A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food vegetables. However, different varieties of salad may contain any type of ready-to-eat food. Salads are served at room temperature or chilled, with notable exceptions such as south German potato salad, served warm. Garden salads use a base of leafy greens such as arugula/rocket, kale or spinach. Other types include bean salad, tuna salad, Greek salad, sōmen salad; the sauce used to flavor a salad is called a salad dressing. Salads may be served at any point during a meal: Appetizer salads—light, smaller-portion salads served as the first course of the meal. Side salads—to accompany the main course as a side dish. Main course salads—usually containing a portion of a high-protein food, such as meat, eggs, legumes, or cheese. Dessert salads—sweet versions containing fruit, sweeteners or whipped cream; the word "salad" comes from the French salade of the same meaning, from the Latin salata, from sal. In English, the word first appears as "salad" or "sallet" in the 14th century.
Salt is associated with salad because vegetables were seasoned with brine or salty oil-and-vinegar dressings during Roman times. The phrase "salad days", meaning a "time of youthful inexperience", is first recorded by Shakespeare in 1606, while the use of salad bar, referring to a buffet-style serving of salad ingredients, first appeared in American English in 1976; the Romans and ancient Greeks ate mixed greens with a type of mixed salad. Salads, including layered and dressed salads, have been popular in Europe since the Greek and Roman imperial expansions. In his 1699 book, Acetaria: A Discourse on Sallets, John Evelyn attempted with little success to encourage his fellow Britons to eat fresh salad greens. Mary, Queen of Scots, ate boiled celery root over greens covered with creamy mustard dressing, truffles and slices of hard-boiled eggs. Oil used on salads can be found in the 17th century colony of New Netherland. A list of common items arriving on ships and their designated prices when appraising cargo included "a can of salad oil at 1.10 florins" and "an anker of wine vinegar at 16 florins".
In a 1665 letter to the Director of New Netherland from the Island of Curaçao there is a request to send greens: "I request most amicably that your honors be pleased to send me seed of every sort, such as cabbage, lettuce, etc. for none can be acquired here and I know that your honor has plenty...". Salads may be sold at restaurants and at fast food chains. In the United States, restaurants will have a "salad bar" with salad-making ingredients, which the customers will use to put together their salad. Salad restaurants were earning more than $300 million in 2014. At-home salad consumption in the 2010s was rising but moving away from fresh-chopped lettuce and toward bagged greens and salad kits, with bag sales expected to reach $7 billion per year. A salad can be tossed. A green salad or garden salad is most composed of leafy vegetables such as lettuce varieties, spinach, or rocket. If non-greens make up a large portion of the salad it may be called a vegetable salad instead of a green salad. Common raw vegetables used in a salad include cucumbers, tomatoes, carrots, radishes, avocado, artichoke hearts, heart of palm, parsley, garden beets, green beans.
Nuts, berries and flowers are less common components. Hard-boiled eggs, bacon and cheeses may be used as garnishes, but large amounts of animal based foods would be more in a dinner salad. A wedge salad is made from a head of lettuce quartered, with other ingredients on top. Bound salads are assembled with thick sauces such as mayonnaise. One portion of a true bound salad will hold its shape when placed on a plate with an ice-cream scoop. Examples of bound salad include tuna salad, chicken salad, egg salad, potato salad. Bound salads are used as sandwich fillings, they are popular at barbecues. Main course salads may contain seafood, or sliced steak. Caesar salad, Chef salad, Cobb salad, Chinese chicken salad and Michigan salad are dinner salads. Fruit salads are canned. Examples include fruit cocktail. Note that "fruit" here refers to culinary fruits, many common components of vegetable salads are botanical fruits but culinary vegetables. Dessert salads include leafy greens and are sweet. Common variants are made with whipped cream.
Other forms of dessert salads include snickers salad, glorified rice, cookie salad. Sauces for salads are called "dressings"; the concept of salad dressing varies across cultures. Sometimes a dressing is not used. In Western culture, there are two basic types of salad dressing: Vinaigrettes based on a mixture of salad oil and vinegar flavored with herbs, salt, pepper and other ingredients. Creamy dressings based on mayonnaise or fermented milk products, such as yogurt, sour cream, or butte
A waffle is a dish made from leavened batter or dough, cooked between two plates that are patterned to give a characteristic size and surface impression. There are many variations based on the type of waffle recipe used. Waffles are eaten throughout the world in Belgium, which has over a dozen regional varieties. Waffles may be made fresh or heated after having been commercially precooked and frozen; the word "waffle" first appears in the English language in 1725: "Waffles. Take flower, cream..." It is directly derived from the Dutch wafel. While the Middle Dutch wafele is first attested to at the end of the 13th century, it is preceded by the French walfre in 1185. Alternate spellings throughout modern and medieval Europe include waffe, wafer, wâfel, iauffe, goffre, wafe, waffel, wåfe, wāfel, vaffel, våffla. In ancient times the Greeks cooked flat cakes, called obelios, between hot metal plates; as they were spread throughout medieval Europe, the cake mix, a mixture of flour, water or milk, eggs, became known as wafers and were cooked over an open fire between iron plates with long handles.
