Lucerne is a city in central Switzerland, in the German-speaking portion of the country. Lucerne is the capital of the canton of Lucerne and part of the district of the same name. With a population of about 81,057 people, Lucerne is the most populous town in Central Switzerland, and a nexus of economics, transportation and media of this region. The citys urban area consists of 17 municipalities and towns located in three different cantons with a population of about 250,000 people. Owing to its location on the shores of Lake Lucerne and its outflow, one of the citys famous landmarks is the Chapel Bridge, a wooden bridge first erected in the 14th century. The official language of Lucerne is German, but the spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. After the fall of the Roman Empire beginning in the 6th century, in 1178 Lucerne acquired its independence from the jurisdiction of Murbach Abbey, and the founding of the city proper probably occurred that same year.
The city gained importance as a strategically located gateway for the commerce from the Gotthard trade route. By 1290 Lucerne had become a self-sufficient city of size with about 3000 inhabitants. About this time King Rudolph I von Habsburg gained authority over the Monastery of St. Leodegar and its lands, the populace was not content with the increasing Habsburg influence, and Lucerne allied with neighboring towns to seek independence from their rule. Along with Lucerne, the three other forest cantons of Uri and Unterwalden formed the eternal Swiss Confederacy, known as the Eidgenossenschaft, the cities of Zürich and Bern joined the alliance. With the help of these additions, the rule of Austria over the area came to an end, the issue was settled by Lucerne’s victory over the Habsburgs in the Battle of Sempach in 1386. For Lucerne this victory ignited an era of expansion, the city shortly granted many rights to itself, rights which had been withheld by the Habsburgs until then. By this time the borders of Lucerne were approximately those of today, in 1415 Lucerne gained Reichsfreiheit from Emperor Sigismund and became a strong member of the Swiss confederacy.
The city developed its infrastructure, raised taxes, and appointed its own local officials, the city’s population of 3000 dropped about 40% due to the Black Plague and several wars around 1350. In 1419 town records show the first witch trial against a male person, among the growing towns of the confederacy, Lucerne was especially popular in attracting new residents. As the confederacy broke up during Reformation after 1520, most cities became Protestant, after the victory of the Catholics over the Protestants in the Battle at Kappel in 1531, the Catholic towns dominated the confederacy. The future, belonged to the Protestant cities like Zürich and Basel, the former prominent position of Lucerne in the confederacy was lost forever
Canton of Schwyz
Schwyz is a canton in central Switzerland between the Alps in the south, Lake Lucerne to the west and Lake Zürich in the north, centered on and named after the town of Schwyz. It is one of the cantons of Switzerland, Switzerlands Standard German name, die Schweiz, is derived from the name of the canton. For the history of the name, see Schwyz, the Swiss Federal Charter is on display in Schwyz. Northeast of the town of Schwyz is the Einsiedeln Abbey, the earliest traces of humans in Schwyz are from the Upper Paleolithic and Early Mesolithic or about 12,500 BC. An excavation of the karst caves in the valley of the Muota river revealed numerous sites, the alpine meadows at Bödmeren, Twärenen and Silberen were stone age hunter-gatherer camps. Ibex and red deer bones along with charcoal indicate that the animals were butchered and cooked in these camps, in 2009 the first stone age tool in the canton, a stone drill, was discovered. During the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age there were a number of pile dwellings, the two settlements at Hurden in Freienbach are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Hurden sites are related to the western Cortaillod culture, sites on the island of Lützelau and the shore zone at Freienbach are eastern Pfyn culture and Corded Ware culture. During the Bronze Age several bridges were built between the promontory of Endingen in Rapperswil, St. Gallen and the settlements at Hurden, over 200,000 posts and seven bridges have been discovered, along with several settlements and ritual sites. On the Schwyz side of the lake, ten different settlements from 4300-2700 BC have been discovered, after 1200 BC there is very little evidence for further Bronze Age settlements in the canton. Only eight Iron Age sites have been discovered in the canton from the 8th to 1st centuries BC, during the Roman era a Roman Vicus was established at Kempraten in Rapperswil around the massive bridge at Seedamm which crossed into Schwyz. A Gallo-Roman temple was built on Ufenau island around AD200 on the site of the present chapel of Sts, a few Roman coin hoards were discovered at Küssnacht and Rickenbach bei Schwyz and Küssnacht may have been the site of a Roman estate.
