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Bryozoa

Bryozoa are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals. About 0.5 millimetres long, they are filter feeders that sieve food particles out of the water using a retractable lophophore, a "crown" of tentacles lined with cilia. Most marine species live in tropical waters, but a few occur in oceanic trenches, others are found in polar waters. One class lives only in a variety of freshwater environments, a few members of a marine class prefer brackish water. 5869 living species are known. One genus is solitary and the rest are colonial; the phylum was called "Polyzoa", but this term was superseded by "Bryozoa" in 1831. Another group of animals discovered subsequently, whose filtering mechanism looked similar, was included in "Bryozoa" until 1869, when the two groups were noted to be different internally; the more discovered group was given the name Entoprocta, while the original "Bryozoa" were called "Ectoprocta". However, "Bryozoa" has remained the more used term for the latter group. Individuals in bryozoan colonies are called zooids, since they are not independent animals.

All colonies contain autozooids, which are responsible for excretion. Colonies of some classes have various types of non-feeding specialist zooids, some of which are hatcheries for fertilized eggs, some classes have special zooids for defense of the colony; the class Cheilostomata has the largest number of species because they have the widest range of specialist zooids. A few species can creep slowly by using spiny defensive zooids as legs. Autozooids supply nutrients to non-feeding zooids by channels. All zooids, including those of the solitary species, consist of a cystid that provides the body wall and produces the exoskeleton and a polypide that contains the internal organs and the lophophore or other specialist extensions. Zooids have no special excretory organs, the polypides of autozooids are scrapped when the polypides become overloaded by waste products. In autozooids the gut is U-shaped, with the mouth inside the "crown" of tentacles and the anus outside it. Colonies take a variety of forms, including fans and sheets.

The Cheilostomata produce mineralized exoskeletons and form single-layered sheets which encrust over surfaces. Zooids of all the freshwater species are simultaneous hermaphrodites. Although those of many marine species function first as males and as females, their colonies always contain a combination of zooids that are in their male and female stages. All species emit sperm into the water; some release ova into the water, while others capture sperm via their tentacles to fertilize their ova internally. In some species the larvae have large yolks, go to feed, settle on a surface. Others feed for a few days before settling. After settling, all larvae undergo a radical metamorphosis that destroys and rebuilds all the internal tissues. Freshwater species produce statoblasts that lie dormant until conditions are favorable, which enables a colony's lineage to survive if severe conditions kill the mother colony. Predators of marine bryozoans include nudibranchs, sea urchins, crustaceans and starfish.

Freshwater bryozoans are preyed on by snails and fish. In Thailand, many populations of one freshwater species have been wiped out by an introduced species of snail. A fast-growing invasive bryozoan off the northeast and northwest coasts of the US has reduced kelp forests so much that it has affected local fish and invertebrate populations. Bryozoans have spread diseases to fish fishermen. Chemicals extracted from a marine bryozoan species have been investigated for treatment of cancer and Alzheimer's disease, but analyses have not been encouraging. Mineralized skeletons of bryozoans first appear in rocks from the Early Ordovician period, making it the last major phylum to appear in the fossil record; this has led researchers to suspect that bryozoans arose earlier but were unmineralized, may have differed from fossilized and modern forms. Early fossils are of erect forms, but encrusting forms became dominant, it is uncertain. Bryozoans' evolutionary relationships to other phyla are unclear because scientists' view of the family tree of animals is influenced by better-known phyla.

Both morphological and molecular phylogeny analyses disagree over bryozoans' relationships with entoprocts, about whether bryozoans should be grouped with brachiopods and phoronids in Lophophorata, whether bryozoans should be considered protostomes or deuterostomes. Bryozoans and brachiopods strain food out of the water by means of a lophophore, a "crown" of hollow tentacles. Bryozoans form colonies consisting of clones called zooids that are about 0.5 millimetres long. Phoronids resemble bryozoan zooids but are 2 to 20 centimetres long and, although they grow in clumps, do not form colonies consisting of clones. Brachiopods thought to be related to bryozoans and phoronids, are distinguished by having shells rather like those of bivalves. All three of these phyla have a coelom, an internal cavity lined by mesothelium; some encrusting bryozoan colonies with mineralized exoskeletons look like small corals. However, bryozoan colonies are founded by an ancestrula, round rather than shaped like a normal zooid of that species.

