Fugly. Since 1999, Gould has run an independent record label Koolarrow Records that has specialized in international acts and challenging artists such as LA's Flattbush, Seattle's Kultur Shock, Hog Molly, Bosnian's Dubioza Kolektiv, San Francisco's La Plebe, German rock band Harmful, Alexander Hacke, Como Asesinar a Felipes from Chile, former Danish experimental outfit Durefursog, Mexican Dubwiser.
For most of Faith No More's career, he has used a Zon bass, but started with a Gibson Grabber bass and an Aria Pro II SB Integra Bass in the early days of Faith No More. In the music video for their song Evidence, he is seen using a Fender Jazz, he began with Peavey amplifiers, has used them his entire career. He is known for employing a wide variety of playing styles, alternating between using a plectrum and fingerstyle, he used an Ibanez Tube Screamer and a DOD Stereo Bass Flanger on The Real Thing album and the following tour for that album. Brujeria1993: Matando Güeros 1995: Raza Odiada 2000: BrujerizmoFear and the Nervous System2011: Fear and the Nervous SystemJello Biafra and the Guantanamo School of Medicine2009: Audacity of Hype 2011: Enhanced Methods of Questioning Harmful2007: SevenBill Gould & Jared Blum2011: The Talking Book 2013: Fugly 1994: Milk Cult – Burn or Bury, "Bow Kiness Static" 2005: Fear Factory – Transgression, "Echo of my Scream", "Supernova" 2006: Coma – Nerostitele, "Mai Presus De Cuvinte" 2006: Jeff Walker und Die Fluffers – Welcome to Carcass Cuntry 2012: Angertea – Nr. 4: Songs Exhaled, "No Computation" 1995 "Engove" – instrumental remix of "Caffeine" by Faith No More.
Appeared on Metallurgy, Vol. 1 1997 "Pristina", appeared on "Last Cup of Sorrow" single. 1998 "Du riechst so gut" by Rammstein. Faith No More remix. 1997 Naive – Post Alcoholic Anxieties 1997 Faith No More – Album of the Year 1998 CMX – Vainajala 1999 Think About Mutation – Highlife 2001 The Beatsteaks – Living Targets 2001 Kultur Shock – FUCC the INS 2007 Harmful – 7 2009 Elvis Jackson – Against the Gravity 2015 Faith No More – Sol Invictus 1999 Spazz – Crush Kill Destroy
Persecution of Christians
The persecution of Christians can be traced from the first century of the Christian era to the present day. Early Christians were persecuted for their faith at the hands of both the Jews from whose religion Christianity arose and the Romans who controlled many of the lands across which early Christianity was spread. Early in the fourth century, a form of the religion was legalized by the Edict of Milan, it became the State church of the Roman Empire. Christian missionaries as well as converts to Christianity have been the target of persecution since the emergence of Christianity, sometimes to the point of being martyred for their faith; the schisms of the Middle Ages and the Protestant Reformation, sometimes provoked severe conflicts between Christian denominations to the point of persecuting each other. In the 20th century, Christians were persecuted by various governments including the Islamic Ottoman Empire in the form of the Armenian Genocide, the Assyrian Genocide and the Greek Genocide, as well as by atheistic states such as the Soviet Union and North Korea.
Early Christianity began as a sect among Second Temple Jews, according to the New Testament account, including Paul of Tarsus prior to his conversion to Christianity, persecuted early Christians. The early Christians preached the second coming of a Messiah which did not conform to their religious teachings. However, feeling that their beliefs were supported by Jewish scripture, Christians had been hopeful that their countrymen would accept their faith. Despite individual conversions, the vast majority of Judean Jews did not become Christians. Claudia Setzer asserts that, "Jews did not see Christians as separate from their own community until at least the middle of the second century." Thus, acts of Jewish persecution of Christians fall within the boundaries of synagogue discipline and were so perceived by Jews acting and thinking as the established community. The Christians, on the other hand, saw themselves as persecuted rather than "disciplined." Inter-communal dissension began immediately with the teachings of Stephen at Jerusalem, considered an apostate.
According to the Acts of the Apostles, a year after the Crucifixion of Jesus, Stephen was stoned for his alleged transgression of the faith, with Saul looking on. In 41 AD, when Agrippa I, who possessed the territory of Antipas and Phillip, obtained the title of King of the Jews, in a sense re-forming the Kingdom of Herod, he was eager to endear himself to his Jewish subjects and continued the persecution in which James the Greater lost his life, Peter narrowly escaped and the rest of the apostles took flight. After Agrippa's death, the Roman procuratorship began and those leaders maintained a neutral peace, until the procurator Festus died and the high priest Annas II took advantage of the power vacuum to attack the Church and executed James the Just leader of Jerusalem's Christians; the New Testament states that Paul was himself imprisoned on several occasions by Roman authorities, stoned by Pharisees and left for dead on one occasion, was taken as a prisoner to Rome. Peter and other early Christians were imprisoned and harassed.
