Second Vatican Council
The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican known as the Second Vatican Council or Vatican II, addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. The council, through the Holy See, was formally opened under the pontificate of Pope John XXIII on 11 October 1962 and was closed under Pope Paul VI on the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception on 8 December 1965. Several changes resulted from the council, including the renewal of consecrated life with a revised charism, ecumenical efforts towards dialogue with other religions, the universal call to holiness, which according to Pope Paul VI was "the most characteristic and ultimate purpose of the teachings of the Council". According to Pope Benedict XVI, the most important and essential message of the council is "the Paschal Mystery as the center of what it is to be Christian and therefore of the Christian life, the Christian year, the Christian seasons". Other changes which followed the council included the widespread use of vernacular languages in the Mass instead of Latin, the subtle disuse of ornate clerical regalia, the revision of Eucharistic prayers, the abbreviation of the liturgical calendar, the ability to celebrate the Mass versus populum, as well as ad orientem, modern aesthetic changes encompassing contemporary Catholic liturgical music and artwork.
Many of these changes remain divisive among the Catholic faithful. Of those who took part in the council's opening session, four have become popes: Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, who on succeeding John XXIII took the name Pope Paul VI. In the 1950s, theological and biblical studies in the Catholic Church had begun to sway away from the Neo-Scholasticism and biblical literalism which a reaction to Catholic modernism had enforced since the First Vatican Council; this shift could be seen in theologians such as Karl Rahner, Michael Herbert, John Courtney Murray who looked to integrate modern human experience with church principles based on Jesus Christ, as well as others such as Yves Congar, Joseph Ratzinger and Henri de Lubac, who looked to an accurate understanding of scripture and the early Church Fathers as a source of renewal. At the same time, the world's bishops faced challenges driven by political, social and technological change; some of these bishops sought new ways of addressing those challenges.
The First Vatican Council had been held nearly a century before but had been cut short in 1870 when the Italian Army entered the city of Rome at the end of Italian unification. As a result, only deliberations on the role of the papacy and the congruent relationship of faith and reason were completed, with examination of pastoral issues concerning the direction of the Church left unaddressed. Pope John XXIII, gave notice of his intention to convene the Council on 25 January 1959, less than three months after his election in October 1958; this sudden announcement, which caught the Curia by surprise, caused little initial official comment from Church insiders. Reaction to the announcement was widespread and positive from both religious and secular leaders outside the Catholic Church, the council was formally summoned by the apostolic constitution Humanae Salutis on 25 December 1961. In various discussions before the Council convened, John XXIII said that it was time to "open the windows and let in some fresh air".
He invited other Christians outside the Catholic Church to send observers to the Council. Acceptances came from both the Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant denominations as internal observers, but these observers did not cast votes in the approbation of the conciliar documents. Pope John XXIII's announcement on 25 January 1959 of his intention to call a general council came as a surprise to the cardinals present; the Pontiff pre-announced the council under a full moon when the faithful with their candlelights gathered in St. Peter's square and jokingly noted about the brightness of the moon, he had tested the idea only ten days before with one of them, his Cardinal Secretary of State Domenico Tardini, who gave enthusiastic support to the idea. Although the Pope said the idea came to him in a flash in his conversation with Tardini, two cardinals had earlier attempted to interest him in the idea, they were two of the most conservative, Ernesto Ruffini and Alfredo Ottaviani, who had in 1948 proposed the idea to Pope Pius XII and who put it before John XXIII on 27 October 1958.
