Paris-Sorbonne University was a public research university in Paris, active from 1971 to 2017. It was the main inheritor of the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Paris. In 2018, it was merged with Pierre and Marie Curie University and some smaller entities to forming a new university called Sorbonne University. Paris-Sorbonne University was ranked as France's as well as one of the world's most prominent ones in the humanities. QS World University Rankings ranked it 13th in humanities internationally in 2010, 17th in 2011 and 2012. Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked it as France's highest reputed institution of higher education overall in 2012. Paris-Sorbonne University was one of the inheritors of the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Paris, which ceased to exist following student protests in May 1968; the Faculty of Humanities of was the main focus of the University of Paris, subsequently Paris-Sorbonne University was one of its main successors. It was a member of the Sorbonne University Group.
Paris-Sorbonne University enrolled about 24,000 students in 20 departments specialising in arts and languages, divided in 12 campuses throughout Paris. Seven of the campuses were situated in the historic Latin Quarter, including the historic Sorbonne university building, three in the Marais and Clignancourt respectively. In addition, the university maintained one campus in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Paris-Sorbonne University comprised France's prestigious communication and journalism school, CELSA, located in the Parisian suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine. Paris-Sorbonne University maintained about 400 international agreements; as a successor of the faculty of humanities of the University of Paris, it was a founding member the Sorbonne University group, an alliance with the successor of the faculty of law and economics and of the faculty of science of the University of Paris. This group allowed Paris-Sorbonne University students to study several dual degrees in combinations. Two graduate certificates in law from Panthéon-Assas University were accessible for all the student members of the Sorbonne University group.
Paris-Sorbonne University merged with Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University into the Sorbonne University, effective from 1 January 2018. Mamadou Diouf, Senegalese professor of Western African history at Columbia University Ioan Petru Culianu, Romanian historian Shahrzad Rafati, Iranian-Canadian media entrepreneur Charlotte Casiraghi, fashion journalist Henri Guaino French politician Marie Drucker, French journalist Luc Ferry, French philosopher Soudabeh Fazaeli, Iranian seismologist, researcher and writer Philippe Barbarin, French Catholic Archbishop of Lyon and cardinal Hamad Bin Abdulaziz Al-Kawari Qatari diplomat Christiane Taubira, Minister of Justice of France Jean-Pierre Thiollet, French writer Caterina Magni Italian-French archaeologist Bernard Romain, French painter and sculptor Habib Tawa, Lebanese-French historian Samir Kassir, Lebanese-French professor of history at Saint-Joseph University Shunichi Yamaguchi, Japanese politician William Irigoyen, French journalist Donald Adamson, British historian Sorbonne University, its successor University of Paris, its predecessor Sorbonne Education in France Official website Paris-Sorbonne University Abu Dhabi Campus Site DIES
Dominique de Villepin
Dominique Marie François René Galouzeau de Villepin is a French politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 31 May 2005 to 17 May 2007 under President Jacques Chirac. A career working at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, De Villepin rose through the ranks of the French right as one of Chirac's protégés, he came into the international spotlight as Minister of Foreign Affairs with his opposition to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, one year after his appointment to the office, which culminated with a speech to the United Nations. Before his tenure as Prime Minister, he served as Minister of the Interior. After being replaced by François Fillon as Prime Minister, De Villepin was indicted in connection with the Clearstream affair, but was subsequently cleared of charges of complicity in allowing false accusations to proceed against presidential rival Nicolas Sarkozy regarding bribes paid on a sale of warships to Taiwan. De Villepin has enjoyed a modest return to public favour for his public critique of President Sarkozy's style of "imperial rule."He has written poetry, a book about poetry, several historical and political essays, along with a study of Napoleon.
Villepin is an honorary member of the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation. Villepin was born in Rabat and spent some time in Venezuela, where his family lived for four years, he lived in the U. S. and has said that he “grew up in the United States.” During his teenage years, “the'Beat generation' movement left its mark on me, so did the hippie movement.” He was inspired by other American poets. He graduated from the Lycée Français de New York in 1971, he has three children: Marie and Victoire. Contrary to what his surname suggests, Villepin is not from an aristocratic background but from a middle-class family, his ancestors added the particle "de" to the family name. His great-grandfather was a colonel in the French army, his grandfather was a board member for several companies, his father Xavier de Villepin was a diplomat and a member of the Senate. Villepin speaks French and Spanish; when his mother died, Villepin gave a eulogy “full of the grandest and most sonorous cadences of the French language,” wrote The Independent in 2010.
