Stetson University College of Law
Stetson University College of Law, founded in 1900 and part of Stetson University, is Florida's first law school. Located in Gulfport, Florida; the law school occupies a historic 1920s resort hotel, the Rolyat Hotel, designed by Richard Kiehnel. The College of Law is accredited by the American Bar Association and has been a member of the Association of American Law Schools since 1931; the college has a campus in Tampa, Florida which shares space with a working court, Florida's Second District Court of Appeal. Stetson offers J. D. Certificates of Concentration in Advocacy, Elder Law, Environmental Law, International Law and Social Justice. D./M. B. A. J. D./Grado, J. D./M. I. C. L. and J. D./M. P. H. Dual-degree programs. M. in International Law, LL. M. in Elder Law and LL. M. in Advocacy. Jur. in International and Comparative Business Law, M. Jur. in Aging and Policy, M. Jur. in Healthcare Compliance. The college is home to the National Clearinghouse for Science and the Law and has Centers for Excellence in Advocacy, Elder Law, Higher Education Law and Policy.
The Stetson Law Review was the Headquarters for the National Conference of Law Reviews from 2003–2008. The Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy and the Journal of International Aging Law and Policy are produced in conjunction with the school. Stetson University is ranked #74 in the National Jurist's rankings of the top 80 law schools in the United States, it is ranked tied for 98th among law schools nationally by U. S. News & World Report, among specialty rankings, the school is ranked first in trial advocacy and second in legal writing. Stetson had a 56.0% bar passage rate on the February 2018 administration of the Florida Bar Examination. Stetson graduates had a 67.2% bar passage rate on the July 2018 administration of the Florida Bar Examination. In order to obtain, maintain, accreditation through the American Bar Association, law schools must meet certain standards set by the ABA; the Council and Accreditation Committee of the American Bar Association Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar is the accrediting agency for law schools.
Among the standards evaluated is the requirement. The standards establish the requirements relative to the administration of the law library, the law library director, personnel and the collection the library shall hold; as such, Stetson University College of Law maintains a main library on the Gulfport campus—the Dolly & Homer Hand Law Library—and a satellite library at the Tampa Law Center. As the Board of Trustees authorized the establishment of the Stetson University College of Law in 1899, creating a law library became a concern. To create a core collection for the law library and monetary donations were sought and obtained from Florida attorneys. By its opening in October 1900, the College of Law had a law library and the 1901 annual report indicated that the library donation goals had been met. Upon the law school's move from DeLand to Gulfport in 1954, the library collection had to be moved; the new house for the law library consisted of "several small cubicles" and at the time "all the law books'fit into one moving van.'"
The collection contained less than 18,000 books. In 1955, an anonymous donor pledged $250,000 to assist in paying for the creation of a new law library and classroom building. Within one year, the law school was able to raise the money to match the anonymous donation and met its $750,000 goal, it became known that the anonymous donor was the Charles A. Dana Foundation. Construction on the new Charles A. Dana Library began in 1957. Students and staff transferred the small law library collection from the original location on the Gulfport campus to the new library in less than thirty minutes; this new library included space to expand the study space for 100 students. In 1958, the Charles A. Dana Law Library opened; the dedication of the library, made in the presence of Charles A. Dana, included a convocation by Florida's Governor, LeRoy Collins; the Charles A. Dana Foundation provided a gift in 1971 for the purpose of doubling the law library's size; the school provided space for 275 students and 160,000 volumes.
During this time, the Charles A. Dana Library became "the first law library in Florida to be a depositary for Federal Government documents." By 1981, the library's collection contained more than 165,182 volumes. By the mid-1990s, Stetson University College of Law "had been put on notice years earlier that its library was on shaky grounds regarding ABA requirements, that the problems were of such magnitude that a new structure might have to be built." Some individuals did not believe a new library was warranted as they doubted the future of libraries, but Dean Moody proceeded with the planning stated by her predecessor Dean Bruce Jacob, Emeritus Law Librarian Lamar Woodard, architect Canerday. In 1998, the new facility, named Stetson Law Library and Information Center, was completed; the new facility provided 58,000 square-feet and had ample accommodation for the current collection, as well as "government documents, other traditional resource materials." United States Supreme Court Associate Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg spoke at the new library's dedication on September 5, 1998.