Actual preparations for the Council took more than two years, included work from 10 specialised commissions, people for mass media and Christian Unity, a Central Commission for overall coordination. These groups, composed of members of the Roman Curia, produced 987 proposed constituting sessions, making it the largest gathering in any council in church history. Attendance varied in sessions from 2,100 to over 2,300. In addition, a varying number of periti were available for theological consultation—a group that turned out to have a major influence as the council went forward. Seventeen Orthodox Churches and Protestant denominations sent observers. More than three dozen representatives of other Christian communities were present at the opening session, the number grew to nearly 100 by the end of the 4th Council Sessions. Pope John XXIII opened the Council on 11 October 1962 in a public session and read the declaration Gaudet Mater Ecclesia before the Council Fathers. What is needed at the present t
Heysel Stadium disaster
The Heysel Stadium disaster occurred on 29 May 1985 when Juventus fans escaping from a breach by Liverpool fans were pressed against a collapsing wall in the Heysel Stadium in Brussels, before the start of the 1985 European Cup Final between the Italian and English clubs. 39 people—mostly Italians and Juventus fans—were killed and 600 were injured in the confrontation. An hour before the Juventus-Liverpool final was due to kick off, Liverpool supporters charged at Juventus fans and breached a fence, separating them from a "neutral area"; the cause of the rampage is disputed: many accounts, including Liverpool's official website, attribute blame to the Italian fans for sparking the violence, but this claim is contested by other eye-witnesses and has been criticized for being unsubstantiated. Juventus fans ran back on the terraces and away from the threat into a concrete retaining wall. Fans standing near the wall were crushed. Many people climbed over to safety; the game was played despite the disaster, with Juventus winning 1–0.
The tragedy resulted in all English football clubs being placed under an indefinite ban by UEFA from all European competitions, with Liverpool being excluded for an additional three years reduced to one, fourteen Liverpool fans found guilty of manslaughter and each sentenced to three years' imprisonment. The disaster was described as "the darkest hour in the history of the UEFA competitions". In May 1985, Liverpool were the defending European Champions' Cup winners, having won the competition after defeating Roma in the penalty shootout in the final of the previous season. Again they would face Italian opposition, who had won, the 1983–84 Cup Winners' Cup. Juventus had a team comprising many of Italy's 1982 FIFA World Cup winning team–who played for Juventus for many years–and their playmaker Michel Platini was considered the best footballer in Europe, being named Footballer of The Year by France Football magazine for the second year in a row in December 1984. Both teams were placed in the two first positions in the UEFA club ranking at the end of the last season and were regarded by the specialist press as the best two sides on the continent at the time.
Both teams had contested the 1984 European Super Cup four months before, finishing with victory for the Italian side by 2–0. Despite its status as Belgium's national stadium, Heysel was in a poor state of repair by the time of the 1985 European Final; the 55-year-old stadium had not been sufficiently maintained for several years, large parts of the stadium were crumbling. For example, the outer wall had been made of cinder block, fans who did not have tickets were seen kicking holes in it to get in. Liverpool players and fans said that they were shocked at Heysel's abject condition, despite reports from Arsenal fans that the ground was a "dump" when Arsenal had played there a few years earlier, they were surprised that Heysel was chosen despite its poor condition since Barcelona's Camp Nou and Santiago Bernabéu in Madrid were both available. Juventus president Giampiero Boniperti and Liverpool CEO Peter Robinson urged UEFA to choose another venue, claiming that Heysel was not in any condition to host a European Final a European Final involving two of the largest and most powerful clubs in Europe.
However, UEFA refused to consider a move. It was discovered that UEFA's inspection of the stadium lasted just thirty minutes; the stadium was crammed with 58,000–60,000 supporters, with more than 25,000 for each team. The two ends behind the goals comprised all-standing terraces, each end split into three zones; the Juventus end was O, N and M and the Liverpool end was X, Y and Z as deemed by the Belgian court after the disaster. However, the tickets for the Z section were reserved for neutral Belgian fans in addition to the rest of the stadium; this meant the Juventus fans had more sections than the Liverpool fans with the Z section occupied by neutrals, thought to have heightened prematch tensions. The idea of the large neutral area was opposed by both Liverpool and Juventus, as it would provide an opportunity for fans of both clubs to obtain tickets from agencies or from ticket touts outside the ground and thus create a dangerous mix of fans. At the time Brussels, like the rest of Belgium had a large Italian community, many expatriate Juventus fans bought the section Z tickets.