Waffles are preceded, in the early Middle Ages, around the period of the 9th–10th centuries, with the simultaneous emergence of fer à hosties / hostieijzers and moule à oublies. While the communion wafer irons depicted imagery of Jesus and his crucifixion, the moule à oublies featured more trivial Biblical scenes or simple, emblematic designs; the format of the iron itself was always round and larger than those used for communion. The oublie was, in its basic form, composed only of grain flour and water – just as was the communion wafer, it took until the 11th century, as a product of The Crusades bringing new culinary ingredients to Western Europe, for flavorings such as orange blossom water to be added to the oublies. Oublies, not formally named as such until ca. 1200, spread throughout northwestern continental Europe leading to the formation of the oublieurs guild in 1270. These oublieurs/obloyers were responsible for not only producing the oublies but for a number of other contemporaneous and subsequent pâtisseries légères, including the waffles that were soon to arise.
In the late 14th century, the first known waffle recipe was penned in an anonymous manuscript, Le Ménagier de Paris, written by a husband as a set of instructions to his young wife. While it technically contains four recipes, all are a variation of the first: Beat some eggs in a bowl, season with salt and add wine. Toss in some flour, mix. Fill, little by little, two irons at a time with as much of the paste as a slice of cheese is large. Close the iron and cook both sides. If the dough does not detach from the iron, coat it first with a piece of cloth, soaked in oil or grease; the other three variations explain how cheese is to be placed in between two layers of batter and mixed in to the batter, or left out, along with the eggs. However, this was a waffle / gaufre in name only. Though some have speculated that waffle irons first appeared in the 13th–14th centuries, it was not until the 15th century that a true physical distinction between the oublie and the waffle began to evolve. Notably, while a recipe like the fourth in Le Ménagier de Paris was only flour and wine – indistinguishable from common oublie recipes of the time – what did emerge was a new shape to many of the irons being produced.
Not only were the newly fashioned ones rectangular, taking the form of the fer à hosties, but some circular oublie irons were cut down to create rectangles. It was in this period that the waffle's classic grid motif appeared in a French fer à oublie and a Belgian wafelijzer – albeit in a more shallowly engraved fashion – setting the stage for the more gridded irons that were about to become commonplace throughout Belgium. By the 16th century, paintings by Joachim de Beuckelaer, Pieter Aertsen and Pieter Bruegel depict the modern waffle form. Bruegel's work, in particular, not only shows waffles being cooked, but fine detail of individual waffles. In those instances, the waffle pattern can be counted as a large 12x7 grid, with cleanly squared sides, suggesting the use of a thin batter, akin to our contemporary Brussels waffles. Earliest of the 16th century waffle recipes, Om ghode waffellen te backen – from the Dutch KANTL 15 manuscript – is only the second known waffle recipe after the four variants described in Le Ménagier de Paris.
For the first time, partial measurements were given, sugar was used, spices were added directly to the batter: Take grated white bread. Take with that the yolk of an egg and a spoonful of pot sugar or powdered sugar. Take with that half water and half wine, ginger and cinnamon. Alternately attributed to the 16th and 17th centuries, Groote Wafelen from the Belgian Een Antwerps kookboek was published as the first recipe to use leavening: Take white flour, warm cream, fresh melted butter and mix together until the flour is no longer visible. Add ten or twelve egg yolks; those who do not want them to be too expensive may add the egg white and just milk. Put the resulting dough at the fireplace for four hours to let it rise better before baking it; until this time, no recipes contained leavening and could therefore be cooked in the thin moule à oublies. Groote Wafelen, in its use of leavening, was the genesis of contempora
A snack is a small service of food and eaten between meals. Snacks come in a variety of forms including packaged snack foods and other processed foods, as well as items made from fresh ingredients at home. Traditionally, snacks are prepared from ingredients available at home without a great deal of preparation. Biscuits, cold cuts, leftovers, popcorn and sweets are used as snacks; the Dagwood sandwich was the humorous result of a cartoon character's desire for large snacks. With the spread of convenience stores, packaged snack foods became a significant business. Snack foods are designed to be portable and satisfying. Processed snack foods, as one form of convenience food, are designed to be less perishable, more durable, more portable than prepared foods, they contain substantial amounts of sweeteners and appealing ingredients such as chocolate and specially-designed flavors. Beverages, such as coffee and tea, are not considered snacks although they may be consumed along with or in lieu of snack foods.