C-Span provided video coverage of Justice Ginsburg's speech. In 2004, Stetson University College of Law opened its Tampa Law Center with a satellite library. In 2010, Stetson University College of Law renamed the Stetson Law Library and Information Center for philanthropists Frances R. "Do
Antonin Gregory Scalia was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016. Appointed to the Court by President Ronald Reagan in 1986, Scalia was described as the intellectual anchor for the originalist and textualist position in the Court's conservative wing. Scalia was born in New Jersey, he attended Xavier High School in Manhattan and college at Georgetown University in Washington, D. C, he obtained his law degree from Harvard Law School and spent six years in a Cleveland law firm before becoming a law school professor at the University of Virginia. In the early 1970s, he served in the Nixon and Ford administrations as an Assistant Attorney General, he spent most of the Carter years teaching at the University of Chicago, where he became one of the first faculty advisers of the fledgling Federalist Society. In 1982, Ronald Reagan appointed him as judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. In 1986, Reagan appointed him to the Supreme Court.
Scalia was unanimously confirmed by the Senate. He served on the Court for nearly thirty years until his death on February 13, 2016. Scalia espoused a conservative jurisprudence and ideology, advocating textualism in statutory interpretation and originalism in constitutional interpretation, he was a strong defender of the powers of the executive branch, believing presidential power should be paramount in many areas. He believed that the Constitution permitted the death penalty and did not guarantee the right to abortion or same-sex marriage, that affirmative action and most other policies that afforded special protected status to minority groups were unconstitutional; these positions earned him a reputation as one of the most conservative justices on the Court. He filed separate opinions in many cases castigating the Court's majority using scathing language. Scalia's most significant opinions include his lone dissent in Morrison v. Olson, his majority opinion in Crawford v. Washington, his majority opinion in District of Columbia v. Heller.
Scalia was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2018. Antonin Scalia was an only child, his father, Salvatore Eugene Scalia, an Italian immigrant from Sommatino, graduated from Rutgers University and was a graduate student at Columbia University and clerk at the time of his son's birth. The elder Scalia would become a professor of Romance languages at Brooklyn College, where he was an adherent to the formalist New Criticism school of literary theory, his mother, Catherine Louise Scalia, was born in Trenton to Italian immigrant parents and worked as an elementary school teacher. In 1939, Scalia and his family moved to the Elmhurst section of Queens, New York, where he attended P. S. 13. After completing eighth grade in public school, he obtained an academic scholarship to Xavier High School, a Jesuit military school in Manhattan, where he graduated first in the class of 1953 and served as valedictorian, he stated that he spent much of his time on schoolwork and admitted, "I was never cool".
While a youth, he was active as a Boy Scout and was part of the Scouts' national honor society, the Order of the Arrow. Classmate and future New York State official William Stern remembered Scalia in his high school days: "This kid was a conservative when he was 17 years old. An archconservative Catholic, he could have been a member of the Curia. He was the top student in the class, he was brilliant, way above everybody else."In 1953, Scalia enrolled at Georgetown University, where he graduated valedictorian and summa cum laude in 1957 with a Bachelor of Arts in history. While in college, he was a champion collegiate debater in Georgetown's Philodemic Society and a critically praised thespian, he took his junior year abroad at the University of Switzerland. Scalia studied law at Harvard Law School, he graduated magna cum laude in 1960. The fellowship enabled him to travel in Europe during 1960 and 1961. Scalia began his legal career at the international law firm Jones, Day and Reavis in Cleveland, where he worked from 1961 to 1967.
He was regarded at the law firm and would most have been made a partner but said he had long intended to teach. He became a professor of law at the University of Virginia in 1967, moving his family to Charlottesville. After four years in Charlottesville, Scalia entered public service in 1971. President Richard Nixon appointed him general counsel for the Office of Telecommunications Policy, where one of his principal assignments was to formulate federal policy for the growth of cable television. From 1972 to 1974, he was chairman of the Administrative Conference of the United States, a small independent agency that sought to improve the functioning of the federal bureaucracy. In mid-1974, Nixon nominated him as Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Legal Counsel. After Nixon's resignation, the nomination was continued by President Gerald Ford, Scalia was confirmed by the Senate on August 22, 1974. In the aftermath of Watergate, the Ford administration was engaged in a number of conflicts with Congress.