Added to this, many tickets were bought up and sold by travel agents to Juventus fans. A small percentage of the tickets ended up in the hands of Liverpool fans. At 7 p.m. local time, an hour before kick-off, the trouble started. The Liverpool and Juventus supporters in sections X and Z stood yards apart; the boundary between the two was marked by temporary chain link fencing and a central thinly policed no-man's land. Hooligans began to throw stones across the divide, which they were able to pick up from the crumbling terraces beneath them; as kick-off approached, the throwing became more intense. Several groups of Liverpool hooligans broke through the boundary between section X and Z, overpowered the police, charged at the Juventus fans; the fans began to flee toward the perimeter wall of section Z. The wall could not withstand the force of the fleeing Juventus supporters and a lower portion collapsed. Contrary to reports at the time, what is still assumed by many, the collapse of the wall did not cause the 39 deaths.
Instead, the collapse allowed fans to escape. Most died of suffocation a
Brussels the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita, it covers 161 km2, a small area compared to the two other regions, has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people. Brussels grew from a small rural settlement on the river Senne to become an important city-region in Europe. Since the end of the Second World War, it has been a major centre for international politics and the home of numerous international organisations, politicians and civil servants.
Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union, as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, including its administrative-legislative, executive-political, legislative branches and its name is sometimes used metonymically to describe the EU and its institutions. The secretariat of the Benelux and headquarters of NATO are located in Brussels; as the economic capital of Belgium and one of the top financial centres of Western Europe with Euronext Brussels, it is classified as an Alpha global city. Brussels is a hub for rail and air traffic, sometimes earning the moniker "Crossroads of Europe"; the Brussels Metro is the only rapid transit system in Belgium. In addition, both its airport and railway stations are the busiest in the country. Dutch-speaking, Brussels saw a language shift to French from the late 19th century; the Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual in French and Dutch though French is now the de facto main language with over 90% of the population speaking it. Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual.
English is spoken as a second language by nearly a third of the population and a large number of migrants and expatriates speak other languages. Brussels is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, as well as its historical and architectural landmarks. Main attractions include its historic Grand Place, Manneken Pis and cultural institutions such as La Monnaie and the Museums of Art and History; because of its long tradition of Belgian comics, Brussels is hailed as a capital of the comic strip. The most common theory of the origin of the name Brussels is that it derives from the Old Dutch Bruocsella, Broekzele or Broeksel, meaning "marsh" and "home" or "home in the marsh". Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai, made the first recorded reference to the place Brosella in 695, when it was still a hamlet; the names of all the municipalities in the Brussels-Capital Region are of Dutch origin, except for Evere, Celtic. In French, Bruxelles is pronounced and in Dutch, Brussel is pronounced. Inhabitants of Brussels are known in French in Dutch as Brusselaars.
In the Brabantian dialect of Brussels, they are called Brusseleirs. The written x noted the group. In the Belgian French pronunciation as well as in Dutch, the k disappeared and z became s, as reflected in the current Dutch spelling, whereas in the more conservative French form, the spelling remained; the pronunciation in French only dates from the 18th century, but this modification did not affect the traditional Brussels' usage. In France, the pronunciations and are heard, but are rather rare in Belgium. See also: History of Brussels The history of Brussels is linked to that of Western Europe. Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone Age, with vestiges and place-names related to the civilisation of megaliths and standing stones. During late antiquity, the region was home to Roman occupation, as attested by archaeological evidence discovered near the centre. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Frankish Empire; the origin of the settlement, to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus' construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580.
The official founding of Brussels is situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel. Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island. Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven, gained the County of Brussels around 1000, by marrying Charles' daughter; because of its location on the shores of the Senne, on an important trade route between Bruges and Ghent, Cologne, Brussels became a commercial centre specialised in the textile trade. The town grew quite and extended towards the upper town, where there was a smaller risk of floods; as it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. Around
Usury is the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender. Usury meant interest of any kind. A loan may be considered usurious because of other factors. In some Christian societies, in many Islamic societies today, charging any interest at all would be considered usury. Someone who practices usury can be called a usurer, but a more common term in contemporary English is loan shark; the term may be used in a moral sense—condemning, taking advantage of others' misfortunes—or in a legal sense where interest rates may be regulated by law. Some cultures have regarded charging any interest for loans as sinful; some of the earliest known condemnations of usury come from the Vedic texts of India. Similar condemnations are found in religious texts from Buddhism, Judaism and Islam. At times, many nations from ancient Greece to ancient Rome have outlawed loans with any interest. Though the Roman Empire allowed loans with restricted interest rates, the Catholic Church in medieval Europe banned the charging of interest at any rate.