He “spoke of his mother's passionate belief in the greatness and the destiny of France, implicitly, the greatness and destiny of her son.” One mourner stated that he seemed to speak “of France and of himself as being the same thing.” Villepin studied at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris and went on to the École nationale d'administration, France's selective post-graduate school which trains its top civil servants. Villepin holds degrees in Civil law and French literature from the universities of Panthéon-Assas and Paris X Nanterre. At the end of his studies, he completed his military service as a naval officer on board the Aircraft Carrier Clemenceau. Villepin entered a career in diplomacy, his assignments were: Advising Committee on African affairs The French embassy in Washington, D. C. as premier secrétaire until 1987 and deuxième conseiller The embassy in New Delhi, as deuxième conseiller until 1990 and premier conseiller Foreign Ministry's top adviser on Africa Villepin was introduced to Jacques Chirac in the early 1980s and became one of his advisers on foreign policy.
In 1993 he became chief of staff of Alain Juppé, the Foreign Minister in Édouard Balladur's cabinet, Chirac's political heir apparent. Villepin became director of Chirac's successful 1995 presidential campaign and was rewarded with the key job of Secretary-General of the Élysée Palace during Chirac's first term as President of the Republic, he advised the president to hold an early general election in 1997, while the French National Assembly was overwhelmingly dominated by the president's party. This was a risky gamble, Chirac's party went on to lose the elections. Villepin offered Chirac his resignation afterwards. Villepin's flawed advice on the election increased the perception among many politicians on the right that Villepin had no experience or understanding of grassroots politics, owed his enviable position only to being Chirac's protégé. Villepin has had an uneasy relationship with the members of his own political side, he has in the past made a number of demeaning remarks about members of parliament from his own party.
In addition, the mutual distaste between Villepin and Nicolas Sarkozy, head of the Union for a Popular Movement majority party, is well known. He was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs by Chirac in the cabinet of Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin at the beginning of Chirac's second term in 2002. During the 2004 coup d'état in Haiti, Villepin obtained the backing of the United States Secretary of State, Colin Powell, in his bid to oust Jean-Bertrand Aristide from power. Villepin's most famous assignment as Chirac's foreign minister was opposing the U. S. plan to invade Iraq, giving France a leading role in the grouping of countries such as Germany, Belgium and China that opposed the invasion. The speech he gave to the UN to block a second resolution allowing the use of force against Saddam Hussein's regime received loud applause. During mid-2003 Villepin organized the Opération 14 juillet that attempted to rescue his former student, Ingrid Betancourt, being held by FARC rebels in Colombia.
The operation failed, because he had neither informed Colombia, nor President Chirac of the mission, it resulted in a political scandal. During the cabinet reshuffle that made Nicolas Sarkozy Finance Minister, Villepin was appointed to
François Charles Armand Fillon is a retired French politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 2007 to 2012 under President Nicolas Sarkozy. He was the nominee of the Republicans, the country's largest centre-right political party, for the 2017 presidential election. Fillon became Jean-Pierre Raffarin's Minister of Labour in 2002 and undertook controversial reforms of the 35-hour working week law and of the French retirement system. In 2004, as Minister of National Education he proposed the much debated Fillon law on Education. In 2005, Fillon was elected Senator for the Sarthe department, his role as a political advisor in Nicolas Sarkozy's successful race for President led to his becoming Prime Minister in 2007. Fillon resigned upon Sarkozy's defeat by François Hollande in the 2012 presidential elections. Running on a platform described as conservative, Fillon entered the 2016 Republican presidential primary, he placed first in the first round on 20 November, defeating Alain Juppé in the primary run-off a week later.