In 561 Schwyz became part of the Ducatus alamannorum and remained independent under the Alemanni dukes until the second quarter of the 8th century. The Alemanni began to settle into the valleys around 680, but for centuries the Germanic speaking Alemanni, Romansh remained the main language in Einsiedeln until the 10th century. In the 8th and 9th centuries the land was under the Counts of the Zürichgau, the low-laying land along Lake Zürich was relatively easy to reach and was settled throughout the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages, the Muotathal area was used by seasonal herders, Küssnacht was first mentioned in the 9th century, but it is likely that there were earlier settlements. The forests around Einsiedeln were lightly settled, a visit of the Irish monks and Columbanus in 611 is mentioned in the Gallusviten. However, their efforts were unsuccessful in Schwyz
Zug, is an affluent municipality and town in Switzerland. The name Zug originates from fishing vocabulary, in the Middle Ages it referred to the right to pull up fishing nets, the town of Zug is located in the canton of Zug and is the cantons capital. As of 31 December 2015 it had a population of 29,256 inhabitants. The official language of Zug is German, but the spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. The oldest human traces date back to the time of around 14,000 BC, there have been Paleolithic finds on the north bank of Lake Zug, which come from nomadic hunters and gatherers. Archaeologists have been able to prove the existence of over forty lake-shore settlements, on the shores of Lake Zug, the peak in these lake-shore village settlements was in the period between 3800 and 2450 BC. For the same epoch, the first pre-alpine land use has proven in Menzingen. The well-known, historically-researched and interesting lake-shore village, ‘Sumpf’, dated from the late Bronze Age and these rich finds result in a quite differentiated picture of life in former times, attractively represented in the Zug Museum for Prehistory.
In addition, many traces from the Iron Age and the Roman and Celtic-Roman time have been discovered, in around AD600, Alemannic families and tribes immigrated to the area of present-day canton Zug. The name Blickensdorf, and place names with ‘- ikon’ endings, the churches of Baar and Risch date back to the early Middle Ages. The first written document on the area originates from the year 858, in the course of the high medieval town construction, the settlement of Zug received a town wall at some point after 1200. The town founders were probably the counts of Kyburg, the town, first mentioned in AD1240, was called an oppidum in 1242 and a castrum in 1255. In 1273, it was bought by Rudolph of Habsburg from Anna, through this purchase it passed into the control of the Habsburgs and was placed under a Habsburg bailiff. The Aeusser Amt or Outer District consisted of the villages and towns surrounding Zug, which each had their own Landsgemeinden but were ruled by a single Habsburg bailiff. About 1364, the town and the Aeusser Amt were recovered for the league by the men of Schwyz, in 1400 Wenceslaus gave all criminal jurisdiction to the town only.
The Aeusser Amt, in 1404, claimed that the banner, the matter was finally settled in 1412 by arbitration, and the banner was to be kept in the town. Finally in 1415, the right of electing their landammann was given to Zug by the Confederation, the alliance of the four forest cantons of Uri, Schwyz and Lucerne with the city of Zürich in 1351 set much in motion. The town of Zug was seen as having Habsburg ties with the cities of Zürich and Lucerne and it is likely that this was more for political than economic reasons, the Lucerne market was very important for central Switzerland, but strongly dependent on the city of Zürich
Conservation is an ethic of resource use and protection. Its primary focus is upon maintaining the health of the world, its fisheries, habitats. Secondary focus is on conservation, including non-renewable resources such as metals and fossil fuels, and energy conservation. Those who follow the conservation ethic and, those who advocate or work toward conservation goals are termed conservationists, the terms conservation and preservation are frequently conflated outside of the academic and professional literatures. Both terms involve a degree of protection, but how that is protection is carried out is the key difference, Conservation is generally associated with the protection of natural resources, while preservation is associated with the protection of buildings and landscapes. Put simply, conservation seeks the proper use of nature, while preservation seeks protection of nature from use, during the environmental movement of the early 20th century, two opposing factions emerged and preservationists.
More Utilitarian schools of conservation seek a proper valuation of local and global impacts of human activity upon nature in their effect upon human well being, now and to posterity. How such values are assessed and exchanged among people determines the social and this is a view common in the modern environmental movement. These movements have diverged but they have deep and common roots in the conservation movement, in the United States of America, the year 1864 saw the publication of two books which laid the foundation for Romantic and Utilitarian conservation traditions in America. The posthumous publication of Henry David Thoreaus Walden established the grandeur of unspoiled nature as a citadel to nourish the spirit of man, in common usage, the term refers to the activity of systematically protecting natural resources such as forests, including biological diversity. Carl F. Jordan defines the term as, biological conservation as being a philosophy of managing the environment in a manner that does not despoil, exhaust or extinguish.