Banking during the Roman Empire was different from modern banking. During the Principate, most banking activities were conducted by private individuals who operated as large banking firms do today. Anybody that had any available liquid assets and wished to lend it out could do so; the annual rates of interest on loans varied in the range of 4–12 percent, but when the interest rate was higher, it was not 15–16 percent but either 24 percent or 48 percent. The apparent absence of intermediate rates suggests that the Romans may have had difficulty calculating the interest on anything other than mathematically convenient rates, they quoted them on a monthly basis, the most common rates were multiples of twelve. Monthly rates tended to range from simple fractions to 3–4 percent because lenders used Roman numerals. Moneylending during this period was a matter of private loans advanced to persons persistently in debt or temporarily so until harvest time, it was undertaken by exceedingly rich men prepared to take on a high risk if the profit looked good.
Investment was always regarded as a matter of seeking personal profit on a large scale. Banking was of the small, back-street variety, run by the urban lower-middle class of petty shopkeepers. By the 3rd century, acute currency problems in the Empire drove such banking into decline; the rich who were in a position to take advantage of the situation became the moneylenders when the increasing tax demands in the last declining days of the Empire crippled and destroyed the peasant class by reducing tenant-farmers to serfs. It was evident; the First Council of Nicaea, in 325, forbade clergy from engaging in usury. At the time, usury was interest of any kind, the canon forbade the clergy to lend money at interest rates as low as 1 percent per year. Ecumenical councils applied this regulation to the laity. Lateran III decreed that persons who accepted interest on loans could receive neither the sacraments nor Christian burial. Pope Clement V made the belief in the right to usury a heresy in 1311, abolished all secular legislation which allowed it.
Pope Sixtus V condemned the practice of charging interest as "detestable to God and man, damned by the sacred canons, contrary to Christian charity." Theological historian John Noonan argues that "the doctrine was enunciated by popes, expressed by three ecumenical councils, proclaimed by bishops, taught unanimously by theologians."Certain negative historical renditions of usury carry with them social connotations of perceived "unjust" or "discriminatory" lending practices. The historian Paul Johnson, comments: Most early religious systems in the ancient Near East, the secular codes arising from them, did not forbid usury; these societies regarded inanimate matter as alive, like plants and people, capable of reproducing itself. Hence if you lent'food money', or monetary tokens of any kind, it was legitimate to charge interest. Food money in the shape of olives, seeds or animals was lent out as early as c. 5000 BC, if not earlier.... Among the Mesopotamians, Hittites and Egyptians, interest was legal and fixed by the state.
But the Hebrew took a different view of the matter. The Hebrew Bible regulates interest taking. Interest can be charged to strangers but not between Hebrews. Deuteronomy 23:19 Thou shalt not lend upon interest to thy brother: interest of money, interest of victuals, interest of any thing, lent upon interest. Deuteronomy 23:20 Unto a foreigner thou mayest lend upon interest. Israelites were forbidden to charge interest on loans made to other Israelites, but allowed to charge interest on transactions with non-Israelites, as the latter were amongst the Israelites for the purpose of business anyway. Debt was to be avoided and not used to finance consumption, but only taken on when in need. Johnson contends that the
Host desecration is a form of sacrilege in Christian denominations that follow the doctrine of real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. It involves the mistreatment or malicious use of a consecrated host—the sacred bread used in the Eucharistic service of the Divine Liturgy or Mass, it is forbidden by the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches, as well as in certain Protestant traditions. In Catholicism, where the host is held to have been transubstantiated into the body of Jesus Christ, host desecration is among the gravest of sins. Intentional host desecration is not only a mortal sin but incurs the penalty of excommunication latae sententiae. Throughout history, a number of groups have been accused of desecrating the Eucharist with grave consequences due to the spiritual importance of the consecrated host. Accusations against Jews were a common reason given for massacres and expulsions throughout the Middle Ages in Europe. Similar accusations were made in witchcraft trials, it is part of many descriptions of the Black Mass, both in ostensibly historical works and in fiction.
