East Barnet is an area of north London within the London Borough of Barnet bordered by New Barnet and Southgate. It is a residential suburb whose central area contains shops, public houses and services, the parish church of St Mary the Virgin. East Barnet is close to the M25 and the A1 and M1. From 1894 until 1965 East Barnet formed part of the East Barnet Urban District of Hertfordshire. In 1965, it was transferred from Hertfordshire to Greater London. Barnet local elections are held every four years to elect councillors. East Barnet is covered by two wards: East Barnet Ward - East of the railway line and north of Parkside Gardens / Stuart Road. Brunswick Park Ward - East of the railway line and south of Parkside Gardens / Stuart Road. Note: St Mary the Virgin – the Parish Church of East Barnet – is in Brunswick Park Ward. Buses125 - Winchmore Hill to Finchley Central 184 - Barnet to Turnpike Lane bus/tube station 307 - Barnet to Brimsdown railway station 326 - Barnet to Brent Cross Shopping Centre 382 - Southgate tube station to Mill Hill East tube station 383 - Barnet to Woodside Park tube station - Monday to Saturday except late evenings 384 - Barnet to Cockfosters tube stationRailway stations nearby Oakleigh Park New BarnetTube stations nearby Arnos Grove - Piccadilly line Cockfosters - Piccadilly line Oakwood - Piccadilly line High Barnet - Northern line Totteridge & Whetstone - Northern line Primary schoolsDanegrove School St. Mary's School Church Hill School Monkfrith SchoolSecondary schoolsEast Barnet School Bodens Performing Arts School, aka Bodens, is located in East Barnet.
It was founded in 1973 in Enfield, has since moved to its current site. It is a performing arts school offering Arts education to children and teenagers from the ages of 3 to 18; the Studios are located on East Barnet Road, along with the'Tony Boden Theatre', on premises. Costa Coffee East Barnet Residents' Association East Barnet Parish Church
Chipping Barnet or High Barnet is a market town in the London Borough of Barnet, England. In Hertfordshire, it is a suburban development built around a 12th-century settlement, is located 10 1⁄2 miles north north-west of Charing Cross, east from Borehamwood, west from Enfield and south from Potters Bar, its name is often abbreviated to just Barnet, the name of the borough of which it forms a part. Chipping Barnet is the name of the Parliamentary constituency covering the local area – the word "Chipping" denotes the presence of a market, one, established here at the end of the 12th century and persists to this day. Chipping Barnet is one of the highest-lying urban settlements in London, with the town centre having an elevation of about 427 feet; the town's name derives from an ancient settlement, recorded as Barneto c. 1070, Barnet 1197, La Barnette 1248, that is'the land cleared by burning', from Old English bærnet, referring to the clearing of this once densely forested area in early times.
This was the site of the Battle of Barnet in 1471, where Yorkist troops led by King Edward IV killed the rebellious "Kingmaker" Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and Warwick's brother, John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu. This was one of the most important battles of the Wars of the Roses. Barnet Hill is said to be the hill mentioned in the nursery rhyme "The Grand Old Duke of York", it is the site of an ancient and well-known horse fair, whence comes the rhyming slang of Barnet Fair or barnet for'hair'. The fair dates back to 1588 when Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter to the Lord of the Manor of Barnet to hold a twice yearly fair; the famous Barnet Market is now nearly 820 years old. On 23 August 1199 King John issued a charter for a market at Barnet to the Lord of the Manor, the Abbot of St. Albans, John de Cella. Chipping Barnet was a civil parish of Hertfordshire and formed part of the Barnet Urban District from 1894; the parish was abolished in 1965 and the Chipping Barnet section of its former area was transferred from Hertfordshire to Greater London and the newly created London Borough of Barnet.