Scalia testified before congressional committees, defending Ford administration assertions of executive privilege regarding its refusal to turn over documents. W
Black's Law Dictionary
Black's Law is the most used law dictionary in the United States. It was founded by Henry Campbell Black, it is the reference of choice for terms in legal briefs and court opinions and has been cited as a secondary legal authority in many U. S. Supreme Court cases; the latest editions, including abridged and pocket versions, are useful starting points for the layman or student when faced with an unfamiliar legal term. The first edition was published in 1891, the second edition in 1910; the sixth and earlier editions of the book provided case citations for the term cited, which some lawyers view as its most useful feature, providing a useful starting point with leading cases. The Internet made legal research easier than it had been, so many state- or circuit-specific case citations and outdated or overruled case citations were dropped from the seventh edition in 1999; the eighth edition introduced a unique system of perpetually updated case citations and cross-references to legal encyclopedias.
The current edition is the tenth, published in 2014. Because many legal terms are derived from a Latin root word, the Dictionary gives a pronunciation guide for such terms. In addition, the applicable entries provide pronunciation transcriptions pursuant to those found among North American practitioners of law or medicine. An online version of the tenth edition can be accessed through the paid Westlaw legal information service; the second edition of Black's Law Dictionary is now in the public domain and is available online for free. However, the general applicability of this online version is limited due to its age, it still applies for legal theory terms, many basic legal terms with respect to their general meaning. However, references to case law will be incomplete for modern purposes, the use of legal language in court filings and in the courtroom has changed with changes in law and legal culture over time; the Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. has reprinted the second editions. It is available as a Windows Phone application, the tenth edition is available as an application for iOS devices.
Black's Law Dictionary 10th ed. Bryan A. Garner, editor, ISBN 978-0-314-61300-4 Black's Law Dictionary 9th ed. Bryan A. Garner, editor, ISBN 0-314-19949-7 Black's Law Dictionary 8th ed. Bryan A. Garner, editor, ISBN 0-314-15199-0 Black's Law Dictionary 7th ed. Bryan A. Garner, editor, ISBN 0-314-22864-0 Black's Law Dictionary 6th ed. ISBN 90-6544-631-1 Black's Law Dictionary 5th ed. ISBN 0-8299-2041-2 Black's Law Dictionary Revised 4th ed. Black's Law Dictionary 4th ed. Black's Law Dictionary 3rd ed. Black's Law Dictionary 2nd ed. ISBN 1-886363-10-2. Public domain Black's Law Dictionary 1st ed. ISBN 0-9630106-0-3 Black's Law Dictionary 5th pocket ed. Bryan A. Garner, editor, ISBN 0-314-84489-9 Black's Law Dictionary 4th pocket ed. Bryan A. Garner, editor, ISBN 0-314-27544-4 Black's Law Dictionary 3rd pocket ed. Bryan A. Garner, editor, ISBN 0-314-15862-6 Black's Law Dictionary 2nd pocket ed. Bryan A. Garner, editor, ISBN 0-314-25791-8 Blackův právnický slovník. Complete translation of 6th edition into Czech.
Victoria Publishing, Prague, 1993. ISBN 80-85605-23-6. Āqāʼī, Bahman. Farhang-i ḥuqūqī-i Bahman: Ingilīsī-Fārsī: bar asās-i Black's law dictionary Muqtadirah-yi Qaumī Zabān. Qānūnī, Angrezī-Urdu lug̲h̲at: Blaiks lāʼ dikshanarī se māk̲h̲ūz / nigrān, Fatiḥ Muḥammad Malik ISBN 969-474-084-3. Bouvier's Law Dictionary Freemen on the land Law dictionary Legal terminology textbook List of legal abbreviations Sovereign Citizen Moorish Citizens, Sovereign Moorish Nation Wex WorldCat listing for all nine editions Libraries with the Urdu edition Libraries with the Persian edition Black's 2nd Edition Online Black's Law Dictionary 2nd ed.—freelawdictionary.org Black's Law Dictionary, 2nd Edition at the Internet Archive
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School is a private American law school located in Lansing and established in 1971. It has four campuses, its main campus is in Lansing and the satellite campuses are in Grand Rapids, Auburn Hills and Tampa, Florida. First year courses may be taken at Western Michigan University's Kalamazoo campus. In 1972, the Thomas M. Cooley Law School was established by a group of lawyers and judges led by Thomas E. Brennan, a former Chief Justice of the Michigan Supreme Court; the school was named in honor of Thomas McIntyre Cooley, a prominent 19th-century jurist, a former Michigan Supreme Court Chief Justice. Cooley was a dean of the University of Michigan Law School and visiting faculty at The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. On July 28, 2014, the ABA and the Higher Learning Commission gave their approval to an affiliation between Cooley and Western Michigan University. On August 13, 2014, the affiliation became official and included Cooley changing its name from "Thomas M. Cooley Law School" to "Western Michigan University Cooley Law School".