The great Jewish revolt, spurred by the Roman killing of 3,000 Jews, led to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD, the end of Second Temple Judaism, the disempowering of the Jewish persecutors. According to an old church tradition, doubted by historians, the early Christian community had fled Jerusalem beforehand, to the pacified region of Pella. Luke T. Johnson nuances the harsh portrayal of the Jews in the Gospels by contextualizing the polemics within the rhetoric of contemporaneous philosophical debate, showing how rival schools of thought insulted and slandered their opponents; these attacks were formulaic and stereotyped, crafted to define, the enemy in the debates, but not used with the expectation that their insults and accusations would be taken as they would be centuries resulting in millennia of Christian antisemitism. By the 4th century, John Chrysostom argued that the Pharisees alone, not the Romans, were responsible for the murder of Jesus. However, according to Walter Laqueur, "Absolving Pilate from guilt may have been connected with the missionary activities of early Christianity in Rome and the desire not to antagonize those they want to convert."
The first documented case of imperially supervised persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire begins with Nero. In 64 AD, a great fire broke out in Rome, destroying portions of the city and economically devastating the Roman population; some people suspected that Nero himself was the arsonist, as Suetonius reported, claiming that he played the lyre and sang the'Sack of Ilium' during the fires. In his Annals, stated that "to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace". Suetonius to the period, does not mention any persecution after the fire, but in a previous paragraph unrelated to the fire, mentions punishments inflicted on Christians, defined as men following a new and malefic superstition. Suetonius, does not specify the reasons for the punishment, he just lists the fact together with other abuses put down by Nero. In the first two centuries Christianity was a small sect, not a significant concern of the Emperor.
The Church was not in a struggle for i
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups. Witchcraft is a broad term that varies culturally and societally, thus can be difficult to define with precision, cross-cultural assumptions about the meaning or significance of the term should be applied with caution. Witchcraft occupies a religious divinatory or medicinal role, is present within societies and groups whose cultural framework includes a magical world view; the concept of witchcraft and the belief in its existence have persisted throughout recorded history. They have been present or central at various times and in many diverse forms among cultures and religions worldwide, including both "primitive" and "highly advanced" cultures, continue to have an important role in many cultures today; the predominant concept of witchcraft in the Western world derives from Old Testament laws against witchcraft, entered the mainstream when belief in witchcraft gained Church approval in the Early Modern Period.
It posits a theosophical conflict between good and evil, where witchcraft was evil and associated with the Devil and Devil worship. This culminated in deaths and scapegoating, many years of large scale witch-trials and witch hunts in Protestant Europe, before ceasing during the European Age of Enlightenment. Christian views in the modern day are diverse and cover the gamut of views from intense belief and opposition to non-belief, in some churches approval. From the mid-20th century, witchcraft – sometimes called contemporary witchcraft to distinguish it from older beliefs – became the name of a branch of modern paganism, it is most notably practiced in the Wiccan and modern witchcraft traditions, no longer practices in secrecy. The Western mainstream Christian view is far from the only societal perspective about witchcraft. Many cultures worldwide continue to have widespread practices and cultural beliefs that are loosely translated into English as "witchcraft", although the English translation masks a great diversity in their forms, magical beliefs and place in their societies.
During the Age of Colonialism, many cultures across the globe were exposed to the modern Western world via colonialism accompanied and preceded by intensive Christian missionary activity. Beliefs related to witchcraft and magic in these cultures were at times influenced by the prevailing Western concepts. Witch hunts and killing or shunning of suspected witches still occurs in the modern era, with killings both of victims for their magical body parts, of suspected witchcraft practitioners. Suspicion of modern medicine due to beliefs about illness being due to witchcraft continues in many countries to this day, with tragic healthcare consequences. HIV/AIDS and Ebola virus disease are two examples of often-lethal infectious disease epidemics whose medical care and containment has been hampered by regional beliefs in witchcraft. Other severe medical conditions whose treatment is hampered in this way include tuberculosis, leprosy and the common severe bacterial Buruli ulcer. Public healthcare requires considerable education work related to epidemology and modern health knowledge in many parts of the world where belief in witchcraft prevails, to encourage effective preventive health measures and treatments, to reduce victim blaming and stigmatization, to prevent the killing of people and endangering of animal species for body parts believed to convey magical abilities.