While this usage is not new, the idea of conservation has been applied to the principles of ecology, anthropology, economy. The term conservation itself may cover the concepts such as diversity, genetic diversity. These are often summarized as the priority to respect diversity, especially by Greens, much recent movement in conservation can be considered a resistance to commercialism and globalization. Slow food is a consequence of rejecting these as moral priorities, distinct trends exist regarding conservation development. Thus countries like Britain, the Netherlands, etc, — a long time before there were national parks and national nature reserves. Protected areas in developing countries, where probably as many as 70–80 percent of the species of the live, still enjoy very little effective management. The Adopt A Ranger Foundation has calculated that worldwide about 140,000 rangers are needed for the areas in developing
The Gotthard railway is the Swiss trans-alpine railway line from northern Switzerland to the canton of Ticino. The line forms a part of an important international railway link between northern and southern Europe, especially on the Rotterdam-Basel-Genoa corridor. The Gotthard Railway Company was the private railway company which financed the construction of, and originally operated. The railway comprises a main line from Immensee to Chiasso, together with branches, from Immensee to Lucerne and Rotkreuz, from Arth-Goldau to Zug, and from Bellinzona to Locarno and Luino. The main line, second highest standard railway in Switzerland, penetrates the Alps by means of the Gotthard Tunnel at 1,151 metres above sea level. The line descends as far as Bellinzona, at 241 metres above sea level, before climbing again to the pass of Monte Ceneri, on the way to Lugano and Chiasso. The extreme differences in altitude necessitate the use of long ramped approaches on each side, construction of the line started in 1872, with some lowland sections opening by 1874.
The full line opened in 1882, following completion of the Gotthard Tunnel, the line was incorporated into the Swiss Federal Railways in 1909, and electrified in 1922. By the early years of the 1870s, northern Switzerland possessed a significant network of railways, with links to the railways of Germany. To the west, a line had reached Brigue, in the upper Rhone valley, in the centre north, lines linked Olten, Lucerne and Zurich. The selected route was an ancient one, that had used by pilgrims. Treaties for the construction of the line were made with the Kingdom of Italy, in 1869, the Gotthard Railway Company was incorporated in Lucerne in 1871. The Italian government eventually contributed £2.25 million, with Switzerland, construction of the Gotthard railway started in 1872, and the first lowland sections from Biasca to Locarno and Lugano to Chiasso were opened by 1874. The whole line was inaugurated with festivities in Lucerne and Chiasso from 21 May to 25 May 1882, scheduled operation started on 1 June.
At the time, the 15, 003-metre-long Gotthard Rail Tunnel was the worlds longest rail tunnel, soon after construction, the line was secured by the army with fortresses and ways to block the tunnel in case of an invasion. At the same time the Aargauische Südbahn completed the section from Rotkreuz to Immensee, the additional feeder lines from Lucerne to Immensee, and from Zug to Arth-Goldau were completed in 1887. The Gotthard Railway Company worked the Gotthard railway until 1909, when it became part of the Swiss Federal Railways and this was seven years after the creation of that state owned railway, and the Gotthard railway was the last major railway to be absorbed. In 1922, the line was electrified by Brown, Boveri & Cie with 15 kV 16 2⁄3 Hz AC supplied by overhead line
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
The Rigi is a mountain massif of the Alps, located in Central Switzerland. The whole massif is almost entirely surrounded by the water of three different water bodies, Lake Lucerne, Lake Zug and Lake Lauerz, the Rigi Kulm and other areas, such as the resort of Rigi Kaltbad, are served by Europes oldest mountain railways, the Rigi Railways. The whole area offers activities such as skiing or sledging in the winter. The name Rigi is from Old High German *rigî, from rîga row, furrow, the name is first recorded in 1350 as Riginun. The name was interpreted as Regina montium queen of mountains by Albrecht von Bonstetten, bonstettens interpretation as Regina was influential in the 17th century, and was still repeated in 18th-century travelogues. Karl Zay criticized this latinization, arguing for mons rigidus instead, in the 19th century, many authors repeated either rigidus or regina as the names supposed origin. The two possibilities were adduced as explanation the names grammatical gender alternating between masculine and feminine, brandstetter finally discredited these interpretations and established the origin in Old High German rîga.
There are multiple transport options available to ascend Mt. Rigi, By rack railway from Arth-Goldau and Vitznau. The Vitznau-Rigi-Bahn started operation on May 21,1871 and was the first mountain railway in Europe, on June 4,1875 the Arth-Rigi-Bahn was finished, allowing access from the other side of the mountain. They were electrified in 1937 and 1907 respectively, with the Arth-Rigi-Bahn becoming the first electrified standard gauge rack-railway in the world, both lines go all the way to the summit, Rigi Kulm. By gondola lift from Weggis to Rigi-Kaltbad, by cable-car from the Kräbel station on the Arth-Rigi-Bahn line to Rigi-Scheidegg. There are numerous public grilling stations located near the hiking trails, Rigi is a perfect destination for people practising winter sports and other winter recreation activities. Mt. Rigi has been featured in works of art. Perhaps the most famous paintings of the Rigi were a series by JMW Turner, including The Blue Rigi, mark Twain visited Rigi during his tour of Central Europe in the late 1870s, and wrote about his travels in chapter 28 of his A Tramp Abroad.