In Christianity, within the Anglican Church, Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Lutheran Church, Methodist Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, during the celebration of the Eucharist, the offerings of bread and wine are changed or added to make the body and blood of Jesus by the action of God. The change effects the Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, a doctrine, believed from the earliest days of the Church. During the Middle Ages, Roman Catholic theology offered the concept of transubstantiation to explain this change of substance, believed to be actual and not symbolic. Transubstantiation, defined as a dogma at the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215, holds that the substances of the offerings are transformed, while the appearance of bread and wine remain. Many Christians believe Jesus to be "true God and true man." In the Catholic Church, his "body, blood and divinity" in the form of the consecrated host are adored. Theft, sale, or use of the host for a profane purpose is considered a grave sin and sacrilege, which incurs the penalty of excommunication, imposed automatically in the Latin Rite Some denominations Lutherans, have similar beliefs regarding the Eucharist and the Real Presence, though they reject the Roman Catholic concept of transubstantiation, preferring instead, the doctrine of the sacramental union, in which "the body and blood of Christ are so united to the bread and wine of the Holy Communion that the two may be identified.
They are at the same time body and blood and wine...in this sacrament the Lutheran Christian receives the body and blood of Christ for the strengthening of the union of faith." Both the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Oriental Orthodox Churches, such as the Coptic Church, insist "on the reality of the change from bread and wine into the body and the blood of Christ at the consecration of the elements", although they have "never attempted to explain the manner of the change", thus rejecting philosophical terms to describe it. The Methodist Church holds that Christ is present in the Eucharist "through the elements of bread and wine", but maintains that how He is present is a Holy Mystery; until the 19th century Oxford Movement reintroduced the classic doctrine of the Real Presence Anglicanism favored Receptionism', a theological doctrine according to which, while the bread and wine in the Eucharist continue to exist unchanged after consecration, the faithful communicant receives together with them the body and blood of Christ.
The term itself seems not to have appeared before 1867. A more accurate description of the classic Anglican attitude is Real Receptionism. There is an outer reality, bread and wine and an inner, the Body and Blood of Christ in a sacramental manner. Whatever the doctrine selected, among Anglicans the consecrated bread and hosts are reserved and treated with great reverence. Host desecration has been associated with groups identified as inimical to Christianity, it is a common belief that desecration of the host is part of Satanic practice the Black Mass. LaVeyan Satanists do not perform Black Mass as a regular ritual, though "Le Messe Noir" from Anton LaVey's work The Satanic Rituals does include some elements. Since the publication of a document called Memoriale Domini in 1969, the Apolistic See of the Catholic Church has allowed certain countries to allow communicants to receive the Host in the hand, rather than directly onto the tongue, reviving an "ancient custom". Communion in the hand is now widespread in many parts of the world.
The practice means that access to consecrated Hosts is easier than in the past, since the person receiving it in the hand may pretend to place it in their mouth for consumption. However, recent statements and practices of Pope Benedict XVI have caused a recent shift in Catholic practice of receiving on the tongue while kneeling, an ancient practice. Accusations of host desecrat
Timeline of Brussels
The following is a timeline of the history of the municipality of Brussels, Belgium. 1273 – St. Michael and St. Gudula Cathedral built. 1304 – Notre Dame du Sablon founded. 1348 – Ommegang begins. 1356 Joyous Entry of Joanna and Wenceslaus into city. Expansion of fortifications of Brussels begins. 1370 – the Brussels massacre, a judicial murder of the city's Jewish population, occurs 1381 – Halle Gate built. 1393 – Anderlecht becomes part of Brussels. 1420 – Brussels Town Hall built. 1455 – Chapelle du Saint-Sacrement de Miracle built. 1476 – Printing press in operation. 1477 – Hapsburgs in power. 1536 – Maison du Roi built for Duke of Brabant. 1585 – City becomes capital of Spanish Netherlands. 1619 – Bronze Manneken Pis statue installed. 1622 – Funeral of Albert VII of Austria 1695 – The city is bombarded by the French. 1700 – The Monnaie theatre built. 1731 – Palace of Coudenberg destroyed. 1746 – Siege of Brussels. 1772 – Imperial and Royal Academy of Brussels established. 1774 – Rue Royale laid out. 1775 – Brussels Park laid out.