On the other hand, the founding polyp of a coral has a shape like that of its daughter polyps, an

HMS Lennox (1914)

HMS Lennox was a Laforey-class destroyer built for the Royal Navy during the 1910s. The Laforey class were improved and faster versions of the preceding Acasta class, they displaced 965–1,010 long tons. The ships had an overall length of 268 feet 10 inches, a beam of 27 feet 8 inches and a draught of 10 feet 6 inches. Lennox was powered by two Parsons direct-drive steam turbines, each driving one propeller shaft, using steam provided by four Yarrow boilers; the turbines gave a maximum speed of 29 knots. The ships carried a maximum of 280 long tons of fuel oil that gave them a range of 1,750 nautical miles at 15 knots; the ships' complement was 74 ratings. The ships were armed with three single QF 4-inch Mark IV guns and two QF 1.5-pounder anti-aircraft guns. These latter guns were replaced by a pair of QF 2-pounder "pom-pom" anti-aircraft guns; the ships were fitted with two above-water twin mounts for 21-inch torpedoes. They were equipped with rails to carry four Vickers Elia Mk IV mines, although these rails were never used.

Lennox was laid down at William Beardmore and Company's Clydebank shipyard as Portia on 14 November 1912. On 30 September 1913, the Admiralty ordered that the L-class be renamed with names beginning with the letter "L", Portia was renamed Lennox, she was launched on 17 March 1914 on completed in July that year. On commissioning, Lennox joined the 3rd Destroyer Flotilla, based at The Nore. On the outbreak of the First World War this Flotilla became part of the Harwich Force, under the overall command of Commodore Reginald Tyrwhitt, serving in the North Sea, but capable of reinforcing either the Grand Fleet or forces in the English Channel as required. Lennox saw action including the Battle off Texel. On 6 May 1916, Lennox accidentally collided with a seaplane carrier. Damage was insignificant for both ships, however. Caruana, J.. "Question 33/48: British Seaplane Tender Sunk by Turkish Artillery". Warship International. Vol. 49 no. 4. Toledo, Ohio: International Naval Research Organization. Pp. 297–99.

ISSN 0043-0374. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. Dittmar, F. J. & Colledge, J. J.. British Warships 1914–1919. Shepperton, UK: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0380-7. Friedman, Norman. British Destroyers: From Earliest Days to the Second World War. Barnsley, UK: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84832-049-9. Gardiner, Robert & Gray, Randal. Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5. Manning, T. D.. The British Destroyer. London: Putnam. Massie, Robert K.. Castles of Steel: Britain and the Winning of the War at Sea. London: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-099-52378-9. Monograph No. 6: The Passage of the British Expeditionary Force, August, 1914. Naval Staff Monographs. III. Naval Staff and Staff Duties Division. 1921. Pp. 1–70. Monograph No. 11: The Battle of the Heligoland Bight, August 28th, 1914. Naval Staff Monographs. III. Naval Staff and Staff Duties Division.

1921. Pp. 108–166

Hypocala violacea

Hypocala violacea is a species of moth of the family Erebidae first described by Arthur Gardiner Butler in 1879. It is found in the Indo-Australian tropics of India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar; the adult forewings are a uniform rufous and violet brown, marks on the distal margin being reduced to a pair of dots at the tornus, the inner one white, the outer one black, ringed white, an enlarged member of the marginal row of white dots. The hindwing underside is broadly fawn over the anterior half, with darker striae. Sri Lankan specimens have black markings on dorsal side of hindwings and ventral side of forewings are rather narrow; the caterpillar has a variably orange to black head, black body. Around each spiracle, there is an orange patch, its ventral surface is fuscous green. The larvae feed on Diospyros species. Species info Australian Faunal Directory

Changyi, Shandong

Changyi is a county-level city of Weifang, Shandong province, People's Republic of China. The city is 1627.5 square kilometers in area, with a household population of 581,000 as of 2010. The city is under the administration of the Changyi Municipal People's Government, with three neighborhoods, six towns, 691 administrative villages, one special economic development zone. Changyi has a long history that extends back into Autumn period. Changyi, from the Chinese characters 昌 for prosperous and 邑 for city, means the "Prosperous City"; the site of ancient Ziyi is located in Changyi. Changyi was called Duchang; the area was renamed “Changyi” during the Northern Song Dynasty in 962 AD, has retained its name since then. Changyi is over 2200 years old. In the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, the city served as the manor of Yanzi and Sun Bin. In 1988, Changyi was designated by the Central Government of China as “coastal open city”, in 1994 it was established as a county-level city to replace the old Changyi County.