Cooley Law School classes are offered on each of Western Michigan's four campuses. Cooley's curriculum is designed to prepare its graduates for entry into the legal profession. While most students work toward a Juris Doctor degree, Cooley offers the Master of Laws degree as well as joint degrees in Master of Business Administration and Master of Public Administration; the J. D/M. B. A. is offered in partnership with Oakland University. D./M. P. A. is offered in partnership with Western Michigan University. Cooley operates programs allowing ABA-approved foreign study credit in Canada and New Zealand. In addition, students are able to study at ABA-approved programs through partner law schools, including U. S. law schools operating programs in: Oxford, England. Cooley awards J. D. and LL. M. degrees. Students may obtain joint M. P. A. or M. B. A. degrees awarded by Western Michigan University. J. D. students are able to select from several concentrations: General Practice Litigation Business Transactions Administrative Law International Law Environmental Law Intellectual Property Canadian Practice Focused Studies Cooley has been accredited by the American Bar Association since 1975 and by the Higher Learning Commission since 2001.
In 2017, Cooley was sanctioned by the American Bar Association for violating the ABA requirement that schools only admit students who appear capable of earning a Juris Doctor degree and passing a bar exam. The ABA announced in April 2018 that the school was now in compliance with the ABA standards for admissions, the sanction was lifted. Cooley offers clinical programs at each campus. Students who participate in any of the Michigan clinics are allowed to practice law in Michigan under the Michigan Court Rules by representing clients in court, drafting client documents, giving legal advice under the supervision of faculty; the Innocence Project is nationally recognized in the United States for helping free persons wrongfully incarcerated by obtaining DNA evidence and providing pro bono legal advocacy to overturn their convictions - Cooley's Innocence Project clinic has contributed to overturning four convictions. Cooley offers an elder law clinic, Sixty Plus, Inc. which provides free legal services to senior citizens, as well as two Public Defender's clinics, which allow students to work in the Public Defender’s office with indigent clients who are accused of committing a crime.
The Access to Justice Clinic provides a general civil practice, focusing on consumer law. Free legal help in family law and domestic violence matters is offered at the Family Legal Assistance Project. Evening and weekend students can gain experience in the Estate Planning Clinics or the Public Sector Law Project, which provides civil legal services of a transactional, legislative or systemic nature to governments. Cooley offers externships throughout the United States at over 2600 approved externship sites. Student externs work under the supervision of experienced attorneys, with the guidance of full-time faculty. Cooley has a library at each of its five campuses. Legal research can be conducted at the libraries through a variety of media, including print and multimedia sources. Reference librarians are present at each campus; the libraries have a total of about 60 staff. CoolCat is the online library catalog; the Cooley libraries collectively house 670,000 volumes with an annual growth rate of more than 17,000 volumes.
Cooley Law has a reciprocal agreement with both Western Michigan University and Oakland University allowing access to the materials in each institution's collections. Cooley's Latin motto, In corde hominum est anima legis, was written in the 1970s by its founder, former Michigan Supreme Court Chief Justice Thomas E. Brennan. Brennan had described the meaning as "the spirit of the law is in the heart of man"; the total cost of attending Cooley for the 2017-18 academic year was between $69,104 and $70,134, depending on the campus. In recent years, the average school bar passage rate has been about 50%. 53% of graduates passed the Michigan bar exam on their first attempt in July 2017, below the 83% average for other Michigan law schools. The average school bar passage rate was 51.86% in 2015, 52.73% in 2014, 51.45% in 2013. Cooley
UC Berkeley School of Law
The University of California, School of Law is one of 14 schools and colleges at the University of California, Berkeley. Berkeley Law is ranked as one of the top public law schools in the United States and one of the top law schools in the world; the law school has produced leaders in law and society, including Chief Justice of the United States Earl Warren, United States Secretary of State Dean Rusk, United States Attorney General Edwin Meese, United States Secretary of the Treasury and Chairman of the Federal Reserve G. William Miller, Solicitor General of the United States Theodore Olson, lead litigator of the Korematsu v. United States civil rights case, Dale Minami; the Department of Jurisprudence was founded at Berkeley in 1894. In 1912, the department was renamed the School of Jurisprudence, it was again renamed as the School of Law in 1950; the School was located in the center of the main UC Berkeley campus in Boalt Memorial Hall of Law, built in 1911 with funds from Elizabeth Josselyn Boalt donated in memory of her late husband, John Henry Boalt, an attorney who had resided in Oakland, California until his death in 1901.
