Dubble Bubble is a brand of pink-colored bubblegum invented by Walter Diemer, an accountant at Philadelphia-based Fleer Chewing Gum Company in 1928. One of Diemer’s hobbies was concocting recipes for chewing gum based on the original Fleer ingredients. Though founder Frank Fleer had come up with his own bubble gum recipe in 1906, it was shelved due to its being too sticky and breaking apart too easily, it would be another 20 years until Diemer would use the original idea as inspiration for his invention. Fleer Chewing Gum Company, in Philadelphia, had been searching for years to produce a formula that allowed bubbles to be blown that did not stick. In 1928, while Walter Diemer was testing new gum recipes, he noticed that his product was less sticky than regular chewing gum, after testing it he found that he could create bubbles easily. After a year of attempts, he made the first successful batch of bubble gum, but the next morning when trying to recreate his successful concoction, he failed to reproduce the same results.
After four months of trying to mimic his first success, he made a 300-pound batch of what would become Dubble Bubble. The only food coloring available at the factory was pink, so Diemer had no choice but to use it, the color would go on to become the standard for gum for the world over. Using a salt water taffy wrapping machine, Diemer decided to individually wrap 100 pieces and brought the stock to a local candy store; the gum was sold out in one day. Before long, the Fleer Chewing Gum Company began making bubble gum using Diemer’s recipe, the gum was marketed as “Dubble Bubble” gum. Diemer’s bubble gum was the first-ever commercially sold bubble gum, its sales surpassed 1.5 million dollars in the first year. To help sell the new bubble gum, Diemer himself taught salespeople how to blow bubbles so that they in turn could teach potential customers; the original gum featured a color comic strip, known as the Fleer Funnies, included with the gum. The featured characters, ‘Dub and Bub’, were introduced in 1930 but were replaced by the iconic Pud and his pals in 1950.
Pud was much more rotund than the slimmed down version seen in the 1960s. The early comics were large and colorful; the comic included Fleer Fortunes and Dubble Bubble Facts. The comics were sequentially numbered, they are not dated though, so it is difficult to know the exact year of release. By the late 1950s and early 1960s, Fleer Funnies shrank to the small size. More than 1,002 comics have been released over the years. During World War II, Dubble Bubble was distributed to the military. Sugar and latex became scarce due to the war and bubble gum manufacturing was halted in 1942. In 1951, Fleer resumed manufacturing of the popularity of its gum grew steadily. Over time, Fleer extended its reach by adding new flavors and new formats like ball gum and expanded distribution of its products overseas. In 1957, Fleer introduced the first gum 6-pack with Dubble Bubble. In 1998, Dubble Bubble was purchased by Concord Confections and in 1999 they introduced Dubble Bubble as a gumball. In 2003, Tootsie Roll Industries acquired Concord.
The main ingredients in Dubble Bubble gum are Sugar, Corn Syrup, Gum Base, Tapioca Dextrin, Titanium Dioxide, Confectioner's Glaze, Carnauba Wax, Corn Starch, Artificial Flavors, Artificial Colors, BHT. The ingredients of "1928 Original" Dubble Bubble gum are Sugar, Corn Syrup, Gum Base, High Fructose Corn Syrup, Artificial Flavor, Corn Starch and BHT. Dubble Bubble gum products are gluten-free, peanut-free and kosher. Dubble Bubble twist gummies is a 6 g, bite-size piece of chewing gum containing 20 calories with 0 g of fat, 0 mg of cholesterol, 5 mg of sodium, 5 g of carbohydrates, 0 g of dietary fiber, 4 g of sugar and 0 g of protein. Dubble Bubble Ball Gum is available in 5 g servings containing 20 calories, 5 mg of sodium, 5 g of carbs and 4 g of sugars. Dubble Bubble specialty bubble-gum cigars come in 20 g servings and contain 70 calories, 18 g of carbs and 15 g of sugar. Dubble Bubble Office Pleasures bite-size gum pieces come in 3.5 g servings containing 15 calories, 3 g of carbs and 3 g of sugar.