In 1801 the parish covered an area of 1,440 acres. By 1901 the parish was reduced to 380 acres and had a population of 2,893. In 1951 the population was 7,062. In Saxon times the site was part of an extensive wood called Southaw, belonging to the Abbey of St Albans; the name of the town appears in early deeds as'Bergnet' – the Saxon word'Bergnet' meant a little hill. Barnet's elevated position is indicated in one of its alternative names, which appears in many old books and maps, which the railway company restored; the area was a common resting point on the traditional Great North Road between the City of London and York and Edinburgh. Barnet belonged to the County of Hertfordshire until 1965, when under the London Government Act 1963, East Barnet Urban District and Barnet Urban District were abolished and their area was transferred to Greater London to form part of the present-day London Borough of Barnet. At the beginning of the 21st century, a tongue-in-cheek movement calling for the name Barnet to be changed to "Barnét" began to gain the attention of the public and the national media, with many public road signs in the area being altered to contain the accented character.
Barnet Council has been treating any such alterations to public road signs as vandalism. St John the Baptist Church, is a landmark for miles around and stands in what was the centre of the town, was erected by John de la Moote, abbot of St Albans, about 1400, the architect being Beauchamp. Playing on its antiquity, it continues to call itself "Barnet Church", although this is not an official title, it is in fact the parish church of Chipping Barnet only, whilst Christ Church is the parish church of High Barnet, St Mark's is the parish church of Barnet Vale, St James's is the parish church of New Barnet, St Mary the Virgin is the parish church of East Barnet. The parish church of St Mary the Virgin, Monken Hadley has parish boundaries that include a significant part of High Barnet, including much of Barnet High Street; the living of Barnet is a curacy, held with the rectory of East Barnet till the death of the last incumbent in 1866, when the livings were separated. The parish of Chipping Barnet, served by St John's Church, was provided with a chapel-of-ease in Victorian times.
Chipping Barnet is designated as a Neighbourhood Centre in the London Plan. The tower of Barnet parish church – St John the Baptist – at the top of Barnet Hill claims to be the highest point between itself and the Ural Mountains 2,000 miles to the east. However, the same has been said of numerous other points. Since the opening of the railway, development has increased especially in the west of the area near Arkley. For a London town, Barnet lies high; the High Street lies 427 feet above sea level and the surrounding southern land no less than 295 feet. Chipping Barnet town centre is covered by the High Barnet ward. According to the 2011 census, the population was 82% white. Indians made up 4% of the population, all black groups made up 3%; the whole town is defined as the Chipping Barnet parliamentary constituency, which takes up the eastern third of the wider borough. This data does not represent the town as a whole due to the fact. Barnet Hill is a major hill on the historic Great North Road
Standard Telephones and Cables
Standard Telephones and Cables Ltd was a British telephone, radio, telecommunications, related equipment R&D manufacturer. During its history, STC invented and developed several groundbreaking new technologies including pulse code modulation and optical fibres; the company was founded in 1883 in London as International Western Electric by Western Electric, shortly after becoming the telephone equipment supplier for the Bell System in the United States. In 1925, Western Electric divested itself of all foreign operations and general electric supply units, other than telephony, sold International Western Electric to International Telephone and Telegraph. In mid-1982 it was listed on the London Stock Exchange. At one time it was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it was bought by Nortel in 1991. The company was established in 1883 as an agent for the US Western Electric company that had a factory in Antwerp, Belgium; the London operation sold US-designed telephones and exchanges to fledgling British telephone companies.
Because of the costs of importing product, the company purchased a failing electrical cable factory at North Woolwich in London in 1898. In addition to making lead-sheathed cables, the factory started assembling equipment from components imported from Belgium and the US, introduced manufacturing subsequently. Using advanced American thinking and designs, the company incorporated as a British legal entity in 1910. World War I brought this progress to a sudden halt; the company contributed to the war effort in military communications and the cable and wireless technologies they used. Radio technology was being initiated in the USA; this gave Western Electric a post-war advantage. With its competitors, it set up the British Broadcasting Company as well as producing radio receivers. Electron tube technology was commercially exploited. In 1925, Western Electric sold off its international operations, as well as the general electrical equipment merchandizing operations; the buyer of the international operations was the infant ITT Corporation, founded by Sosthenes Behn less than ten years with an aggressive and thrusting reputation.