In 1951, the School moved to its current location in the new law building, the instructional portion of, named Boalt Hall, at the southeast corner of the campus, the old Boalt Hall was renamed Durant Hall. In April 2008, the law school rebranded itself through a change of name from "Boalt Hall" to "Berkeley Law" to tie the law school's name more with the campus upon which it resides; the administration hoped that this would improve the law school's national and international name recognition since people know of UC Berkeley and that it has a law school but are confused by the use of'Boalt Hall'. Berkeley Law has 850 J. D. students, 200 students in the LL. M. and J. S. D. Programs, 45 students in the Ph. D. program in Social Policy. The School features specialized curricular programs in Business and Economics, Comparative Legal Studies, Environmental Law, International Legal Studies and Technology, Social Justice; the J. D. program's admissions process is selective. Berkeley Law is known to value high undergraduate GPAs.
Berkeley has the 9th highest 75th percentile GPA. According to U. S. News and World Report, Berkeley has the 12th lowest acceptance rate among U. S. law schools, with about 25% of applicants admitted. For the class entering in the fall of 2017, 1,266 out of 5,466 applicants were offered admission, with 303 matriculating; the 25th and 75th Law School Admission Test percentiles for the 2017 entering class were 164 and 168 with a median of 166. The 25th and 75th undergraduate GPA percentiles were 3.66 and 3.88 with a median of 3.79. Berkeley Law's grading system for the J. D. program is similar to the grading system used at Yale Law School. Students are graded on a High Honors and Pass scale. 60% of the students in each class receive a grade of Pass, 30% receive a grade of Honors, the highest 10% receive a grade of High Honors. The top student in each class or section receives the Jurisprudence Award, while the second-place student receives the Prosser Prize. For a typical class in the J. D. program, the average age of admitted students is 24 years old, over a range of ages from 20 to 48 years old.
Berkeley Law's tuition has increased in recent years. Tuition and fees are $49,364 per year and $53,315 per year. Most out-of-state students may claim in-state status in their second year of study; the faculty of Berkeley Law provide academic direction and the bulk of the instruction for the undergraduate program in Legal Studies, organized as a major in Letters and Science. The Legal Studies program is not intended as a pre-law program, but rather as a liberal arts program "that can encourage sustained reflection on fundamental values."Berkeley Law has a chapter of the Order of the Coif, a national law school honorary society founded for the purposes of encouraging legal scholarship and advancing the ethical standards of the legal profession. It is an American Bar Association approved law school since 1923, it joined the Association of American Law Schools in 1912. Berkeley Law offers combined degree programs with other schools at the University of California, as well as MA degrees from Tufts University and Harvard University.
In 2018, QS World Rankings ranked Berkeley Law as the 7th best law school in the world. Law.com ranked Berkeley as one of the top 10 go-to law schools.. In 2018, U. S. News & World Report ranked Berkeley Law as the 9th best law school in the United States, tied with Virginia. US News & World Report ranked Berkeley Law as the best law school in the U. S. for intellectual property, the 3rd best for environmental law, the 10th best for international law. Moreover, US News & World Report ranked Berkeley Law's clinical training program as 10th best in the U. S. Berkeley Law's flagship law review, the California Law Review, is ranked 7th in the U. S. According to Brian Leiter's 2012 scholarly impact study, Berkeley Law ranks 7th in terms of scholarly impact as measured by the percentage of tenured faculty represented in specific specialty areas. In 2010, Law and Politics "Super Lawyers" magazine ranked Berkeley as 9th in the country, just above Yale Law based on the number of Super Lawyers it produces.
