Interstate 16 known as Jim Gillis Historic Savannah Parkway, is an east–west Interstate Highway located within the U. S. state of Georgia. It carries the hidden designation of State Route 404 for its entire length. I-16 travels from downtown Macon, at an interchange with I-75 and SR 540 to downtown Savannah at Montgomery Street, it connects Macon and Savannah, via Dublin and Pooler. I-16's unsigned designation of SR 404 has a spur, signed in Savannah; the western-most segment in Macon, from I-75 and US 80/SR 87, is part of the Fall Line Freeway, a highway that connects Columbus and Augusta. This segment may be incorporated into the proposed eastern extension of I-14, entirely within Central Texas and may be extended to Augusta. I-16 begins at an interchange with I-75/SR 540, just northwest of downtown Macon, in Bibb County. Here, it begins a concurrency with SR 540; the Interstate and SR 540 proceed southeast. They cross over the Ocmulgee River and have an interchange with US 23/US 129/SR 49, they have a partial interchange with SR 22, only accessible from the westbound lanes.
Is an interchange with US 80/SR 87. At this intersection, SR 540 departs the concurrency to the north-northeast. Within the eastern part of this interchange, the highway travels under a railroad bridge that carries railroad tracks of Norfolk Southern Railway. In the east-central part of Macon, I-16 travels through Ocmulgee National Monument but without direct access. Visitors need to first exit at the US 80/SR 87 exit. On the southern edge of the national monument, it crosses over Walnut Creek, it travels on a bridge over some railroad tracks of CSX and Boggy Branch. After leaving Macon, I-16 curves to the south-southeast and has an interchange with US 23/US 129 Alt./SR 87. In the interchange, the highway crosses over Swift Creek, it crosses over Stone Creek before entering Twiggs County. I-16 has an interchange with Sgoda Road, it crosses over Flat Creek and has an interchange with Jeffersonville and Bullard roads. It crosses over Savage and Turvin creeks, it curves back to the southeast. The highway has an interchange with SR 96.
It crosses over Richland Creek. It has an interchange with SR 358. I-16 curves to the east-southeast and enters Bleckley County just before it has an interchange with SR 112 just south of Allentown, it crosses over Rocky Creek just before entering Laurens County. The interstate curves back to the southeast and crosses under SR 278 before it travels south of Montrose, it crosses over Bay Branch just before an interchange with SR 26. It enters the southwestern part of Dudley. There, it has an interchange with SR 338. I-16 crosses over Little Rocky Creek just before a rest area. Just to the west-northwest of a crossing of Turkey Creek, the westbound lanes have a rest area. On the southwestern edge of Dublin, the highway has an interchange with SR 257. On the southern edge of the city are interchanges with US 319/US 441/SR 31. and SR 19. It crosses over the Oconee River, it has an interchange with SR 199 just before a crossing of Pughes Creek. Southeast of, a crossing of Red Hill Creek. Just south of Rockledge, the highway crosses over Mercer Creek.
On the eastern edge of the Creek, it enters Treutlen County. I-16 curves to the east-northeast and crosses over some railroad tracks of CSX before an interchange with SR 29, it curves back to the east-southeast. It crosses over Red Bluff Creek. Is an interchange with SR 15/SR 78; the highway travels south of Sand Hill Lake before curving to the east-northeast. It crosses over Pendleton Creek and travels under a bridge that carries SR 86, it begins to curve to the southeast. It has an interchange with US 221/SR 56, it crosses over curves to the east-southeast. It has an interchange with SR 297. At the overpass for SR 297, the highway enters Emanuel County. After the SR 297 interchange, I-16 heads more to the southeast, it crosses over the Ohoopee River. Just after crossing over some railroad tracks of Norfolk Southern Railway, it enters the city limits of Oak Park, it curves to the southeast and has an interchange with US 1/SR 4/SR 46. After this interchange, the highway begins to parallel SR 46, it crosses over Jacks Creek.
It enters Candler County. I-16 has an interchange with SR 57, it crosses over Wolfe Creek and heads to the east-northeast. It curves to a nearly due east direction, it crosses over Sams Creek before entering Metter. As soon as it enters Metter, it passes the Metter Municipal Airport. Right after the airport is an interchange with SR 23/SR 121. On the southeastern edge of Metter, I-16 travels under a bridge that carries SR 129, it crosses over 15 Mile Creek and curves to the southeast. It crosses over Tenmile Creek and has an interchange with Pulaski–Excelsior Road just before entering Bulloch County; the Interstate curves to the east-southeast and has an interchange with US 25/US 301/SR 73. It crosses over Lotts and Little Lotts creeks, it travels northeast of Nevils. It curves to the east-southeast, where it has an interchange with SR 67, curves back to the southeast, it crosses over DeLoach Branch and curves to the east-southeast. It crosses over Luke Branch and Boggy Branch before curving to a nearly due east direction.
