Omsk is a city and the administrative center of Omsk Oblast, located in southwestern Siberia 2,236 kilometers from Moscow. With a population of 1,154,116, it is Russia's second-largest city east of the Ural Mountains after Novosibirsk, seventh by size nationally. Omsk acts as an essential transport node, serving as a train station for Trans-Siberian Railway and as a staging post for the Irtysh River. During the Imperial era, Omsk used to be the seat of the Governor General of Western Siberia and of the Governor General of the Steppes. For a brief period during the Russian Civil War in 1918–1920, it served as the capital of the anti-Bolshevik Russian State and held the imperial gold reserves. Omsk serves as the episcopal see of the bishop of Omsk and Tara, as well as the administrative seat of the Imam of Siberia; the mayor is Oksana Fadina. The wooden fort of Omsk was built in 1716 by a cossack unit led by Ivan Buchholz to protect the expanding Russian frontier along the Ishim and the Irtysh rivers against the Kyrgyz and Dzungar nomads of the Steppes.
In 1768 Om fortress was relocated. The original Tobolsk and the restored Tara gates, along with the original German Lutheran Church and several public buildings are left from that time. Omsk was granted town status in 1782. In 1822 Omsk became an administrative capital of Western Siberia and in 1882 the center of the vast Steppes region and Akmolinsk Oblast, in particular acquiring several churches and cathedrals of various denominations, mosques, a synagogue, the governor-general's mansion, a military academy, but as the frontier receded and its military importance diminished, the town fell into lethargy. For that time Omsk became a major center of the Siberian exile. From 1850 to 1854 Fyodor Dostoyevsky served his sentence in an Omsk katorga prison. Development of the city was catalyzed with the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway in the 1890s that affected significance of Omsk as a logistic hub. Many trade companies established stores and offices in Omsk defining the character of the city center.
British and German consulates were established at the same time in order to represent their commercial interests. The pinnacle of development for pre-revolutionary Omsk was the Siberian Exposition of Agriculture and Industry in 1910. Popularity of the World Fairs contributed to the image of Omsk as the "Chicago of Siberia". Soon after the October Revolution, anti-Bolshevik White forces seized control of Omsk; the "Provisional All-Russian Government" was established here in 1918, headed by the Arctic explorer and decorated war hero Admiral Kolchak. Omsk was proclaimed the capital of Russia, its central bank was tasked with safekeeping the former empire's gold reserves; these were guarded by a garrison of former Czechoslovakian POWs trapped in Siberia by the chaos of World War I and the subsequent Revolution. Omsk became a prime target for the Red Army leadership, which viewed it as a major target of their Siberian campaign and forced Kolchak and his government to abandon the city and retreat along the Trans-Siberian eastward to Irkutsk.
Bolshevik forces entered the city in 1919. The Soviet government preferred the young Novonikolayevsk as the administrative center of Western Siberia, prompting the mass transfer of administrative and educational functions from Omsk; this somewhat sparked a continuing rivalry between the two cities. Omsk received new life as a result of World War II; because it was both far from the fighting and had a well-developed infrastructure, Omsk provided a perfect haven for much of the industry evacuated away from the frontlines in 1941. Additionally, contingency plans were made to transfer the provisional Soviet capital to Omsk in the event of a German victory during the Battle of Moscow. At the end of the war, Omsk remained a major industrial center, subsequently becoming a leader in Soviet military production. Military industries which moved to Omsk included part of the OKMO tank-design bureau in 1941, S. M. Kirov Factory no. 185 from Chelyabinsk, in 1962. The Kirov Factory and Omsk Transmash design bureau produced T-80 tanks from the 1970s, were responsible for the BTR-T, TOS-1, the prototype Black Eagle tank.
Omsk Transmash declared bankruptcy in 2002. In the 1950s, following the development of the oil and natural-gas field in Siberia, an oil-refining complex was built, along with an entire "town of oil workers", expanding Omsk northward along the Irtysh, it is the largest such complex in Russia. Gazprom Neft, the parent company, is the largest employer in the city, wielding its tax rates as leverage in negotiations with municipal and regional authorities. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Omsk experienced a period of economic instability and political stagnation. Most of the city's large businesses, state owned, were fought over by members of the former party elite, the emerging nouveau riche, fast growing criminal syndicates; the most notorious cases involved the privatization of Sibneft, a major oil company, which dragged on for several years. Until the end of the 1990s, political life in Omsk was defined by an ongoing feud between the oblast and city authorities; the resulting conflict made at least two points of view available to the public and served as the impetus for some improvements to the city's infrastructure and cultural life.