The Fleer Corporation, founded by Frank H. Fleer in 1885, was the first company to manufacture bubble gum. Fleer developed a bubble gum formulation called Blibber-Blubber in 1906. However, while this gum was capable of being blown into bubbles, in other respects it was vastly inferior to regular chewing gum, Blibber-Blubber was never marketed to the public. In 1928, Fleer employee Walter Diemer improved the Blibber-Blubber formulation to produce the first commercially successful bubble gum, Dubble Bubble, its pink color set a tradition for nearly all bubble gums to follow. Fleer became known as a maker of sports cards, starting in 1923 with the production of baseball cards. Fleer released American football and basketball card sets through its history; the company produced some non-sports trading cards. In 1995, Fleer acquired the trading card company SkyBox International and, over Thanksgiving vacation shuttered its Philadelphia plant. In 1998, 70-year-old Dubble Bubble was acquired by Canadian company Concord Confections.
In late May 2005, news circulated. By early July, in a move similar to declaring bankruptcy, the company began to liquidate its assets to repay creditors; the move included the auction of the Fleer trade name, as well as other holdings. Competitor Upper Deck won the Fleer name, as well as their die cast toy business, at a price of $6.1 million. Just one year earlier, Upper Deck tendered an offer of $25 million, rejected by Fleer based on the hope that the sports card market would turn in a direction more favorable to their licenses and target collector demographic. One negative aspect associated with Fleer's Assignment for the Benefit of Creditors is that many sports card collectors now own redemption cards for autographs and memorabilia that may not be able to be redeemed; the Fleer company was started by Frank H. Fleer in 1885, as a confectionery business. Well established as a gum and candy company, Fleer predated many of its competitors into the business of issuing sports cards with its 1923 release of baseball cards in its "Bobs and Fruit Hearts" candy product.
These rare cards are the same as the 1923 W515 strip cards but are machine cut and have a printed ad for the candy company on the back. Many years in 1959 it signed baseball star Ted Williams to a contract and sold an 80-card set oriented around highlights of his career. Fleer was unable to include other players because rival company Topps had signed most active baseball players to exclusive contracts. Williams retired after the 1960 season. However, Fleer continued to produce baseball cards by featuring Williams with other retired players in a Baseball Greats series. One set was produced in 1960 and a second in 1961; the company did not produce new cards the next year, but continued selling the 1961 set while it focused on signing enough players to produce a set featuring active players in 1963. This 67-card set included a number of stars, including 1962 National League MVP Maury Wills, who had elected to sign with Fleer instead of Topps. Wills and Jimmy Piersall served as player representatives for Fleer, helping to bring others on board.
However, Topps still held onto the rights of most players and the set was not successful. Meanwhile, Fleer took advantage of the emergence of the American Football League in 1960 to begin producing football cards. Fleer produced a set for the AFL. In 1961, each company produced cards featuring players from both leagues; the next year reverted to the status quo ante, with Fleer covering the AFL and Topps the NFL. In 1964, Philadelphia Gum secured the rights for NFL cards and Topps took over the AFL; this left Fleer with no product in either football. The company now turned its efforts to supporting an administrative complaint filed against Topps by the Federal Trade Commission; the complaint focused on the baseball card market, alleging that Topps was engaging in unfair competition through its aggregation of exclusive contracts. A hearing examiner ruled against Topps in 1965; the Commission concluded that because the contracts only covered the sale of cards with gum, competition was still possible by selling cards with other small, low-cost products.
However, Fleer chose not to pursue such options and instead sold its remaining player contracts to Topps for $395,000 in 1966. The decision gave Topps an effective monopoly of the baseball card market. In 1968, Fleer was approached by the Major League Baseball Players Association, a organized players' union, about obtaining a group license to produce cards; the MLBPA was in a dispute with Topps over player contracts, offered Fleer the exclusive rights to market cards of most players starting in 1973, when many of Topps's contracts would expire. Since this was so far in the future, Fleer declined the proposal. Fleer returned to the union in September 1974 with a proposal to sell 5-by-7-inch satin patches of players, somewhat larger than normal baseball cards. By now, the MLBPA had settled its differences with Topps and reached an agreement that gave Topps a right of first refusal on such offers. Topps passed on the opportunity, indicating that it did not think the product would be successful
Chewing gum is a soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed. Modern chewing gum is composed of gum base, softeners/plasticizers, colors, a hard or powdered polyol coating, its texture is reminiscent of rubber because of the physical-chemical properties of its polymer and resin components, which contribute to its elastic-plastic, chewy characteristics. The cultural tradition of chewing gum seems to have developed through a convergent evolution process, as traces of this habit have arisen separately in many of the early civilizations; each of the early precursors to chewing gum were derived from natural growths local to the region and were chewed purely out the instinctual desire to masticate. Early chewers did not desire to derive nutritional benefits from their chewable substances, but at times sought taste stimuli and teeth cleaning or breath-freshening capabilities. Chewing gum in many forms has existed since the Neolithic period. 6,000-year-old chewing gum made from birch bark tar, with tooth imprints, has been found in Kierikki in Finland.