The word witch is of uncertain origin. There are numerous etymologies. One popular belief is that it is "related to the English words wit, wisdom," so "craft of the wise." Another is from the Old English wiccecræft, a compound of "wicce" and "cræft". In anthropological terminology, witches differ from sorcerers in that they don't use physical tools or actions to curse; this definition was pioneered in a study of central African magical beliefs by E. E. Evans-Pritchard, who cautioned that it might not correspond with normal English usage. Historians of European witchcraft have found the anthropological definition difficult to apply to European witchcraft, where witches could use physical techniques, as well as some who had attempted to cause harm by thought alone. European witchcraft is seen by historians and anthropologists as an ideology for explaining misfortune; the witchcraft label has been applied to practices people believe influence the mind, body, or property of others against their will—or practices that the person doing the labeling believes undermine social or religious order.
Some modern commentators believe. The concept of a magic-worker influencing another person's body or property against their will was present in many cultures, as traditions in both folk magic and religious magic have the purpose of countering malicious magic or identifying malicious magic users. Many examples appear in early texts, such as those from ancient Babylonia. Malicious magic users can become a credible cause for disease, sickness in animals, bad luck, sudden death, impo
The Sziget Festival is one of the largest music and cultural festivals in Europe. It is held every August in northern Budapest, Hungary, on Óbudai-sziget, a leafy 108-hectare island on the Danube. More than 1,000 performances take place each year; the week-long festival has grown from a low-profile student event in 1993 to become one of the prominent European rock festivals, with about half of all visitors coming from outside Hungary from Western Europe. It has a dedicated "party train" service that transports festival-goers from all over Europe; the second event, labelled Eurowoodstock, was headlined by performers from the original Woodstock festival. By 1997, total attendance surpassed the 250,000 mark, reaching an all-time peak in 2016 with 496,000 visitors from 95 countries, it is now being labelled as a European alternative to the Burning Man festival due to its unique features. In 2011, Sziget was ranked one of the 5 best festivals in Europe by The Independent; the festival is a two-time winner at the European Festivals Awards in the category Best Major European Festival, in 2011 and 2014.
In 2002, Sziget branched out to Transylvania when its organisers co-created a new annual festival there titled Félsziget Fesztivál that soon became the largest of its kind in Romania. In 2007, the organisers co-created Balaton Sound, an electronic music festival held on the southern bank of Lake Balaton that gained popularity. Following the end of the Communist era in 1989, the lively summer festival scene in Budapest faced a crisis due to a sudden loss of governmental funding. A group of artists and rock enthusiasts proposed the Sziget event as a way to bridge this gap; the festival was started in 1993 called Diáksziget. This first event was organised by music fans in their spare time and ran well over budget, taking until 1997 to repay the losses. From 1996 to 2001 it was renamed Pepsi Sziget, it has been called Sziget Fesztivál since 2002. A comprehensive survey was done and published on the risktaking behaviour and mood of Sziget visitors by the National Institute for Health Promotion; the survey revealed amongst others that the last sexual encounter of 9.4% of its participants was unprotected.
Sziget Festival is notable in. 2006 saw, among others, a blues stage, a jazz tent, a world music stage, alongside the main stage with more typical popular rock acts. The festival is popular with west Europeans. Around 50% of visitors come from outside Hungary, with the largest group coming from the Netherlands. Many come from Belgium, the UK, Italy, France and Romania. Being located on an island, some festival goers have tried to enter by swimming across the Danube or by paddling across in inflatable rafts; the organisers much discourage these attempts as it is dangerous due to the tricky nature of the fast-flowing Danube river. In 2008, Sziget Festival lasted from 11 to 18 August; the festival, instead of 7+1 days as in 2007, was 5+2 days long, with a "zeroeth day" that featured one major gig and a special "minus first day" called "Day of Hungarian Songs" that headlined a number of popular Hungarian rock bands. As well as Iron Maiden, R. E. M. Mass Hysteria, Sex Pistols, Anti-Flag, Flogging Molly, Alanis Morissette, The Killers, The Kooks, Kaiser Chiefs, The Cribs and many other were confirmed, the day of their performance is available at the Sziget website.