A snack eaten shortly before going to bed or during the night may be called a "bedtime snack", "late night snack", or "night snack". In the United States, a popular snack food is the peanut. Peanuts first arrived from South America via slave ships and became incorporated into African-inspired cooking on southern plantations. After the Civil War, the taste for peanuts spread north, where they were incorporated into the culture of baseball games and vaudeville theaters. Along with popcorn, snacks bore the stigma of being sold by unhygienic street vendors; the middle-class etiquette of the Victorian era categorized any food that did not require proper usage of utensils as lower-class. Pretzels were introduced to North America via New Amsterdam in the 17th century. In the 1860s, the snack was still associated with immigrants, unhygienic street vendors, saloons. Due to loss of business during the Prohibition era, pretzels underwent rebranding to make them more appealing to the public; as packaging revolutionized snack foods, allowing sellers to reduce contamination risk, while making it easy to advertise brands with a logo, pretzels boomed in popularity, bringing many other types of snack foods with it.
By the 1950s, snacking had become an all-American pastime, becoming an internationally recognized emblem of middle American life. Healthy snacks include those that have significant vitamins, are low in saturated fat, added sugars, sodium. Examples of healthy snacks include: Eggs, such as hard-boiled eggs and vegetables Lean cheese Lean meats, Low-fat dairy products Nuts and seeds Foods that have whole grains Government bodies, such as Health Canada, recommend that people make a conscious effort to eat more healthy, natural snacks - such as fruit, vegetables and cereal grains – while avoiding high-calorie, low-nutrient junk food. A 2010 study showed that children in the United States snacked on average six times per day twice as as American children in the 1970s; this represents consumption of 570 calories more per day than U. S. children consumed in the 1970s. A Tufts University Department of Psychology empirical study titled "Effect of an afternoon confectionery snack on cognitive processes critical to learning" found that a consumption of a confectionery snack in the afternoon improved spatial memory in the study's sample group, but in the area of attention performance it had a mixed effect.
"Wikibooks Cookbook – A collection of recipes from around the world". Wikibooks
A drink is a liquid intended for human consumption. In addition to their basic function of satisfying thirst, drinks play important roles in human culture. Common types of drinks include plain drinking water, coffee, hot chocolate and soft drinks. In addition, alcoholic drinks such as wine and liquor, which contain the drug ethanol, have been part of human culture for more than 8,000 years. Non-alcoholic drinks signify drinks that would contain alcohol, such as beer and wine, but are made with less than.5 percent alcohol by volume. The category includes drinks that have undergone an alcohol removal process such as non-alcoholic beers and de-alcoholized wines; when the human body becomes dehydrated, it experiences thirst. This craving of fluids results in an instinctive need to drink. Thirst is regulated by the hypothalamus in response to subtle changes in the body's electrolyte levels, as a result of changes in the volume of blood circulating; the complete elimination of drinks, that is, from the body will result in death faster than the removal of any other substance.
Water and milk have been basic drinks throughout history. As water is essential for life, it has been the carrier of many diseases; as society developed, new techniques were discovered to create the drinks from the plants that were available in different areas. The earliest archaeological evidence of wine production yet found has been at sites in Georgia and Iran. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe as far back as 3000 BCE, was brewed on a domestic scale; the invention of beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to develop technology and build civilization. Tea originated in Yunnan, China during the Shang Dynasty as a medicinal drink. Drinking has been a large part of socialising throughout the centuries. In Ancient Greece, a social gathering for the purpose of drinking was known as a symposium, where watered down wine would be drunk; the purpose of these gatherings could be anything from serious discussions to direct indulgence. In Ancient Rome, a similar concept of a convivium took place regularly.
Many early societies considered alcohol a gift from the gods, leading to the creation of gods such as Dionysus. Other religions forbid, discourage, or restrict the drinking of alcoholic drinks for various reasons. In some regions with a dominant religion the production and consumption of alcoholic drinks is forbidden to everybody, regardless of religion. Toasting is a method of wishing good will by taking a drink. Another tradition is that of the loving cup, at weddings or other celebrations such as sports victories a group will share a drink in a large receptacle, shared by everyone until empty. In East Africa and Yemen, coffee was used in native religious ceremonies; as these ceremonies conflicted with the beliefs of the Christian church, the Ethiopian Church banned the secular consumption of coffee until the reign of Emperor Menelik II. The drink was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. A drink is a form of liquid, prepared for human consumption.