Changyi is located in the northwest corner of the Shandong Peninsula and in the southern Bohai Laizhou Bay area, with geographical coordinates of latitude 36 ° 25'-37 ° 08', longitude 119 ° 13'-119 ° 37'. Situated on southern Laizhou Bay area of Bohai Sea, it neighbors with Yantai, Laizhou and Pingdu to its east, Weifang City to its west, it belongs to the Qingdao One-hour Economic Zone” and “Weifang Half-hour Economic Zone.” It has the Xiashan Reservoir. The city has a total area of 1,627.5 km2. Changyi comprises six towns, three districts, 691 administrative villages, one special economic development area, which are Kuiju District, Duchang District, Weizi District, Liutuan Town, Longchi Town, Buzhuang Town, Yinma Town, Beimeng Town, Xiaying Town, Shibu Economic Development Zones. In addition, Changyi has the jurisdiction over the provincial-level Changyi Economic Development Zone, Xiaying Coastal Economic Development Zone including the entire Xiaying Town, Liutuan Town, part of Longchi Town north of Dalailong Railway, applying for the upgrade to a provincial-level development zone.

The economy of Changyi is more industrially based, has formed a competitive market marked by new products, new technologies, new projects, such as the petrochemical industry and salt chemical industry, machinery manufacturing, food processing and green seedlings among others. Changyi's Petrochemical industry has an annual processing capacity of 10 million tons, a sales income of 13.7 billion yuan. Changyi's salt and salt chemical industry produces crude salt with an annual production capacity of four million tons, accounting for one sixth of the China's sea salt production; the bromine production capacity of Changyi by the Shandong JinDian Chemical Company is 40,000 tons a year, accounting for a quarter of China's production of bromine. Machinery manufacturing includes textile machinery, plastic machinery, broaching machines, auto parts; the auto parts manufacturing by Consolidated Metco's Shandong branch, is the largest production base in China for large automotive wheels, brake drums, brake discs production.

The existing textile enterprises, such as that of the Huachen group, have more than 2,500 factories with an annual spinning capacity of 1.8 million meters, weaving capacity of 3.5 billion meters, with dyeing, printing capacity of 2.1 billion meters, is ranked within the top 50 of the Chinese textile brands. Food processing industry has over 160 processing enterprises, whose products are sold in over 30 countries and regions in the world. Tyson Foods has a branch in Changyi which processes chicken for Tyson's Asia market; the Tyson plant processes up to 80,000 chickens per day. The aquaculture industry has factory farming area of 230,000 square meters, producing over 140,000 tons of aquatic products, with the total output value of 820 million RMB. Industry of seedlings has seedlings of 1647.369 acres, seedling stock of 200 million annual turnover of 500 million RMB. Changyi has been assessed as the National seedlings market by the State Forestry Administration of the People's Republic of China, the National Advanced Unit of Tree Seed and Seedling" and has organized nine National North China Green Seedlings Expos and six Chinese Garden Flowers and Information Exchanges.

Changyi has one national post-doctoral research institution, 29 of the Provincial and Weifang municipal engineering and technical centers, produces two top national brand-name products, four famous national trademarks, twelve Shandong name-brands, 26 famous Shandong trademarks. The city has been nationally named an advanced city for science and technology for six consecutive years. Changyi is fast in developing strategic new enterprises marked by new energy sources, new materials, high-end equipment manufacturing, energy saving and environmental protection, bio-pharmaceutical industry; the urban and rural household waste utilization project has applied for 13 Intellectual property in the People's Republic of China, passed the provincial assessment of science and technology achievements, reached the international advanced level, won major energy-saving achievement award of Shandong Province. Jinsida Project of Treatment and Recycling of Printing and Dyeing Waste Water has applied for 12 national patents, been included in the top 10 model technology projects of sustainable development in Shandong Province, winning the 3rd place of scientific and technological progress in Shandong.