The length of the festival was reduced so that the residents living in the neighborhoods nearby would have less trouble because of the noise. The organizers plan to take further steps to reduce noise: the metal stage will be open until 11 pm only and noise filtering walls will be built near the noisiest stages. Sziget 2009 was 10–17 August 2009; the festival had a 5+2 day schedule again. The "zeroeth day" had a Rock Against Racism concert, featuring Hungarian bands; the "minus first day" had one major gig again, this time the 20th anniversary concert of Hungarian rock band Tankcsapda. The Lineup: Main Stage IAMX, Nouvelle Vague, Ska-P, Snow Patrol, Lily Allen, Miss Platnum, The Ting Tings, Die Toten Hosen, Bloc Party, Fatboy Slim, Jet, Primal Scream, The Prodigy, The Subways, Klaxons, Manic Street Preachers, Disco Ensemble, Danko Jones, Maxïmo Park, The Offspring, Faith No More World Music Main Stage So Kalmery, Napra, Oi Va Voi, Calexico, 08001, Orquesta Buena Vista Social Club, Figli Di Madre Ignota, Amadou & Mariam Speed Caravan, Woven Hand & Muzsikás, N&SK, Vieux Farka Touré, Tiken Jah Fakoly, Brotherhood of Brass: Boban Marković Orkestar + Frank London's Klezmer Brass Allstars A38-WAN2 Stage: Blasted Mechanism, De Staat, La Troba Kung-Fú, Miloopa, Muchachito Bombo Infierno, Tricky, White Lies, Babylon Circus White Lies' performance of "The Power and the Glory" from Sziget Festival was used as the music video for the song.
Rock Stage: Backyard Babies, Deathstars, Expatriate, Life of Agony, Turbonegro, Turisas Party Arena: Armin van Buuren, Birdy Nam Nam, Dillinja, Eric Prydz, Jose Padilla, Paul Oakenfold, Pete Tong, 808 State Prince, Thirty Seconds to Mars, The Prodigy, Chemical Brothers, White Lies, Kaiser Chiefs, Manic Street Preachers, Dizzee Rascal, Flogging Molly, Kate Nash, British Sea
A drug is any substance that, when inhaled, smoked, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body. In pharmacology, a drug is a chemical substance of known structure, other than a nutrient of an essential dietary ingredient, when administered to a living organism, produces a biological effect. A pharmaceutical drug called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being. Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants, but more also by organic synthesis. Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders. Pharmaceutical drugs are classified into drug classes—groups of related drugs that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action, a related mode of action, that are used to treat the same disease; the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, the most used drug classification system, assigns drugs a unique ATC code, an alphanumeric code that assigns it to specific drug classes within the ATC system.
Another major classification system is the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. This classifies drugs according to their permeability or absorption properties. Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that affect the function of the central nervous system, altering perception, mood or consciousness, they include alcohol, a depressant, the stimulants nicotine and caffeine. These three are the most consumed psychoactive drugs worldwide and are considered recreational drugs since they are used for pleasure rather than medicinal purposes. Other recreational drugs include hallucinogens and amphetamines and some of these are used in spiritual or religious settings; some drugs can cause addiction and all drugs can have side effects. Excessive use of stimulants can promote stimulant psychosis. Many recreational drugs are illicit and international treaties such as the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs exist for the purpose of their prohibition. In English, the noun "drug" is thought to originate from Old French "drogue" deriving into "droge-vate" from Middle Dutch meaning "dry barrels", referring to medicinal plants preserved in them.
The transitive verb "to drug" arose and invokes the psychoactive rather than medicinal properties of a substance. A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure or ameliorate any symptoms of an illness or medical condition; the use may be as preventive medicine that has future benefits but does not treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms. Dispensing of medication is regulated by governments into three categories—over-the-counter medications, which are available in pharmacies and supermarkets without special restrictions. In the United Kingdom, behind-the-counter medicines are called pharmacy medicines which can only be sold in registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a pharmacist; these medications are designated by the letter P on the label. The range of medicines available without a prescription varies from country to country. Medications are produced by pharmaceutical companies and are patented to give the developer exclusive rights to produce them; those that are not patented are called generic drugs since they can be produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from the patent holder.
Pharmaceutical drugs are categorised into drug classes. A group of drugs will share a similar chemical structure, or have the same mechanism of action, the same related mode of action or target the same illness or related illnesses; the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, the most used drug classification system, assigns drugs a unique ATC code, an alphanumeric code that assigns it to specific drug classes within the ATC system. Another major classification system is the Biopharmaceutics Classification System; this groups drugs according to their permeability or absorption properties. Some religions ethnic religions are based on the use of certain drugs, known as entheogens, which are hallucinogens,—psychedelics, dissociatives, or deliriants; some drugs used as entheogens include kava which can act as a stimulant, a sedative, a euphoriant and an anesthetic. The roots of the kava plant are used to produce a drink, consumed throughout the cultures of the Pacific Ocean; some shamans from different cultures use entheogens, defined as "generating the divine within" to achieve religious ecstasy.
Amazonian shamans use ayahuasca a hallucinogenic brew for this purpose. Mazatec shamans have a long and continuous tradition of religious use of Salvia divinorum a psychoactive plant, its use is to facilitate visionary states of consciousness during spiritual healing sessions. Silene undulata is used as an entheogen, its root is traditionally used to induce vivid lucid dreams during the initiation process of shamans, classifying it a occurring oneirogen similar to the more well-known dream herb Calea ternifolia. Peyote a small spineless cactus has been a