The preparation can include a number of different steps, some prior to transport, others prior to consumption. Water is the chief constituent in all drinks, the primary ingredient in most. Water is purified prior to drinking. Methods for purification include the addition of chemicals, such as chlorination; the importance of purified water is highlighted by the World Health Organization, who point out 94% of deaths from diarrhea – the third biggest cause of infectious death worldwide at 1.8 million annually – could be prevented by improving the quality of the victim's environment safe water. Pasteurisation is the process of heating a liquid for a period of time at a specified temperature immediately cooling; the process reduces the growth of micro-organisms within the liquid, thereby increasing the time before spoilage. It is used on milk, which prior to pasteurisation is infected with pathogenic bacteria and therefore is more than any other part of the common diet in the developed world to cause illness.
The process of extracting juice from fruits and vegetables can take a number of forms. Simple crushing of most fruits will provide a significant amount of liquid, though a more intense pressure can be applied to get the maximum amount of juice from the fruit. Both crushing and pressing are processes used in the production of wine. Infusion is the process of extracting flavours from plant material by allowing the material to remain suspended within water; this process can be used to prepare coffee. The name is derived from the word "percolate" which means to cause to pass through a permeable substance for extracting a soluble constituent. In the case of coffee-brewing the solvent is water, the permeable substance is the coffee grounds, the soluble constituents are the chemical compounds that give coffee its color, taste and stimulating properties. Carbonation is the process such as water. Fermentation is a metabolic process. Fermentation has been used by humans for the production of drinks since the Neolithic age.
In winemaking, grape juice is combined with yeast in an anaerobic environment to allow the fermentation. The amount of sugar in the wine and the length of time given for fermentation determine the alcohol level and the sweetness of the wine; when brewing beer, there are four primary ingre
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, some have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, edible in the raw state, such as apples, grapes, lemons and strawberries. On the other hand, in botanical usage, "fruit" includes many structures that are not called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels and wheat grains; the section of a fungus that produces spores is called a fruiting body. Many common terms for seeds and fruit do not correspond to the botanical classifications. In culinary terminology, a fruit is any sweet-tasting plant part a botanical fruit.
However, in botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary or carpel that contains seeds, a nut is a type of fruit and not a seed, a seed is a ripened ovule. Examples of culinary "vegetables" and nuts that are botanically fruit include corn, eggplant, sweet pepper, tomato. In addition, some spices, such as allspice and chili pepper, are fruits. In contrast, rhubarb is referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole of the rhubarb plant is edible, edible gymnosperm seeds are given fruit names, e.g. ginkgo nuts and pine nuts. Botanically, a cereal grain, such as corn, rice, or wheat, is a kind of fruit, termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is thin and is fused to the seed coat, so all of the edible grain is a seed; the outer edible layer, is the pericarp, formed from the ovary and surrounding the seeds, although in some species other tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, the epicarp and endocarp.
Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be beaked. A fruit results from maturation of one or more flowers, the gynoecium of the flower forms all or part of the fruit. Inside the ovary/ovaries are one or more ovules where the megagametophyte contains the egg cell. After double fertilization, these ovules will become seeds; the ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination, which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers. After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and two sperm are transferred from the pollen to the megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one of the two sperm unites with the egg, forming a zygote, the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process; the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, the endosperm mother cell will give rise to endosperm, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo.
As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy, or form a hard outer covering. In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules; the pericarp is differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp and endocarp. In some fruits simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower, fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off; when such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms. There are three general modes of fruit development: Apocarpous fruits develop from a single flower having one or more separate carpels, they are the simplest fruits. Syncarpous fruits develop from a single gynoecium having two or more carpels fused together.