These included the construction of new leisure parks and the renovation of the city's historic center, the establishment of the annual Siberian International Marathon, of the annual City Days Festival. Despite this, internal political comp
Vytautas known as Vytautas the Great from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians. He was the Prince of Hrodna, Prince of Lutsk, the postulated king of the Hussites. In modern Lithuania, Vytautas is revered as a national hero and was an important figure in the national rebirth in the 19th century. Vytautas is a popular male given name in Lithuania. In commemoration of the 500-year anniversary of his death, Vytautas Magnus University was named after him. Monuments in his honour were built in many towns in the independent Lithuania during the interwar period from 1918 to 1939. Vytautas' uncle Algirdas had been Grand Duke of Lithuania until his death in 1377. Algirdas and Vytautas' father Kęstutis had ruled jointly in the form of diarchy, with Algirdas governing the east and Kęstutis the west responsible for defense against the Teutonic Order. Algirdas was succeeded by his son Jogaila, a struggle for power ensued.
In 1380, Jogaila signed the secret Treaty of Dovydiškės with the Teutonic Order against Kęstutis. When Kęstutis discovered this in 1381, he seized Vilnius, imprisoned Jogaila, made himself Grand Duke. However, Jogaila raised an army against Kęstutis; the two sides never engaged in battle. Kęstutis was ready to negotiate. One week Kęstutis was found dead. Whether he died of natural causes or was murdered is still a matter of debate. In 1382, Vytautas escaped from Kreva, he sought help from the Teutonic Order. Jogaila and the Order agreed to the Treaty of Dubysa, by which Jogaila promised to accept Christianity, become an ally of the Order, give the Order part of Samogitia up to the Dubysa River. However, the treaty was never ratified. In summer 1383, the war between Jogaila and the Order resumed. Vytautas was baptised as a Catholic. Vytautas participated in several raids against Jogaila. In January 1384, Vytautas promised to cede part of Samogitia to the Teutonic Order, up to the Nevėžis River in return for recognition as Grand Duke of Lithuania.
However, in July of the same year, Vytautas reconciled with Jogaila. He burned three important Teutonic castles, regained all Kęstutis' lands, except for Trakai. In 1385, Jogaila concluded the Union of Krewo with Poland, under which he married Jadwiga of Poland and became King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. Vytautas participated in the Union and in 1386 was re-baptised as a Catholic, receiving the name Alexander. Jogaila left his brother Skirgaila as regent in Lithuania. However, Skirgaila was unpopular with the people and Vytautas saw an opportunity to become Grand Duke. In 1389, he failed. In early 1390, Vytautas again allied with the Teutonic Order. Vytautas had to confirm his agreement of 1384, cede Samogitia to the Order, his army now invaded Lithuania. To gain more influence, Vytautas married his only daughter Sophia to Vasili I of Russia in 1391; the Polish nobles were unhappy. It would not bring any benefit to Poland. In 1392, Jogaila sent Henry of Masovia with an offer to make Vytautas regent instead of Skirgaila.
Vytautas again broke with the Order. He returned to Vilnius. Jogaila and Vytautas signed the Astrava Treaty in which Vytautas recovered all Kęstutis' lands, including Trakai, was given more. Vytautas would rule Lithuania in the name of Jogaila. After Vytautas' death, all his lands and powers would revert to Jogaila. Vytautas continued Algirdas' vision to control as many Ruthenian lands as possible. Much of the territory was under the Grand Duke's rule, but the rest was controlled by the Mongols. Tokhtamysh, Khan of the Golden Horde, sought help from Vytautas when he was removed from the throne in 1395 after his defeat by Timur. An agreement was reached that Vytautas would help Tokhtamysh to regain power, the Horde would cede more lands to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in return. In 1398, Vytautas' army built a castle there. Now Lithuania spanned from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. A number of Tatar captives were brought to ethnic Lithuania. Inspired by this successful campaign and Jogaila won support from Pope Boniface IX for organising a crusade against the Mongols.