890 alumni are in their list of the top 5% of peer rated attorneys for 2009. In July 2017
Lubbock is the 11th-most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the county seat of Lubbock County. With a population of 256,042 in 2015, the city is the 83rd-most populous in the United States; the city is located in northwestern part of the state, a region known and geographically as the Llano Estacado, ecologically is part of the southern end of the High Plains, lying at the economic center of the Lubbock metropolitan area, which has a projected 2020 population of 327,424. Lubbock's nickname, "Hub City", derives from it being the economic and health-care hub of the multicounty region, north of the Permian Basin and south of the Texas Panhandle called the South Plains; the area is the largest contiguous cotton-growing region in the world and is dependent on water drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer for irrigation. Lubbock was selected as the 12th-best place to start a small business by CNNMoney.com. CNN mentioned the city's traditional business atmosphere: low rent for commercial space, central location, cooperative city government.
Lubbock is home to the sixth-largest college by enrollment in the state. Lubbock High School has been recognized for three consecutive years by Newsweek as one of the top high schools in the United States, based in part on its international baccalaureate program; as of 1867, the land that would become Lubbock was the heart of Comancheria, the shifting domain controlled by the Comanche. Lubbock County was founded in 1876, it was named after Thomas Saltus Lubbock, former Texas Ranger and brother of Francis Lubbock, governor of Texas during the Civil War. As early as 1884, a U. S. post office existed in Yellow House Canyon. A small town, known as Old Lubbock, Lubbock, or North Town, was established about three miles to the east. In 1890, the original Lubbock merged with another small town south of the canyon; the new town adopted the Lubbock name. The merger included moving the original Lubbock's Nicolett Hotel across the canyon on rollers to the new townsite. Lubbock became the county seat in 1891, was incorporated on March 16, 1909.
In the same year, the first railroad train arrived. Texas Technological College was founded in Lubbock in 1923. A separate university, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, opened as Texas Tech University School of Medicine in 1969. Both universities are now overseen by the Texas Tech University System, after it was established in 1996 and based in Lubbock. Lubbock Christian University, founded in 1957, Sunset International Bible Institute, both affiliated with the Churches of Christ, have their main campuses in the city. South Plains College and Wayland Baptist University operate branch campuses in Lubbock. At one time, Lubbock was home to Reese Air Force Base located 6 mi west of the city, it was established in August 1941, during the defense build-up prior to World War II, by the United States Department of War and the U. S. Army as Lubbock Army Airfield, it served the old U. S. Army Air Forces, the U. S. Air Force, after reorganization and establishment in 1947; the USAF base's primary mission throughout its existence was pilot training.
The base was closed 30 September 1997, after being selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure Commission in 1995, is now a research and business park called Reese Technology Center. The city is home to the Lubbock Lake Landmark, part of the Museum of Texas Tech University; the landmark is an natural-history preserve at the northern edge of the city. It shows evidence of 12,000 years of human occupation in the region; the National Ranching Heritage Center part of the Museum of Texas Tech University, houses historic ranch-related structures from the region. During World War II, airmen cadets from the Royal Air Force, flying from their training base at Terrell, Texas flew to Lubbock on training flights; the town served as a stand-in for the British for Cork, the same distance from London, England, as Lubbock is from Terrell. In August 1951, a V-shaped formation of lights was seen over the city; the "Lubbock Lights" series of sightings received national publicity and is regarded as one of the first great "UFO" cases.
The sightings were considered credible because they were witnessed by several respected science professors at Texas Technological College and were photographed by a Texas Tech student. The photographs were reprinted nationwide in Life. Project Blue Book, the USAF's official investigation of the UFO mystery, concluded the photographs were not a hoax and showed genuine objects, but dismissed the UFOs as being either "night-flying moths" or a type of bird called a plover reflected in the nighttime glow of Lubbock's new street lights. However, other researchers have disputed these explanations, for many, the "Lubbock Lights" remain a mystery. In 1960, the U. S. Census Bureau reported Lubbock's population as area as 75.0 sq mi. On May 11, 1970, the Lubbock Tornado struck the city. Twenty-six people died, damage was estimated at $125 million; the Metro Tower known as the Great Plains Life Building, at 274 ft in height, is believed to have been the tallest building to survive a direct hit from an F5 tornado.
Then-mayor Jim Granberry and the Lubbock City Council, which included Granberry's successor as mayor, Morris W. Turner, were charged with directing the rebuilding of downtown Lubbock in the aftermath of the storm. In August, 1988, tens of thousands of people came to Lubbock, drawn by an apparition of Mary. In 2009, Lubbock celebrated its centennial; the historians Paul H. Carlson, Donald R. Abbe, David J. Murrah co-authored Lubbock and the South