Multiple fruits form from many different flowers. Plant scientists have grouped fruits into three main groups, simple fruits, aggregate fruits, composite or multiple fruits; the groupings are not evolutionarily relevant, since many diverse plant taxa may be in the same group, but reflect how the flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop. Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy, result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary in a flower with only one pistil. Dry fruits may be either dehiscent, or indehiscent. Types of dry, simple fruits, examples of each, include: achene – most seen in aggregate fruits capsule – caryopsis – cypsela – an achene-like fruit derived from the individual florets in a capitulum. Fibrous drupe – follicle – is formed from a single carpel, opens by one suture
History of breakfast
Breakfast is the first meal taken after rising from a night's sleep, most eaten in the early morning before undertaking the day's work. The Old English word for dinner, means to break a fast, was the first meal eaten in the day until its meaning shifted in the mid-13th century, it was not until the 15th century that "breakfast" came into use in written English to describe a morning meal, which means to break the fasting period of the prior night. From evidence at Epipaleo sites in present-day Jordan, dating to before the discovery of agriculture, archeologists have found that the Natufian culture baked mixed-flour flat breads made from wild einkorn wheat, wild rye, wild oats and club-rush tubers in tandoor-like stone ovens as well as on flat stones. Besides bread, these wild flours were made into porridge. From further archeology at Neolithic sites we know that there was an early reliance on cereal grains once agriculture had begun. Neolithic peoples used quern-stones to grind the hulled grains boiled them to make a kind of porridge.
The domesticating of crops is thought to have begun in the Fertile Crescent around 7000 BC. Three of the eight so-called founder crops are cereals – emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, barley. Rye and oats were cultivated in Europe starting in the early Neolithic in Anatolia before spreading to the rest of Europe in the Iron age and Bronze Age. Peasants ate a daily meal, most in the morning, consisting of beer and onions before they left for work in the fields or work commanded by the pharaohs. In Greek literature, Homer makes numerous mentions of a meal taken not long after sunrise; the Iliad notes this meal with regard to a labor-weary woodsman eager for a light repast to start his day, preparing it as he is aching with exhaustion. The opening prose of the 16th book of The Odyssey mentions breakfast as the meal being prepared in the morning before attending to one’s chores. Ariston was moved to around noon, a new morning meal was introduced. In the post-Homeric classical period of Greece, a meal called akratisma was consumed after rising in the morning.
Akratisma or consisted of barley bread dipped in wine, sometimes complemented by olives. They made pancakes called τηγανίτης, ταγηνίτης or ταγηνίας, all words deriving from τάγηνον, "frying pan"; the earliest attested references on tagenias are in the works of the 5th-century BC poets Cratinus and Magnes. Another kind of pancake was σταιτίτης, from σταίτινος, "of flour or dough of spelt", derived from σταῖς, "flour of spelt". Athenaeus in his Deipnosophistae mentions staititas topped with honey and cheese. Romans called breakfast jentaculum, it was composed of everyday staples like bread, olives, nuts and cold meat left over from the night before. They drank wine-based drinks such as mulsum, a mixture of wine and aromatic spices. First-century Latin poet Martial said that jentaculum was eaten at 3:00 or 4:00 in the morning, while 16th-century scholar Claudius Saumaise wrote that it was eaten at 9:00 or 10:00 a.m. It seems unlikely that any fixed time was assigned for this meal. Roman soldiers woke up to a breakfast of pulmentus, porridge similar to the Italian polenta, made from roasted spelt wheat or barley, pounded and cooked in a cauldron of water.
In the European Middle Ages, breakfast was not considered a necessary and important meal, was nonexistent during the earlier medieval period. Monarchs and their entourages would spend lots of time around a table for meals. Only two formal meals were eaten per one in the evening; the exact times varied by period and region, but this two-meal system remained consistent throughout the Middle Ages. The literal definition of breakfast is ‘breaking the fast’ of nighttime slumber, many written accounts in the medieval period seem to reprimand eating in the morning. Breakfast was under Catholic theological criticism; the influential 13th-century Dominican priest Thomas Aquinas wrote in his Summa Theologica that breakfast committed "praepropere," or the sin of eating too soon, associated with gluttony. Overindulgences and gluttony were frowned upon and were considered boorish by the Catholic Church, as they presumed that if one ate breakfast, it was because one had other lusty appetites as well, such as ale or wine.
Breakfast in some times and places was granted to children, the elderly, the sick, to working men. Anyone else did not partake in eating in the morning. Eating breakfast meant that one was poor, was a low-status farmer or laborer who needed the energy to sustain his morning’s labor, or was too weak to make it to the large, midday dinner; because medieval people saw gluttony as a sin and a sign of weakness, men were ashamed of eating breakfast. Noble travelers were an exception, as they were permitted to eat breakfast while they were away from home. For instance, in March 1255 about 1512 gallons of wine were delivered to the English King Henry III at the abbey church at St. Albans for his breakfast throughout his trip. If a king were on religious pilgrimage, the ban on breakfast was lifted and enough supplies were compensated for the erratic quality of meals at the local cook shops during the trip. In the 13th century, breakfast when eaten sometimes consisted of a piece of rye bread and a bit of cheese.
Morning meals would not include any meat, would include ¼ gallon of low alcohol-content beers. Un