This political move demonstrated that Lithuania had accepted Christianity and was defending the faith on its own, that the Teutonic Knights had no further basis for attacks against Lithuania. The campaign resulted in a crushing defeat at the Battle of the Vorskla River in 1399. Over twenty princes, including two brothers of Jogaila, were killed, Vytautas himself escaped alive; this came as a shock to the Grand Duchy of Poland. A number of territories revolted against Vytautas, Smolensk was retaken by its hereditary ruler, George of Smolensk and not re-conquered by Lithuanians until 1404. Vytautas waged a war in 1406–1408 against his son-in-law Vasili I of Moscow and Švitrigaila, a brother of Jogaila who with the support of the Teutonic Order had declared himself grand prince. A major stand-off between the two armies ended without a battle in the Treaty of Ugra, by which Velikiy Novgorod was granted to Jogaila's brother Simeon Lingwen, and
Algirdas was a ruler of medieval Lithuania. He ruled the Lithuanians and Ruthenians from 1345 to 1377. With the help of his brother Kęstutis he created an empire stretching from the present Baltic states to the Black Sea and to within fifty miles of Moscow. Algirdas was one of the seven sons of Grand Prince Gediminas. Before his death in 1341, Gediminas divided his domain, leaving his youngest son Jaunutis in possession of the capital, Vilnius. With the aid of his brother, Kęstutis, Algirdas drove out the incompetent Jaunutis and declared himself Grand Prince in 1345, he devoted the next thirty-two years to the development and expansion of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Two factors are thought to have contributed to this result: the political sagacity of Algirdas and the devotion of Kęstutis; the division of their dominions is illustrated by the fact that Algirdas appears exclusively in East Slavic sources, while Western chronicles describe Kęstutis. Lithuania was surrounded by enemies; the Teutonic Order in the northwest and the Golden Horde in the southwest sought Lithuanian territory, while Poland to the west and Muscovy to the east were hostile competitors.
Algirdas held his own acquiring influence and territory at the expense of Muscovy and the Golden Horde and extending the borders of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the Black Sea. His principal efforts were directed toward securing the Slavic lands which were part of the former Kievan Rus'. Although Algirdas engineered the election of his son Andrew as Prince of Pskov and a powerful minority of Novgorod Republic citizens supported him against Muscovy, his rule in both commercial centres was precarious. Algirdas occupied the important principalities of Bryansk in western Russia. Although his relationship with the grand dukes of Muscovy was friendly, he besieged Moscow in 1368 and 1370 during the Lithuanian–Muscovite War. An important feat by Algirdas was his victory over the Tatars in the Battle of Blue Waters at the Southern Bug in 1362, which resulted in the breakup of the Kipchaks and compelled the khan to establish his headquarters in the Crimea. According to modern historians, "For Gediminas and Algirdas, retention of paganism provided a useful diplomatic tool and weapon... that allowed them to use promises of conversion as a means of preserving their power and independence".
Hermann von Wartberge and Jan Długosz described Algirdas as a pagan until his death in 1377. Contemporary Byzantine accounts support the Western sources, his pagan beliefs were mentioned in 14th-century Byzantine historian Nicephorus Gregoras' accounts. After his death, Algirdas was burned on a ceremonial pyre with 18 horses and many of his possessions in a forest near Maišiagala in the Kukaveitis forest shrine located at 54°55′42″N 25°01′04″E, his alleged burial site has undergone archaeological research since 2009. Algirdas' descendants include the Trubetzkoy and Sanguszko families. Although Algirdas was said to have ordered the death of Anthony and Eustathius of Vilnius, who were glorified as martyrs of the Russian Orthodox Church, the 16th-century Bychowiec Chronicle and 17th-century Hustynska Chronicle maintain that he converted to Orthodox Christianity some time before his marriage to Maria of Vitebsk in 1318. Several Orthodox churches were built in Vilnius during his reign, but assertions about his baptism are uncorroborated by contemporary sources.
Despite contemporary accounts and modern studies, some Russian historians claim that Algirdas was an Orthodox ruler. The Kiev Monastery of the Caves' commemorative book, underwritten by Algirdas' descendants, recorded his baptismal name as Demetrius during the 1460s. Following Wojciech Wijuk Kojałowicz and Macarius I, Volodymyr Antonovych writes that Algirdas took monastic vows several days before his death and was interred at the Cathedral of the Theotokos in Vilnius under the monastic name Alexius. Algirdas balanced himself between Muscovy and Poland, spoke Lithuanian and Ruthenian and followed the majority of his pagan and Orthodox subjects rather than to alienate them by promoting Roman Catholicism, his son Jogaila ascended the Polish throne, converted to Roman Catholicism and founded the dynasty which ruled Lithuania and Poland for nearly 200 years. Algirdas is widely honoured in Belarus as a unifier of all Belarusian lands within one state, a successful military commander and ruler of medieval Belarus.