The tar from which the gums were made is believed to have antiseptic properties and other medicinal benefits. It is in this way different from most other early gum; the Mayans and Aztecs were the first to exploit the positive properties of gum, they used chicle, a natural tree gum, as a base for making a gum-like substance and to stick objects together in everyday use. Forms of chewing gums were chewed in Ancient Greece; the Ancient Greeks chewed mastic gum, made from the resin of the mastic tree. Mastic gum, like birch bark tar, has antiseptic properties and is believed to have been used to maintain oral health. Both chicle and mastic are tree resins. Many other cultures have chewed gum-like substances made from plants and resins. Although chewing gum can be traced back to civilizations around the world, the modernization and commercialization of this product took place in the United States; the American Indians chewed resin made from the sap of spruce trees. The New England settlers picked up this practice, in 1848, John B. Curtis developed and sold the first commercial chewing gum called The State of Maine Pure Spruce Gum.
In this way, the industrializing West, having forgotten about tree gums, rediscovered chewing gum through the First Americans. Around 1850 a gum made from paraffin wax, a petroleum product, was developed and soon exceeded the spruce gum in popularity. To sweeten these early gums, the chewer would make use of a plate of powdered sugar, which they would dip the gum into to maintain sweetness. William Semple filed an early patent on chewing gum, patent number 98,304, on December 28, 1869; the first flavored chewing gum was created in the 1860s by John Colgan, a Louisville, Kentucky pharmacist. Colgan mixed with powdered sugar the aromatic flavoring tolu, a powder obtained from an extract of the balsam tree, creating small sticks of flavored chewing gum he named "Taffy Tolu". Colgan lead the way in the manufacturing and packaging of chicle-based chewing gum, derived from Manilkara chicle, a tropical evergreen tree, he licensed a patent for automatically cutting chips of chewing gum from larger sticks: US 966,160 "Chewing Gum Chip Forming Machine" August 2, 1910 and a patent for automatically cutting wrappers for sticks of chewing gum: US 913,352 "Web-cutting attachment for wrapping-machines" February 23, 1909 from Louisville, Kentucky inventor James Henry Brady, an employee of the Colgan Gum Company.
Modern chewing gum was first developed in the 1860s when chicle was brought from Mexico by the former President, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, to New York, where he gave it to Thomas Adams for use as a rubber substitute. Chicle did not succeed as a replacement for rubber, but as a gum, cut into strips and marketed as Adams New York Chewing Gum in 1871. Black Jack, flavored with licorice and Wrigley's Spearmint Gum were early popular gums that dominated the market and are all still around today. Chewing gum gained worldwide popularity through American GIs in WWII, who were supplied chewing gum as a ration and traded it with locals. Synthetic gums were first introduced to the U. S. after chicle no longer satisfied the needs of making good chewing gum. By the 1960s, US manufacturers had switched to butadiene-based synthetic rubber, as it was cheaper to manufacture. Gum base composition is considered proprietary information known by select individuals within each gum-manufacturing company.
Information about the other components of chewing gum are more accessible to the public and they are listed in Table 2. Table 2: Common Ingredients in the Formulation of Modern Chewing Gum Gum base is made of polymers and resins. Polymers, including elastomers, are responsible for the sticky nature of chewing gum. Plasticizers improve flexibility and reduce brittleness, contributing to the plastic and elastic nature of gum; the interactions of plasticizers within gum base are governed by solubility parameters, molecular weight, chemical structure. Resins compose the hydrophobic portion of the gum base, responsible for its chewiness. Although the exact ingredients and proportions used in each brand's gum base are trade secrets within the gum industry, Table 3 lists all of the natural and synthetic gum base components approved for use in the United States, demonstrating some examples of key gum base components. Table 3: Gum Base Ingredients Approved for Use by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration First, gum base is prepared through a melting and straining or filtering process.