Following his victory in the primary, opinion polls showed Fillon as one of the frontrunners for the 2017 presidential election along with Marine Le Pen and Emmanuel Macron. In March 2017, François Fillon became one of the first candidates of the most important French party to "be formally charged in a widening embezzlement investigation" due to allegations "that he had paid his wife and children hundreds of thousands of euros from the public payroll for little or no work" during the presidential race, in a case that became known as "Penelopegate", he decided not to withdraw from the race and continues to declare his innocence, denying that he embezzled any money. On 23 April 2017, he was eliminated at the first round of the presidential election, subsequently acknowledged that he did not have the legitimacy to lead the party through the legislative elections in June. Fillon was born on 4 March 1954 in Le Mans, France, his father, Michel, is a civil law notary, while his mother, Anne Soulet Fillon, is a celebrated historian of Basque descent.
His youngest brother, Dominique, is a jazz musician. Fillon received a baccalauréat in 1972, he studied at the University of Maine in Le Mans where he received a master's degree in public law in 1976. He subsequently received a master of Advanced Studies in public law from Paris Descartes University. Governmental functionsMinister of Higher Education and Research: 1993–1995. Minister of Information Technologies and Posts: May – November 1995. Minister responsible for Posts, Telecommunications and Space: 1995–1997. Minister of Social Affairs and Solidarity: 2002–2004. Minister of National Education, Higher Education and Research: 2004–2005. Prime minister: 2007–2012. February to May 2012: he assumed the functions of the Minister of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Housing, after the resignation of Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet who became spokeswoman of Nicolas Sarkozy's presidential campaign. Electoral mandatesNational Assembly of France President of the Rally-UMP Group in the National Assembly: November 2012 – January 2013.
Member of the National Assembly for Paris: 2012–2017. Member of the National Assembly for Sarthe: 1981–1993. Elected in 1981, reelected in 1986, 1988, 1993, 1997, 2002, 2007. Senate of France Senator of the Sarthe: 2005–2007. Elected in 2004, remained as Minister. Reelected in 2005. Regional Council President of the Regional Council of Pays-de-la-Loire: 1998–2002. Vice-president of the Regional Council of Pays-de-la-Loire: 2002–2004. Regional councillor of Pays-de-la-Loire: 1998–2007. Reelected in 2004. Elected in Sarthe constituency. General Council President of the General Council of Sarthe: 1992–1998. Reelected in 1994. Vice President of the General Council of Sarthe: 1985–1992. General councillor of the Sarthe, elected in the canton of Sablé-sur-Sarthe: 1981–1998. Reelected in 1985, 1992. Municipal Council Mayor of Sablé-sur-Sarthe: 1983–2001. Reelected in 1989, 1995. Municipal councillor of Sablé-sur-Sarthe: 1983–2001. Reelected in 1989, 1995. Municipal councillor of Solesmes: 2001–2014. Reelected in 2008.
Community of communes Council President of the Communauté de communes of Sablé-sur-Sarthe: 2001–2012. Reelected in 2008. Member of the Communauté de communes of Sablé-sur-Sarthe: 2001–2014. Reelected in 2008; the day after Nicolas Sarkozy became President he appointed Fillon as Prime Minister of France, charging him with the task of forming a new cabinet, announced on 18 May 2007. By appointing as Secretary of State André Santini, indicted in the Fondation Hamon affair on charges of corruption, Fillon made the first break since 1992 with the so-called "Balladur jurisprudence", according to which an indicted governmental personality should resign until the case is closed. On 13 November 2010, Fillon resigned. One day Sarkozy reappointed Fillon as Prime Minister, allowing Fillon to formally name a new cabinet. Following the defeat of Nicolas Sarkozy to François Hollande in the 2012 presidential election, Fillon resigned on 10 May. Following the inauguration of Hollande as President on 15 May 2012, Jean-Marc Ayrault, Mayor of Nantes, was appointed to succeed Fillon as Prime Minister.