A monument to him has been erected in Vitsebsk in 2014, as part of the celebration of the city's 1040th anniversary. Algirdas was Duke of Vitebsk for over 20 years before becoming Grand Duke of Lithuania. Gediminids House of Algirdas – Algirdas' family tree
Russian Census (2010)
The Russian Census of 2010 is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Preparations for the census began in 2007 and it took place between October 14 and October 25; the census was scheduled for October 2010, before being rescheduled for late 2013, citing financial reasons, although it was speculated that political motives were influential in the decision. However, in late 2009, Prime Minister Putin announced that the Government of Russia allocated 10.5 billion rubles in order to conduct the census as scheduled. Results showed the population to stand at 142.9 million. Since the previous 2002 census, population had decreased by 2.3 million. According to the 2010 census, urban population is 105.3 million, rural population is 37.5 million. The urbanisation rate is 73.7%. The median age is 38 years; the ethnic composition is dominated by Russians. Demographics of Russia Russian Census 2010 final results Results of 2010 All-Russia population census Official website of the 2010 Census
Švitrigaila was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1430 to 1432. He spent most of his life in unsuccessful dynastic struggles against his cousins Vytautas and Sigismund Kęstutaitis. Švitrigaila was born to Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, his second wife Uliana of Tver. His date of birth is unknown, but it is believed that he was the youngest or second youngest son of Algirdas, he first appeared in politics in October 1382 when he witnessed the Treaty of Dubysa between his elder brother Jogaila and the Teutonic Knights. Historians believe that would indicate that at the time Švitrigaila was no younger than 12 which would put his date of birth sometime before 1370. In a complaint submitted to the Council of Florence, Švitrigaila claimed that he and Jogaila were favorite sons of Algirdas. Before his death in 1377, Algirdas transferred his throne to Jogaila but made him swear to make Švitrigaila his heir. Jogaila's representatives did not outright deny the arrangement and instead claimed that it had been modified by mutual agreement between the brothers.
In 1386, as part of the Christianization of Lithuania and union between Poland and Lithuania, Švitrigaila together with his brothers was baptized in the Roman Catholic rite in Kraków. His baptismal name was Bolesław. Despite numerous power struggles in Lithuania, including rebellion by Andrei of Polotsk, conquest of the Principality of Smolensk, the Lithuanian Civil War, Švitrigaila does not appear in politics until 1392. After the death of his mother Uliana of Tver, Jogaila appointed falconer Fedor Vesna regent of the Principality of Vitebsk; this angered. Vytautas, who just concluded the Ostrów Agreement to become Grand Duke of Lithuania, Skirgaila gathered an army and captured Drutsk and Vitebsk. Švitrigaila was sent to Kraków. He was not held in a prison as demonstrated by the fact that he headed a commission for demarcation of the Lithuanian–Prussian border in 1393, but at the same time he had no territories. Accounts on Švitrigaila's activities in 1394–1397 are conflicting. Older historians followed Jan Długosz and claimed that he escaped to the Teutonic Knights in Prussia right after the capture of Vitebsk, but Polish historian Aleksander Narcyz Przezdziecki disproved it.
Around 1396 or 1397, Švitrigaila and Fedor, son of Liubartas, ousted from Volhynia near the conclusion of the Galicia–Volhynia Wars, escaped from Kraków to Duchy of Cieszyn, fief of the Kingdom of Bohemia, from there to the court of Sigismund of Luxemburg. Švitrigaila contacted the Teutonic Knights, a long-standing enemy of Lithuania, proposed an alliance against Vytautas. It was not an unprecedented move: Vytautas had done the same in 1382 and 1390 when he fought with Jogaila. However, the Knights concluded the Treaty of Salynas with Vytautas in October 1398 and Švitrigaila lost any hopes of an armed rebellion, he reconciled with Vytautas and received Navahrudak and a portion of Podolia not ruled by Spytek of Melsztyn. In 1399, Švitrigaila survived the disastrous Battle of the Vorskla River against the Golden Horde. Spytek of Melsztyn was killed in the battle and Švitrigaila received his lands in Podolia. In January 1401, Vytautas and Lithuanian nobles concluded the Pact of Vilnius which confirmed that after Vytautas' death Lithuania would be ruled by Jogaila and his heirs.