To fit with its other worldwide operations, ITT renamed its new UK operation Standard Telephones and Cables, implying to set a standard against which others would be measured. The new organization employed entrepreneurial risk taking, based on solid research and brave innovation. Alec Reeves and Alan Blumlein could both be defined as perfect employees. In 1933, Brimar was established to manufacture American-pattern electron tubes at Foots Cray, adjacent to the Kolster-Brandes factory. Within a few years, multi-channel transmission, microwave transmission, coaxial cabling, the entire radio systems for the liners Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, the patenting of pulse code modulation all contributed to the hey-day of telephony’s development. Between 1939 and 1945 significant military work was undertaken with many developments with regard to aerial warfare: communications, navigational aids, OBOE The 1950s were characterised by the establishment of television broadcasting. Technical milestones were numerous and were crowned by the coverage of Queen Elizabeth II's Coronation in 1953.
The steady spread of TV transmission and availability over Britain often used STC technology and equipment. In other areas, ship-to-ship, ship-to-shore and civil aviation communications took on modern characteristics with STC's products. In time and intercontinental submarine telephone contact became possible and everyday. Questions of product and installation quality and absolute reliability were overcome and STC became a major player with its production unit in Southampton opened in 1956. Coverage graduated from rivers, the English Channel, the North Sea, the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans. STC became the world leader in this field after acquiring Submarine Cables Ltd in 1970. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, STC supplied signalbox train describer equipment to British Railways. Digital technology began to supplant analogue with Bell's invention of transistors. STC's first PCM link in 1964 had waited nearly 30 years for material technology to make it work. In 1966, Charles Kao of STC's Standard Telecommunication Laboratories in Harlow demonstrated that light rather than electricity could be used to transmit speech and data at high speeds.
Again material technology took time to catch up but by 1977 a commercial fibre optic link had been installed in England. Within ten years BT abandoned metal cables except at the subscriber’s premises. Before STC’s demise, its plant at Newport came to dominate the recabling of the UK public telephone system. In terms of switching apparatus STC was a major player. In 1971 STC, installed a digital controlled telephone exchange at Moorgate in the City of London, it was a “tandem exchange” switching PCM multiplexes between several other exchanges. Until 1980 TXE4 analogue electronic switch was an early replacement for electro-mechanical systems. Before a politically engineered withdrawal in 1982, STC and its partners, Plessey and GEC, developed the digital System X switch, still in service in many UK facilities in 2005. With developments in computer technology influencing and stimulating telecoms, the buzzword of
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Camberwell is a district of South London, within the London Borough of Southwark. It is located 2.7 miles southeast of Charing Cross. The name Camberwell was first applied to the Parish of St Giles, which included the village of Camberwell, the hamlets of Peckham, Dulwich and part of Herne Hill; until 1889, it was part of the county of Surrey. In 1900 the original parish became the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell. In 1965, most of the Borough of Camberwell was merged into the London Borough of Southwark. To the west, part of both West Dulwich and Herne Hill come under the London Borough of Lambeth. Nowadays the district known as Camberwell covers a much smaller area than the ancient parish, is distinguished from Peckham and Herne Hill. Camberwell appears in the Domesday Book as Cambrewelle; the name may derive from the Old English Cumberwell or Comberwell, meaning'Well of the Britons', referring to remaining Celtic inhabitants of an area dominated by Anglo-Saxons. An alternative theory suggests the name may mean'Cripple Well', that the settlement developed as a hamlet where people from the City of London were expelled when they had a contagious disease like leprosy, for treatment by the church and the clean, healing waters from the wells.
Springs and wells are known to have existed on the southern slope of Denmark Hill around Grove Park. It was a substantial settlement with a church when mentioned in the Domesday Book, was the parish church for a large area including Dulwich and Peckham, it was held by Haimo the Sheriff. Its Domesday assets were: 1 virgate, it rendered £14. Up to the mid-19th century, Camberwell was visited by Londoners for its rural tranquillity and the reputed healing properties of its mineral springs. Like much of inner South London, Camberwell was transformed by the arrival of the railways in the 1860s. Camberwell Green is now a small area of common land. Camberwell St Giles formed an ancient, civil, parish in the Brixton hundred of Surrey; the parish covered 4,570 acres in 1831 and was divided into the liberty of Peckham to the east and the hamlet of Dulwich to the southwest, as well as Camberwell proper. The parish tapered in the south to form a point in. In 1801, the population was 7,059 and by 1851 this had risen to 54,667.