Aiming at building consensus within the diverging views at the UMP after Francois Hollande's victory in the French presidential
Jean-Louis Debré is a French politician who served as President of the National Assembly from 2002 to 2007 and President of the Constitutional Council from 2007 to 2016. The son of former Prime Minister Michel Debré, he was Minister of the Interior from 1995 until 1997 during the presidency of Jacques Chirac. Since 2016 he has been President of the Superior Council of Archives. Debré was born in Toulouse; the son of former Prime Minister Michel Debré, grandson of medicine professor Robert Debré, brother of politician Bernard Debré, he was member of the Neo-Gaullist party Rally for the Republic of the Union for a Popular Movement. Jean-Louis Debré, outside politics, is a career judge. Debré was first elected to the National Assembly in the 1986 parliamentary election, he was Minister of the Interior in Alain Juppé's governments, has been criticized for having allowed the armed Corsican clandestine press conference, was responsible for the controversial evacuation of Saint-Bernard church in Paris, occupied by illegal immigrants on hunger strikes.
He was elected as Mayor of Évreux in 2001, serving in that post until 2007. He was leader of the RPR group in the National Assembly from 1997 to 2002 and President of the National Assembly from 2002 to 2007. Faithful to President Chirac, he criticized UMP leader Nicolas Sarkozy, he resigned as President of the National Assembly three months before the end of his tenure after he was appointed as President of the Constitutional Council by Chirac on 22 February 2007. He replaced Pierre Mazeaud in the latter position, was replaced by Laurent Fabius in 2016. President of the Constitutional Council of France: 2007-2016. Governmental function Minister of Interior: 1995–1997. Electoral mandates National Assembly of France President of the National Assembly of France: 2002–2007. President of the Rally for the Republic Group in the National Assembly: 1997–2002. Elected in 1997. Member of the National Assembly of France for Eure's 1st constituency: 1986–1995 / 1997–2007. Elected in 1986, reelected in 1988, 1993, 1997, 2002.
General Council Vice-president of the General Council of Eure: 1998–2001. General councillor of Eure: 1992–2001. Reelected in 1998. Municipal Council Mayor of Evreux: 2001–2007. Municipal councillor of Evreux: 1989–1995 / 2001–2007. Deputy-mayor of Paris: 1995–1997. Councillor of Paris: 1995–1997. Agglomeration community Council President of the Agglomeration community of Évreux: 2001–2007.. Member of the Agglomeration community of Évreux: 2001–2007.. Political functions Spokesman of the Rally for the Republic: 1993–1995. Le Pouvoir Politique Le Gaullisme La Justice au XIXe Siècle, les Magistrats Les Républiques des Avocats Le Curieux En mon for intérieur Pièges Le Gaullisme n'est pas une Nostalgie Quand les Brochets font Courir les Carpes Les oubliés de la République Debré family
National Assembly (France)
The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate. The National Assembly's members are known as députés. There are 577 députés, each elected by a single-member constituency through a two-round voting system. Thus, 289 seats are required for a majority; the assembly is presided over by a president from the largest party represented, assisted by vice-presidents from across the represented political spectrum. The term of the National Assembly is five years; this measure is becoming rarer since the 2000 referendum reduced the presidential term from seven to five years: a President has a majority elected in the Assembly two months after the presidential election, it would be useless for him/her to dissolve it for those reasons. Following a tradition started by the first National Assembly during the French Revolution, the "left-wing" parties sit to the left as seen from the president's seat, the "right-wing" parties sit to the right, the seating arrangement thus directly indicates the political spectrum as represented in the Assembly.
The official seat of the National Assembly is the Palais Bourbon on the banks of the river Seine. It is guarded by Republican Guards; the Constitution of the French Fifth Republic increased the power of the executive at the expense of Parliament, compared to previous constitutions. The President of the Republic can decide to dissolve the National Assembly and call for new legislative elections; this is meant as a way to resolve stalemates where the Assembly cannot decide on a clear political direction. This possibility is exercised; the last dissolution was by Jacques Chirac in 1997, following from the lack of popularity of prime minister Alain Juppé. The National Assembly can overthrow the executive government by a motion of no confidence. For this reason, the prime minister and his cabinet are from the dominant party or coalition in the assembly. In the case of a president and assembly from opposing parties, this leads to the situation known as cohabitation. While motions de censure are periodically proposed by the opposition following government actions that it deems inappropriate, they are purely rhetorical.