That crushed Švitrigaila's ambition to one day become the Grand Duke of Lithuania. Chronicler Jan Długosz hinted that the Pact was in part motivated by the desire to contain growing influence and ambition of Švitrigaila. According to Johann von Posilge, Švitrigaila was forced to sign the Pact. However, just a month he wrote to Siemowit IV of Masovia trying to form an alliance against Vytautas. Vytautas-instigated the First Samogitian Uprising against the Teutonic Knights started in March 1401. In August, Yury of Smolensk and his father-in-law Oleg II of Ryazan started a rebellion to retake the Principality of Smolensk. Švitrigaila decided to take advantage of these conflicts. In January 1402, instead of traveling to the wedding of Jogaila and Anna of Cilli, Švitrigaila, disguised as a merchant, traveled to Marienburg, the capital of the Teutonic Knights. On 2 March 1402, he concluded a treaty with the Knights which in essence confirmed the Treaty of Salynas. In July 1402, the Knights, including Švitrigaila, invaded Lithuania and marched towards Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, however Vytautas learned of the planned treason and executed six city residents.
The Knights returned to Prussia. Vytautas wanted to concentrated on the rebellion in Smolensk and peace negotiations started in summer 1403; the truce was signed in December 1403 and the Peace of Raciąż in May 1404. The Knights received territorial concessions in Samogitia while Švitrigaila received Podolia, an annual sum of 1,400 marks from the Wieliczka Salt Mine from Jogaila and the Principalities of Briansk and Trubetsk from Vytautas. For a few years, Švitrigaila was loyal to Vytautas and helped to subdue Smolensk and negotiate with the Teutonic Knights regarding the Dobrzyń Land. Švitrigaila's new territories were by the border with the Grand Duchy of Moscow which began to emerge as the main rival to Lithuania. He decided to rebel against Vytautas once again but this time with the help of Vasily I of Moscow, Vytautas' son-in-law. In May 1409, Švitrigaila with a great number of dukes and boyars defected to Moscow. Vasily I rewarded Švitrigaila with Vladimir, Pereslavl, half of Kolomna. Vytautas gathered an army, including 5,000 Polish men commanded by Zbigniew of Brzezia and one flag of Teutonic Knights, a
Auce is a town in southern Latvia near the Lithuanian border. Before 13th century the territory of Auce was a part of a Semigallian Spārnene county. After the partition of Semigallia in 1254 territory was granted to the Archbishopric of Riga. Auce is first mentioned in written sources in 1426 as Owcze. In 1616 Old Auce manor is mentioned for the first time when there was held regional assembly of the Duchy of Courland. In 1667 the first Lutheran church was erected in Auce. From 1768 until the Latvian agrarian reforms in the 1920s, Old Auce manor was property of the Baltic German von Medem family. Auce village started rapid development after the construction of the Jelgava-Mažeikiai railway in 1889. During the World War I Auce was occupied by the Imperial German army; the Germans airfield nearby. After the Latvian War of Independence Auce became part of the Republic of Latvia. In 1920 Old Auce manor was nationalised and it became the property of the University of Latvia, to be used as a teaching farm for students of agriculture.
In 1924 Auce received town rights. Since 2009 Auce has been the centre of the Auce municipality. List of cities in Latvia
Gomel is the administrative centre of Gomel Region and with 526,872 inhabitants the second-most populous city of Belarus. There are at least six narratives of the origin of the city’s Belarusian name. One of the more plausible is that the name is derived from the name of the stream Homeyuk, which flowed into the river Sozh near the foot of the hill where the first settlement was founded. Names of other Belarusian cities are formed along these lines: for example, the name Minsk is derived from the river Menka, Polatsk from the river Palata, Vitsebsk from the river Vitsba. In historical sources from 1142 to the 16th century, the city is mentioned as Hom', Homiy, Homey, or Homyi; these forms are tentatively explained as derivatives of an unattested *gomŭ of uncertain meaning. The modern name for the city has been in use only since the 16th–17th centuries. During the Soviet period, another story about the city's name was popular: raftsmen on the river Sozh warned each other about the danger of running into sandy shallows by shouting «Ho!