Chatham County, Georgia
Chatham County is a county in the U. S. state of Georgia, is located on the state's Atlantic coast. The county seat and largest city is Savannah. One of the original counties of Georgia, Chatham County was created February 5, 1777, is named after William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; the U. S. Census Bureau's 2017 population estimate for Chatham County was 290,501 residents, making Chatham the most populous Georgia county outside the Atlanta metropolitan area; the official 2010 Census counted 265,128 residents in Chatham County. Chatham is the core county of the Savannah metropolitan area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 632 square miles, of which 426 square miles is land and 206 square miles is water. Chatham County is the northernmost of Georgia's coastal counties on the Atlantic Ocean, it is bounded on the northeast by the Savannah River, in the southwest bounded by the Ogeechee River. The bulk of Chatham County, an area with a northern border in a line from Bloomingdale to Tybee Island, is located in the Ogeechee Coastal sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin.
The portion of the county north of that line is located in the Lower Savannah River sub-basin of the Savannah River basin, while the southern fringes of the Chatham County are located in the Lower Ogeechee River sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin. Jasper County, South Carolina – northeast Bryan County – west/southwest Liberty County - southeast Effingham County – northwest Fort Pulaski National Monument Savannah National Wildlife Refuge Wassaw National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 265,128 people, 103,038 households, 64,613 families residing in the county; the population density was 621.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 119,323 housing units at an average density of 279.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 52.8% white, 40.1% black or African American, 2.4% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.2% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 9.8% were Irish, 8.7% were English, 7.9% were German, 4.6% were American.
Of the 103,038 households, 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.0% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.3% were non-families, 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age was 34.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $44,928 and the median income for a family was $54,933. Males had a median income of $42,239 versus $31,778 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,397. About 11.6% of families and 16.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.4% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. Public schools are operated by Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools. Chatham County's Live Oak Public Libraries constitute a regional library system that provides services to three Georgia counties: Chatham and Liberty; the former name of the system, the Chatham and Liberty County Public Libraries, described this collaboration.
In 2002, the name was changed to Live Oak, which reflects the personality of the region as well as the life and growth of its branches. At the beginning of the twentieth century, city leaders in Savannah began to discuss the need for a public library; the history of libraries in Chatham County dates to 1903. According to Geraldine LeMay, former director of the Savannah Public Chatham-Effingham and Liberty Regional Library, the Georgia Historical Society and the city of Savannah worked out a plan that year to establish the Savannah Public Library; the idea was the brainchild of the Georgia Historical Society, which set up a planning committee to determine how the facilities of the society might best be useful to the city of Savannah. In a joint meeting of committee members from the Society and the city of Savannah, a Free Public Library was established that would prove to be of great value to the community; this Free Public Library, did not serve citizens of color. The parties agreed to allow free use of the Society's books, provide physical space for the library, annually contribute $500 in financial support for the library.
In turn, the city would contribute $3,000 in annual support. The library opened in June 1903 but did not serve the public until November. By 1909, the Georgia Historical Society was no longer able to meet its financial commitment, leaving the city to provide full financial support; the library remained at Hodgson Hall, the space provided by the Georgia Historical Society, until 1915. From its early beginnings the library offered special services to the community, including a department for children; the physical space at Hodgson Hall became too small to accommodate a large reference department, so the library established only a small collection of reference materials.. In 1916, the Savannah Public Library opened to doors to a new facility on Bull Street within the Savannah Victorian Historic District; the new facility was made possible by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation. As the library grew in popularity, it again found itself needing more space; the building was able to add additional space in 1936 thanks to a grant from the U.
S. Works Progress Administration. With an ever-increasing population the library's board of directors decided to expand services beyond the Main Library. In 1916, two branch libraries were opened: the East Side Branch at Habersham and Congress Streets, the Waters Avenue Branch; the ser
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
The Ogeechee River is a 294-mile-long blackwater river in the U. S. state of Georgia. It heads at the confluence of its North and South Forks, about 2.5 miles south-southwest of Crawfordville and flowing southeast to Ossabaw Sound about 16 miles south of Savannah. Its largest tributary is the Canoochee River, which drains 1,400 square miles and is the only other major river in the basin; the Ogeechee has a watershed of 5,540 square miles. It is one of the state's few free-flowing streams; the Ogeechee runs from the Piedmont across the Fall Sandhills regions. There it flows across the coastal plain of Georgia to the Atlantic Ocean. From a shallow clear running stream with several shoals, a small falls at Shoals, below Louisville the river becomes a lazy meandering channel through cypress swamps and miles of undeveloped forests; the Ogeechee River basin contains parts of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, which extend throughout the southeastern United States. This boundary follows the contact between older crystalline metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont Province and the younger unconsolidated Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments of the Coastal Plain Province.