Since the beginning of the Fifth Republic, there has only been one single successful motion de censure, in 1962 in hostility to the referendum on the method of election of the President, President Charles de Gaulle dissolved the Assembly within a few days. The government used to set the priorities of the agenda for the assembly's sessions, except for a single day each month. In practice, given the number of priority items, it meant that the schedule of the assembly was entirely set by the executive. This, was amended on 23 July 2008. Under the amended constitution, the government sets the priorities for two weeks in a month. Another week is designated for the assembly's "control" prerogatives, and the fourth one is set by the assembly. One day per month is set by a "minority" or "opposition" group. Members of the assembly can ask oral questions to ministers; the Wednesday afternoon 3 p.m. session of "questions to the Government" is broadcast live on television. Like Prime Minister's Questions in Britain, it is a show for the viewers, with members of the majority asking flattering questions, while the opposition tries to embarrass the government.
The history of national representation for two centuries is linked to history of the democratic principle and the uneven road that it had to go before finding in the French institutions the consecration, its own today. Although the French have periodically elected representatives since 1789, the mode of appointment and the powers of these representatives have varied according to the times, the periods of erasure of the parliamentary institution coinciding with a decline in public liberties. In this respect, the names are not innocent; the name of National Assembly, chosen in the fervor of 1789, just reappears - if we except the short parenthesis of 1848 - in 1946. In the meantime, more or less reductive appellations "Instituted by the Constitution of the year III in August 1795," Chamber of deputies of the departments "," House of Representatives "," Legislative body "," Chambers of deputies ", etc.) which show, to varying degrees, the reluctance or the declared hostility of some governments or governments to the principle
The Republicans (France)
The Republicans is a centre-right, conservative political party in France. The party was formed on 30 May 2015 by renaming the Union for a Popular Movement party, founded in 2002 under the leadership of former President of France Jacques Chirac; the party used to be one of the two major political parties in the French Fifth Republic along with the centre-left Socialist Party, following the 2017 legislative election, it remains the second largest party in the National Assembly. LR is a member of the European People's Party, the Centrist Democrat International, the International Democrat Union. After the election in November 2014 of Nicolas Sarkozy, the President of France from 2007 to 2012, as president of the Union for a Popular Movement, Sarkozy put forward a request to the party's general committee to change its name to "The Republicans" and alter the statutes of the party. With the name chosen, vice-president of the UMP Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet presented Sarkozy and the party's political bureau the proposed new statutes.
The proposed statutes provided for, among other provisions, the election of the presidents of the departmental federations by direct democracy, the end of the political currents and consulting members on election nominations. Critics of Sarkozy claimed it was "illegal" for him to name the party "Republicans" because every French person is a republican if they support the values and ideals of the French Republic that emanated from the French Revolution, as such the term is above party politics; the new name was adopted by the party bureau on 5 May 2015 and approved by the party membership on 28 May by an online "yes" vote of 83.3% on a 45.7% turnout after a court ruling in favour of Sarkozy. The new party statutes were adopted by 96.3% of voters and the composition of the new political bureau by 94.8%. The change to the name "The Republicans" was confirmed at the party's founding congress on 30 May 2015 at the Paris Event Centre in Paris, attended by 10,000 activists. Angela Merkel, chairwoman of the centre-right CDU, sent a congratulatory message to the congress.
The Republicans thus became the legal successor of the UMP and the leading centre-right party in France. The organisation has been declared in the préfecture de Saône-et-Loire on 9 April 2015. According to the statement of this declaration, its aim is to "promote ideas of the right and centre, open to every people who wish to be member and debate in the spirit of a political party with republican ideas in France or outside France"; this party foundation was published in the Journal officiel de la République française on 25 April 2015. On 3 July 2016, Nicolas Sarkozy announced that he would resign as leader that year in order to compete to be the right-wing candidate in the 2017 presidential election. After winning the party's presidential primary, François Fillon suffered a historic defeat in the first round of the presidential election, with the candidate of the right failing to continue to the second round for the first time in the history of the Fifth Republic amid "Penelopegate". In the second round of the legislative elections in June, The Republicans and its allies suffered further losses, losing nearly a hundred deputies, which represented its worst performance.