Ho! Mel!». A more recent narrative, propagated by some modern researchers, is that the name is derived from an ancient Belarusian greeting: «Dats u homel», which means «to pat on the shoulder». Gomel was founded at the end of the 1st millennium AD on the lands of the Eastern Slavic tribal union of Radimichs, it lays on the banks of the Homeyuk stream. Sozh's high right bank, cut through by canyons, provided a natural fortification. For some time, Gomel was the capital of the Gomel Principality, before it became part of the Principality of Chernigov. Gomel is first mentioned in the Hypatian Codex under the year of 1142 as being territory of the princes of Chernigov. For some time, Gomel was ruled by the prince of Smolensk Rostislav Mstislavich before it was re-captured by Iziaslav III Davidovich, after whose death it belonged to Sviatoslav Olgovich and to Sviatoslav's son Oleg. Under Oleg, Gomel went to the Principality of Novhorod-Siverskyi; the next ruler was Igor Svyatoslavich – the hero of "The Tale of Igor's Campaign".
During this period, the town was the centre of a volost. In the 12th–13th centuries the city's area was not less than 40 ha, it had developed various crafts and was connected by trading routes with the cities of Northern and Southern Rus'. Archeological data have shown that the city was badly damaged during the Mongol-Tatar assault in the first half of the 13th century. In 1335, the Gomel region was joined to the Great Duchy of Lithuania by Algirdas. From 1335 to 1406 it was under the ownership of prince Patricia Narymuntovich and his sons, from 1406 to 1419 the city was ruled by the Great Duke's deputies, from 1419 to 1435 it belonged to prince Svitrigaila, from 1446 to 1452 to prince Vasiliy Yaroslavich, from 1452 to 1483 to Mozhaysk prince Ivan Andreyevich, from 1483 to 1505 to his son Semyon, who transferred it to the Grand Duchy of Moscow. During the Second Muscovite-Lithuanian War of 1500–1503 Lithuania tried to regain Gomel and other lands transferred to Moscow, but suffered defeat and lost one-third of its territory.
In 1535, Lithuanian and Polish forces under Jerzy Radziwiłł, Jan Tarnowski and Andrzej Niemirowicz re-captured the city after the surrender of Moscow's deputy, D. Shchepin-Obolensky. In the same year, the Great Duke of Lithuania Sigismund Kęstutaitis founded the Gomel Starostwo. According to the peace agreement of 1537, Gomel together with its volost remained a Lithuanian possession. In 1535–1565 Gomel is the centre of starostwo, from 1565 onwards Gomel is in the Rechytsa Powiat of the Minsk Voivodeship. In 1560, the city's first coat of arms was introduced. In 1569, Gomel became part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. From this moment on, the city became the arena of numerous attacks and battles between Cossaks and the Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth. In 1572, Gomel Starostwo was given to B. Sapega. At the beginning of the 1570s, Gomel was captured by the forces of Ivan the Terrible, but in 1576 it was re-captured by J. Radziwiłł. In 1581, Gomel was again attacked by Russian troops, in 1595–1596 it was in the hands of Severyn Nalyvaiko's Cossaks.
After the beginning of the struggle against Orthodox Christianity in Lithuania, Orthodox Nikolayevskiy Cathedral was closed on the order of Greek Catholic Eparch Josaphat Kuntsevych in 1621. In 1633 the city was besieged by the Cossaks of Bulgakov and Yermolin, in 1648 captured by the Golovatskiy's Cossack detachment, in 1649 by Martyn Nebaba's detachment. After that, Gomel got through several sieges in 1651 but in 1654 was captured by Ivan Zolotarenko's detachment, he and his sons held the city until 1667 and began to serve under Alexis of Russia, after the Truce of Andrusovo Gomel at last returned to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where it first belonged to M. K. Radziwiłł and – till the annexation by the Russian Empire – to the Czartoryski family. During the Great Northern War Russian forces under Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov stood in Gomel. In 1670, Gomel got the Magdeburg rights. Towards the middle of the 17th century, the city fell into crisis due to the struggles mentioned above.
It suffered significant damage, the population decreased and many crafts disappeared. The period when Gomel was part of the Russian Empire was marked by rapid growth of the population, urban infrastructure, industrial capacity. Gomel became part of the Russian Empire after the first partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772 and was confiscated by the imperial treasury. In 1775, Empress Catherine II gave Gomel and Gomel eldership in the eternal hereditary poss