Other rock types found in the basin include metasedimentary rock and phyllites, felsic and mafic metavolcanic rocks, amphibolite. Coastal Plain sediments overlap the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the southern edge of the Piedmont Province at the Fall Line; the Ogeechee River watershed in Georgia crosses four major land resource areas. About 6 percent of the area lies within the Southern Piedmont MLRA, about 4 percent in the Carolina and Georgia Sand Hills MLRA, 48 percent in the Southern Coastal Plain MLRA, 42 percent in the Atlantic Coast Flatwoods MLRA; the dominant soils in this part of the watershed have 40 to 60 inches of sandy materials overlying a loamy subsoil. Soils in the Southern Coastal Plain part of the watershed are more variable than in other parts concerning their textures and water table depths. Paleo-Indian societies arrived in the area of the Ogeechee River around 11,500 years ago, the river was settled for several centuries by the Mississippians and Yuchi until the arrival of Europeans.
In fact, though the origin of the name "Ogeechee" is uncertain, it may be derived from a Muskogee term meaning "river of the Uchees", referring to the Yuchi people, who inhabited areas near it. Some scholars have drawn a connection between the river's name and the name Gullah Geechee for the Gullah people who inhabit coastal Georgia. South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region
Sherman's March to the Sea
Sherman's March to the Sea was a military campaign of the American Civil War conducted through Georgia from November 15 until December 21, 1864, by Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army; the campaign began with Sherman's troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta on November 15 and ended with the capture of the port of Savannah on December 21. His forces followed a "scorched earth" policy, destroying military targets as well as industry and civilian property and disrupting the Confederacy's economy and transportation networks; the operation helped lead to its eventual surrender. Sherman's bold move of operating deep within enemy territory and without supply lines is considered to be one of the major achievements of the war and is considered to be an early example of modern total war. Sherman's "March to the Sea" followed his successful Atlanta Campaign of May to September 1864, he and the Union Army's commander, Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, believed that the Civil War would come to an end only if the Confederacy's strategic capacity for warfare were decisively broken.
Sherman therefore planned an operation, compared to the modern principles of scorched earth warfare, or total war. Although his formal orders specified control over destruction of infrastructure in areas in which his army was unmolested by guerrilla activity, he recognized that supplying an army through liberal foraging would have a destructive effect on the morale of the civilian population it encountered in its wide sweep through the state; the second objective of the campaign was more traditional. Grant's armies in Virginia continued in a stalemate against Robert E. Lee's army, besieged in Petersburg, Virginia. By moving in Lee's rear, Sherman could increase pressure on Lee, allowing Grant the opportunity to break through, or at least keep Southern reinforcements away from Virginia; the campaign was designed by Grant and Sherman to be similar to Grant's innovative and successful Vicksburg Campaign and Sherman's Meridian Campaign, in that Sherman's armies would reduce their need for traditional supply lines by "living off the land" after consuming their 20 days of rations.
Foragers, known as "bummers", would provide food seized from local farms for the Army while they destroyed the railroads and the manufacturing and agricultural infrastructure of Georgia. In planning for the march, Sherman used livestock and crop production data from the 1860 census to lead his troops through areas where he believed they would be able to forage most effectively; the twisted and broken railroad rails that the troops heated over fires and wrapped around tree trunks and left behind became known as "Sherman's neckties". As the army would be out of touch with the North throughout the campaign, Sherman gave explicit orders, Sherman's Special Field Orders, No. 120, regarding the conduct of the campaign. The following is an excerpt from the general's orders:... IV; the army will forage liberally on the country during the march. To this end, each brigade commander will organize a good and sufficient foraging party, under the command of one or more discreet officers, who will gather, near the route traveled, corn or forage of any kind, meat of any kind, corn-meal, or whatever is needed by the command, aiming at all times to keep in the wagons at least ten day's provisions for the command and three days' forage.
Soldiers must not enter the dwellings of the inhabitants, or commit any trespass, but during a halt or a camp they may be permitted to gather turnips and other vegetables, to drive in stock of their camp. To regular foraging parties must be instructed the gathering of provisions and forage at any distance from the road traveled. V. To army corps commanders alone is entrusted the power to destroy mills, cotton-gins, &c. and for them this general principle is laid down: In districts and neighborhoods where the army is unmolested no destruction of such property should be permitted. VI; as for horses, wagons, &c. belonging to the inhabitants, the cavalry and artillery may appropriate and without limit, however, between the rich, who are hostile, the poor or industrious neutral or friendly. Foraging parties may take mules or horses to replace the jaded animals of their trains, or to serve as pack-mules for the regiments or brigades. In all foraging, of whatever kind, the parties engaged will refrain from abusive or threatening language, may, where the officer in command thinks proper, give written certificates of the facts, but no receipts, they will endeavor to leave with each family a reasonable portion for their maintenance.
VII. Negroes who are able-bodied and can be of service to the several columns may be taken along, but each army commander will bear in mind that the question of supplies is a important one and that his first duty is to see to them who bear arms.... The march was made easier by able assistants such as Orlando Metcalfe Poe, chief of the bridge building and demolition team. Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman selected Poe as his chief engineer in 1864. Poe oversaw the burning of Atlanta. Poe directly supervised the dismantling of all buildings and structures in Atlanta that could have provided any military value to the Rebels once Sherman abandoned the city.