1787 – Vauxhall opens. 1783 – Royal Palace of Brussels construction begins. 1787 – Church of Saint Jacques-sur-Coudenberg consecrated. 1795 City becomes part of Dyle. State Archives in Belgium headquartered in city. 1803 – Museum of Brussels opens. 1815 Duchess of Richmond's ball. City becomes joint capital of United Kingdom of the Netherlands. 1819 – New opera theatre inaugurated. 1822 – Société Générale de Belgique headquartered in city. 1826 – Botanical Garden founded. 1830 Belgian Revolution. City becomes capital of the Kingdom of Belgium. Population: 98,279 city. 1832 – Royal Conservatory of Brussels founded. 1834 – Free University of Brussels founded 1835 – Groendreef/Allée Verte railway station, Belgium's first, is inaugurated. 1846 Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences founded. Population: 123,874. 1847 Avenue Louise commissioned. Galerie du Roi, Galerie de la Reine and Galerie du Prince open. 1848 – International Peace Congress held. 1850 – Population: 142,289 city. 1855 – Brussels-Luxembourg railway station built.
1856 – Théatre Royal de la Monnaie opens. 1859 – Congress Column erected. 1860 – Population: 185,982 city. 1861 – Bois de la Cambre laid out. 1869 – Trams begin operating. 1871 Covering of the Senne. Banque de Bruxelles established. 1873 – New building for the Brussels Stock Exchange completed 1877 – Ixelles Cemetery created. 1880 – Cinquantenaire created. 1881 – L'Echo newspaper begins publication. 1885 Église Royale Sainte-Marie built. Population: 171,751. 1887 Le Soir newspaper begins publication. Palais des Beaux-Arts built. 1888 - Het Laatste Nieuws begins publication. 1889 – November: Brussels Anti-Slavery Conference 1889–90 begins. 1891 – August: International Socialist Labor Congress held in Brussels. 1893 – Paris-Brussels Cycle Race begins. 1894 - Société Belge d'Études Coloniales headquartered in Brussels. 1895 Royal Greenhouses of Laeken built. Hotel Metropole in business at Place de Brouckère. 1897 – Brussels International world's fair held. 1900 Cantillon Brewery founded. Hospital Saint-Jean built.
1901 – Maison & Atelier Horta built. 1905 Cauchie house built. Cinquantenaire's triumphal arch finished. 1908 – Chapel of the Resurrection built. 1910 – Brussels International world's fair held. 1911 – Solvay Conference held in city. 1914 – World War I: Brussels captured and occupied by the German Army. 1917 – Constant Vanden Stock Stadium opens. 1919 Lignes Farman airline begins operating its Paris-Brussels route. Population: 685,268 metro. 1920 – Oscar Bossaert Stadium opens. 1921 – Haren and Neder-Over-Heembeek, merged into the City of Brussels. 1922 – Société du Palais des Beaux-Arts and Jardin botanique Jean Massart established. 1923 – Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and of Military History opens. 1927 – Solvay Conference held. 1930 – Jubilee Stadium opens. 1931 – Brussels Symphony Orchestra founded. 1935 Brussels International Exposition held. Basilica of the Sacred Heart consecrated. 1937 – Queen Elisabeth Music Competition begins. 1939 – Constantin Meunier Museum opens. 1940 – World War II: German Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France headquartered in Brussels.