In 1829, it was included in the Metropolitan Police District and in 1855 it was included in the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works, with Camberwell Vestry nominating one member to the board. In 1889 the board was replaced by the London County Council and Camberwell was removed from Surrey, to form part of the County of London. In 1900, the area of the Camberwell parish became the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell. In 1965, the metropolitan borough was abolished and its former area became the southern part of the London Borough of Southwark in Greater London; the western part of the area is situated in the adjacent London Borough of Lambeth. The area has been home to many factories, including R. White's Lemonade, which originated in Camberwell, as well as Dualit toasters. Neither of these companies is now based in the area. Wilson's School was founded in 1615 in Camberwell by Royal Charter by Edward Wilson, vicar of the Parish of Camberwell; the charter was granted by James I.
The school moved to its current site in Croydon in 1975. A school for girls, Mary Datchelor Girl's School, was established in Camberwell in 1877, it was built on two houses at 15 and 17 Grove Lane, the location of a former manor house. All except one of its 30 pupils came from the parish of St Andrew Undershaft in the City of London; the funding for the school came from a bequest from Mary Datchelor. Proceeds of a property in Threadneedle Street used as a coffee-house were used to pay for apprenticeships for the poor boys of the parish, but as demographics in the City changed, it was decided to set up a school. By the 1970s, the school was receiving funding from the Clothworkers’ Company and the Inner London Education Authority funded teaching posts; the school came under pressure from ILEA to become comprehensive. Faced with this choice or becoming private, the school's governors instead decided to close in 1981; the school buildings were used as offices for the charity Save the Children but have now been converted to flats.
Camberwell Collegiate School was an independent school located on the eastern side of Camberwell Grove, directly opposite the Grove Chapel. The Collegiate College had some success for a while, led to the closure for some decades of the Denmark Hill Grammar School; however it had difficulty competing with other nearby schools including Dulwich College, was closed in 1867. The land was sold for building. Camberwell today is a mixture of well preserved Georgian and 20th-century housing, including a number of tower blocks. Camberwell Grove, Grove Lane and Addington Square have some of London's most elegant and well-preserved Georgian houses; the Salvation Army's William Booth Memorial Training College, designed by Giles Gilbert Scott, was completed in 1932: it towers over South London from Denmark Hill. It has a similar monumental impressiveness to Gilbert Scott's other local buildings, Battersea Power Station and the Tate Modern, although its simplicity is the result of repeated budget cuts during its construction: much more detail, including carved Gothic stonework surroundin
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Oakleigh Park is a loosely defined area in the north of the London Borough of Barnet. It adjoins Whetstone, is regarded either as part of that or of East Barnet; however it has its own railway station. The principal road is Oakleigh Road North. Turnings off this road include Oakleigh Avenue and Oakleigh Park South. There is a small shopping parade on Netherlands Road just to the north of the railway station; the name is a modern invention, the station being called that when it opened in 1873. British Army chaplain Noel Mellish, recipient of the Victoria Cross for his actions in rescuing wounded men during the First World War, was born at Trenabie House, in Oakleigh Park North, in 1880; the house no longer exists but in March 2016 a plaque was installed nearby in a ceremony attended by Mellish's daughter Claire. Transport for London bus route 383 stops directly outside Oakleigh Park railway station, as well as operating a Hail and Ride service along Netherlands Road and Oakleigh Park North/Athenaeum Road.
Buses run towards Barnet or towards Woodside Park tube station, every 30 minutes Mondays to Saturdays except late evenings. There is no service on this route on Sundays or public holidays. Oakleigh Park railway station - Great Northern Nearby: Totteridge and Whetstone tube station - Northern line All Saints Sacred Heart Media related to Oakleigh Park at Wikimedia Commons