There is a Catskills resort called the Rigi Kulm in Abraham Cahans novel The Rise of David Levinsky, the Rigi, a downhill road in Wellington, New Zealand, is named for the mountain and for many years was used as a main thoroughfare for coach riders. Technically, the Rigi is not a part of the Alps and it is mostly composed of molasse and other conglomerate, as opposed to the Bündner schist and flysch of the Alps. ch Rigi Kulm Pictures Rigi Rigi Webcams
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill KG OM CH TD PC DL FRS RA was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill was an officer in the British Army, a historian. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his overall, in 1963, he was the first of only eight people to be made an honorary citizen of the United States. Churchill was born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough and his father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer, his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. As a young officer, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War. He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns, at the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, during the war, he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign caused his departure from government.
He briefly resumed active service on the Western Front as commander of the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government under Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, at the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister and he led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured. After the Conservative Party suffered a defeat in the 1945 general election. He publicly warned of an Iron Curtain of Soviet influence in Europe, after winning the 1951 election, Churchill again became Prime Minister. His second term was preoccupied by foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, domestically his government laid great emphasis on house-building. Churchill suffered a stroke in 1953 and retired as Prime Minister in 1955. Upon his death aged ninety in 1965, Elizabeth II granted him the honour of a state funeral and his highly complex legacy continues to stimulate intense debate amongst writers and historians.
Born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough, a branch of the noble Spencer family, Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, like his father. His ancestor George Spencer had changed his surname to Spencer-Churchill in 1817 when he became Duke of Marlborough, to highlight his descent from John Churchill, Churchill was born on 30 November 1874, two months prematurely, in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire. From age two to six, he lived in Dublin, where his grandfather had been appointed Viceroy, Churchills brother, John Strange Spencer-Churchill, was born during this time in Ireland
An aerial lift is a means of cable transport in which cabins, gondolas or open chairs are hauled above the ground by means of one or more cables. Aerial lift systems are employed in mountainous territory where roads are relatively difficult to build and use. Aerial lift systems are easy to move, and are and have been used to cross rivers. In more recent times, the cost-effectiveness and flexibility of aerial lifts has seen an increase of gondola lift being integrated into public transport systems. The grip of a tramway is fixed onto the propulsion rope. Aerial trams used for transport include the Roosevelt Island Tramway. A gondola lift is a type of lift, often called a cable car. It consists of a loop of cable that is strung between two stations, sometimes over intermediate supporting towers. The cable is driven by a bullwheel in a terminal, which is connected to an engine or electric motor and they are often considered continuous systems since they feature a haul rope which continuously moves and circulates around two terminal stations.
Depending on the combination of cables used for support and/or haulage and the type of grip, because of the proliferation of such systems in the Alpine regions of Europe, the French language name of Télécabine is used in an English language context. Gondola lifts are used for urban transportation. Examples include the Singapore Cable Car, Ngong Ping Skyrail, Metrocable, Mi Teleférico, gondola lifts should not be confused with aerial tramways as the latter solely operates with fixed grips and simply shuttles back and forth between two end terminals. A ropeway conveyor or material ropeway is essentially a subtype of gondola lift, ropeway conveyors are typically found around large mining concerns, and can be of considerable length. The COMILOG Cableway, which ran from Moanda in Gabon to Mbinda in the Republic of the Congo, was over 75 km in length, the Norsjö aerial tramway in Sweden had a length of 96 kilometers. A funitel is a type of lift, generally used to transport skiers. The name funitel is a portmanteau between the French words funiculaire and telepherique, funitels have not only been used as a means to transport skiers, there is one used to transport finished cars between different areas of a factory.
Recently and more funitels have been added to ski areas, when used to transport skiers, funitels are a fast way to get to a higher altitude. Funitels combine a short time between successive cabins with a high capacity per cabin, funitels are able to tolerate higher wind speeds than classic gondola lifts because they are fastened to two steel cables instead of one
Pro Natura (Switzerland)
Pro Natura, founded in 1909 in Basel as Swiss League for the Protection of Nature, is the oldest environmental organisation in Switzerland. Pro Natura takes care of about 650 nature reserves of various sizes throughout Switzerland, in 1909, representatives of the Swiss Society of Natural Sciences founded the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature to fund and create the Swiss National Park. In 2000, Pro Natura launched a campaign supporting the creation of a second Swiss National Park, in 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It resulted in the creation of the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1948, based on it, the Swiss Federal Council published the Federal Inventory of Landscapes and Natural Monuments in 1977. Since 1995, Pro Natura is a member of the environmental network Friends of the Earth. In 1997, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature adopted the name Pro Natura, Pro Natura calls for action by the federal authorities.
Nature parks in Switzerland Environmental movement in Switzerland Official website Protection of nature in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’