After Emmanuel Macron was elected as president, he appointed three right-wing politicians in his government – Édouard Philippe as Prime Minister, Bruno Le Maire as French Ministry for the Economy and Finance, Gérald Darmanin as Minister of Public Action and Accounts. As a consequence, a parliamentary group including LR dissidents supportive of the government line, "The Constructives", was formed in the National Assembly, separate from the existing group. On 11 July, the political bureau of The Republicans agreed to hold a leadership election for president of the party on 10 and 17 December. Politics of France List of political parties in France The Republicans group The Republicans group Official web site of Les Républicains
Jean-Pierre Jouyet is the ambassador of France to the United Kingdom. Jean-Pierre Jouyet, was born on 13 February 1954 at Montreuil-sous-Bois in the suburbs of Paris, his last political position is secrétaire général Cabinet du président de la République française of French President Hollande. Before that he was president of the Banque publique d'investissement and general director of the Caisse des dépôts et consignations from 2012 to 2014, Chairman of the French securities regulator, the Autorité des Marchés Financiers, since 15 November 2008. Having graduated from Sciences Po, he went on to study at France's most famous post graduate school, the École nationale d'administration in the class of 1980 known as the "Promotion Voltaire". After which, in accordance with the strict system of selection reserved for honours graduates of ENA in the French Administration he was to be eligible for and become a member of the elite group of Inspecteurs des finances, before taking a succession of senior posts such as Principal at the Service de la legislation fiscale, Principal Private Secretary of the Minister of Industry, Foreign Trade and Town and Country Planning until 1991 when he was called to serve (initially as Deputy and Head of Cabinet of the President of the European Commission, Jacques Delors, President of the European Commission until 1995.
From 1995 until 1997, Jean-Pierre Jouyet was a partner in Jeantet & Co, a French business law firm, which he left at the request of the Prime Minister Lionel Jospin to become his Deputy Principal Private Secretary until 2000, during which he contributed to France's entry into the Euro Zone. He was to become Head of the French Trésor Directorate from 2000 until 2004, when Nicolas Sarkozy, appointed Minister of Finance, requested him to become France's Ambassador for international economic affairs. During his tenure as Head of the French Trésor Directorate, he was to be the President of the Club de Paris. Non executive chairman of Barclays Bank France in 2005, he was designated Head of the Service de l'Inspection générale des finances within the Ministry of Finance until 2007, before subsequently being appointed Minister of State responsible for European Affairs in François Fillon's government, his mission was to make the necessary preparations for France's Presidency of the Council of the European Union in the second half of 2008.
At the conclusion of this assignment, Jean-Pierre Jouyet was nominated by President Sarkozy on 14 November 2008 to become Chairman of the French securities regulator, the AMF, to replace Michel Prada, at the end of his non-renewable 5 year mandate, on 15 December 2008. Honorary President of the Club Témoin since 1999, President of the Club Démocratie in 2000, he was to be one of the initiators and signatories of the petition, to become known as "l'appel des Gracques" seeking an alliance between France's most important left wing party the Parti Socialiste and an important right wing party the UDF during the 2007 Presidential campaign. Director of Studies at IEP from 1981 to 1988, he was to be a Lecturer in 1996 and 1997, before becoming Associate Lecturer in 2006. JP Jouyet has been a member of the Board of the National Foundation of Political Sciences since 2006, he was master of Lectures at ENA in 1982, 2006 and 2007. He chairs a commission, reviewing the system under which graduates are attributed posts within the French administration at the conclusion of their studies at the ENA.
Chairman of the Supervisory Board of the Aspen Institute since 18 May 2010, Jean-Pierre Jouyet is a member of The Scientific Committee of the Bosphore Institute and one of the Patrons of the Collège des Bernardins. Married to Brigitte Taittinger one of the grand daughters of Pierre Taittinger who founded the celebrated firm of champagne which bears his name. Brigitte Taittinger is herself the CEO of Annick Goutal Perfumes, he is the joint author with Philippe Mabille of Don't Bury France published in February 2007, before jointly penning with Sophie Coignard Une présidence de crises published in February 2009. He is the author of Nous les avons tant aimés, published in February 2010