1944 3–4 September: Liberation of Brussels by the Welsh Guards. 8 September: Belgian government in exile returns to Brussels after four years in London. A de jure District of Brussels formed by Nazi Germany, now no longer in control of the territory. 1948 Treaty of Brussels signed. Brussels Airport opens. 1949 – NATO headquarters established. 1952 – Brussels-Central railway station and Brussels-South railway station open. 1958 Brussels World's Fair Expo 58 held. The Atomium is built. 1960 – City hosts Congolese Round Table Conference. 1967 – L'Innovation Department Store fire. 1969 – Free University of Brussels splits along linguistic lines into Université Libre de Bruxelles and Vrije Universiteit Brussel. 1971 Brussels Agglomeration created. Flower carpet in Grand Place begins. 1974 – Brussels International Independent Film Festival begins. 1975 Bank Brussels Lambert headquartered in city. Université catholique de Louvain's Jardin des plantes médicinales. 1976 – Brussels Metro begins operating. 1978 Brussels Ring constructed.
RTBF Symphony Orchestra formed. 1979 - Archives of the City of Brussels moves into the former Anciens magasins Waucquez. 1980 Flemish Community and French Community of Belgium each designate Brussels as capital city. Population of Brussels-Capital Region: 1,008,715. 1985 Pope John Paul II visits city. 29 May: Heysel Stadium disaster. 1988 – Kinepolis Brussels opens. 1989 Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region, Minister-President of the Brussels-Capital Region, Belgian Comic Strip Center establi
Transubstantiation is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that in the Eucharistic offering bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Christ; the reaffirmation of this doctrine was expressed, using the word "transubstantiate", by the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215. It was challenged by various 14th-century reformers, John Wycliffe in particular; the manner in which the change occurs, the Roman Catholic Church teaches, is a mystery: "The signs of bread and wine become, in a way surpassing understanding, the Body and Blood of Christ." The precise terminology to be used to refer to the nature of the Eucharist and its theological implications has a contentious history in the Protestant Reformation. In the Greek Orthodox Church, the doctrine has been discussed under the term of metousiosis, coined as a direct loan-translation of transsubstantiatio in the 17th century.
In Eastern Orthodoxy in general, the Sacred Mystery of the Eucharist is more discussed using alternative terms such as "trans-elementation", "re-ordination", or "change". The belief that the bread and wine that form the matter of the Eucharist become the body and blood of Christ appears to have been widespread from an early date, with early Christian writers referring to them as his body and the blood, they speak of them as the same blood which suffered and died on the cross. The short document known as the Teaching of the Apostles or Didache, which may be the earliest Christian document outside of the New Testament to speak of the Eucharist, says, "Let no one eat or drink of your Eucharist, unless they have been baptized into the name of the Lord. A figure, there could not have been, unless there were first a veritable body. An empty thing, or phantom, is incapable of a figure. If, however, He pretended the bread was His body, because He lacked the truth of bodily substance, it follows that He must have given bread for us."The Apostolic Constitutions says: "Let the bishop give the oblation, The body of Christ.
And let the deacon take the cup. Let us prove that this is not what nature made, but what the blessing consecrated, the power of blessing is greater than that of nature, because by blessing nature itself is changed.... For that sacrament which you receive is made, but if the word of Elijah had such power as to bring down fire from heaven, shall not the word of Christ have power to change the nature of the elements?... Why do you seek the order of nature in the Body of Christ, seeing that the Lord Jesus Himself was born of a Virgin, not according to nature? It is the true Flesh of Christ, crucified and buried, this is truly the Sacrament of His Body; the Lord Jesus Himself proclaims: "This Is My Body." Before the blessing of the heavenly words another nature is spoken of, after the consecration the Body is signified. He Himself speaks of His Blood. Before the consecration it has another name, and you say, that is, It is true. Let the heart within confess what the mouth utters, let the soul feel. Other fourth-century Christian writers say that in the Eucharist there occurs a "change", "transelementation", "transformation", "transposing", "alteration" of the bread into the body of Christ.
In AD 400, Augustine quotes Cyprian: "For as Christ says'I am the true vine,' it follows that the blood of Christ is wine, not water.