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Micky Fernandes

Micky Fernandes is a retired Indian footballer who played as a midfielder, is a current head coach of Vasco S. C.. Fernandes started his professional career with Salgaocar of the National Football League in 2003 and stayed at the club till 2007. From Salgaocar, Fernandes joined Sporting Clube de Goa where he stayed till 2009. From there he joined Mohun Bagan where he only stayed at for one season before joining Dempo S. C. in 2010 on a two-year contract. After spending two years at Dempo in which Fernandes was used as a player in the Goa Professional League only and in three AFC Cup matches in 2011, Fernandes signed for Mumbai F. C. of the I-League on 7 June 2012. Fernandes made his debut for Air India F. C. on 20 September 2012 during a Federation Cup match against Mohammedan at the Kanchenjunga Stadium in Siliguri, West Bengal in which he started the match. Fernandes made his debut for Churchill Brothers in the I-League on 21 September 2013 against Salgaocar at the Duler Stadium in which he came on as a substitute for Alesh Sawant in the 65th minute.

Fernandes has played one game for the India national football team in 2006. Mickey Fernandes was appointed as head coach of Vasco S. C. on 2 August 2018. Statistics accurate as of 02 August 2018

Hip piercing

A hip piercing is a piercing in the pelvic area through the skin near the hip bone. Hip piercings are done in couplets with one on each hip, but it is not unusual to see only one. Hips piercing are a type of surface piercing. Microdermals or skin divers can be implanted in the hip area to give a similar appearance; this piercing is fitted with a surface barbell. This type of jewelry is surgical steel or titanium, with two 90 degree angles that can be shaped in various ways to better fit the anatomy of the piercing; some artists use Tygon jewelry. This is a type of plastic, said to reduce stress on the piercing because the long surface bars are better; this is because more skin is pierced and the piercing is less superficial which reduces the risk of rejection. Skin divers and dermal anchors are becoming more common in hip piercings due to their lower rejection rate and higher longevity than surface bars. Hip piercings heal through the dropout process. For Microdermal implants, there are two ways.

One way is with a needle, the other is with a dermal punch. With the needle, the area, going to be pierced is first sterilized with a surgical scrub; the area is pierced, unlike other conventional piercings, the needle punctures your skin in an L shape rather than a straight puncture. This pouch is where the anchor of the dermal piercing will be placed; this jewelry pincers called forceps. The jewelry is screwed into the plate. For the dermal punch, the process is similar to the needle, rather than making the L shape in the skin by separation of the skin, the punch removes skin and tissue to create the space. Using the dermal punch is more protective because it prevents the piercing from going too deep into the skin; this method is more common because it is quicker and less painful than the difficult needle puncture. For surface piercings, the process is different. Rather than puncturing one piece of jewelry into the skin at a time, a surface piercing sends a barbell through a hollow tunnel right under the surface of your skin.

Just like the micro dermal piercing, there are two methods to this process. One includes the use of a needle, the other utilizes a scalpel. With a needle, the surface piercing of the hip is done just like any other place on the body such as a nose piercing, or ear piercing. Pinching the skin together allows for a quick puncture through the skin on the hip; this process is less popular because of the higher rejection rate due to the jewelry being less optimal than the dermal jewelry. The second procedure, using a scalpel, creates a pocket under your skin for the jewelry to reside; this process has a lower rejection rate. This piercing heals in one to three months, depending on the person’s body; the best way to take care of your piercing is to be careful and do your best in cleaning the area during the healing process. To protect against infection, antibacterial soap is the best way. Make sure to not only clean the pierced area itself, but cleaning your hands before touching the piercing is important.

The most convenient way to wash the piercing is in the shower so the water can run on it, never use a loofah or washcloth as those tend to harbor bacteria. Sea salt is recommended by some, but not others. Contact the person who did your piercing to hear their suggestions based on their choice of jewelry. Things to be avoided during the healing process include pools, the sea, dirty clothes, changing the jewelry for at least three weeks, touching the area with dirty hands; the biggest risk that comes with a hip piercing is piercing migration. This is a result of your body pushing it out. Rejection rates vary depending on the person’s skin, the activities a person partakes in that may create tension in that area, the jewelry or procedure used. Sitting down for a consultation with a professional piercer is recommended before this type of piercing. Another risk includes tissue damage, the damaging of blood vessels or nerves in the dermis or dermal layer; this is more to happen when the piercing is done by someone, not a professional.

If the piercing is too deep, the skin layers may pull together. Shallow piercings will result in rejection; the last risk is bacterial infection, which occurs when the equipment used is not sterilized, or the piercing is not well cared for during the healing process. Pus and inflammation may develop if the piercing becomes infected, careful cleaning and aftercare can avoid this risk. Hip piercings are considered contemporary in origin. Hips piercing done freehanded Hips piercing done with a clamp