The formulation for gum base is proprietary information known to fe
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines and savoury dishes, breakfast cereals, snackfoods and traditional foods; the aroma and flavour of cinnamon derive from its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, as well as numerous other constituents, including eugenol. The term "cinnamon" is used to describe its mid-brown colour. Cinnamon is the name for several species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. Only a few Cinnamomum species are grown commercially for spice. Cinnamomum verum is sometimes considered to be "true cinnamon", but most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from related species referred to as "cassia". In 2016, Indonesia and China produced 75% of the world's supply of cinnamon; the English word "cinnamon", attested in English since the fifteenth century, derives from the Greek κιννάμωμον kinnámōmon, via Latin and medieval French intermediate forms.
The Greek was borrowed from a Phoenician word, similar to the related Hebrew קינמון. The name "cassia", first recorded in late Old English from Latin, derives from Hebrew q'tsīʿāh, a form of the verb qātsaʿ, "to strip off bark". Early Modern English used the names canel and canella, similar to the current names of cinnamon in several other European languages, which are derived from the Latin word cannella, a diminutive of canna, "tube", from the way the bark curls up as it dries. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity, it was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC, but those who reported that it had come from China had confused it with cinnamon cassia, a related species. Cinnamon was so prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and for a deity, its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by those in the spice trade to protect their monopoly as suppliers. Cinnamomum verum, which translates as'true cinnamon', is native to India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar.
Cinnamomum cassia is native to China. Related species, all harvested and sold in the modern era as cinnamon, are native to Vietnam and other southeast Asian countries with warm climates; the first Greek reference to kasia is found in a poem by Sappho in the seventh century BC. According to Herodotus, both cinnamon and cassia grew in Arabia, together with incense and labdanum, were guarded by winged serpents. In Ancient Egypt, cinnamon was used to embalm mummies. From Hellenistic times onward, Ancient Egyptian recipes for kyphi, an aromatic used for burning, included cinnamon and cassia; the gifts of Hellenistic rulers to temples sometimes included cinnamon. Cinnamon was brought around the Arabian peninsula on "rafts without rudders or sails or oars", taking advantage of the winter trade winds. Pliny the Elder mentions cassia as a flavouring agent for wine. According to Pliny the Elder, a Roman pound of cassia, cinnamon, or serichatum cost up to 1500 denarii, the wage of fifty months' labour. Diocletian's Edict on Maximum Prices from 301 AD gives a price of 125 denarii for a pound of cassia, while an agricultural labourer earned 25 denarii per day.
Cinnamon was too expensive to be used on funeral pyres in Rome, but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in AD 65. Through the Middle Ages, the source of cinnamon remained a mystery to the Western world. From reading Latin writers who quoted Herodotus, Europeans had learned that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt, but where it came from was less than clear; when the Sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on crusade in 1248, he reported – and believed – what he had been told: that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. Marco Polo avoided precision on the topic. Herodotus and other authors named Arabia as the source of cinnamon: they recounted that giant "cinnamon birds" collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew and used them to construct their nests, that the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks.
Pliny the Elder wrote in the first century that traders had made this up to charge more, but the story remained current in Byzantium as late as 1310. The first mention that the spice grew in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar al-bilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad about 1270; this was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino in a letter of about 1292. Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon directly from the Moluccas to East Africa, where local traders carried it north to Alexandria in Egypt. Venetian traders from Italy held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe, distributing cinnamon from Alexandria; the disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers, such as the Mamluk sultans and the Ottoman Empire, was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more for other routes to Asia. During the 1500s, Ferdinand Magellan was searching for spices on behalf of Spain, in the Philippines found Cinnamomum mindanaense, related to C. zeylanicum, the cinnamon found in Sri Lanka.
This cinnamon competed with Sri Lankan cinnamon, controlled by the Portuguese. In 1638, Dutch traders established a trading post in Sri Lanka, took control of the manufactories
Bazooka (chewing gum)
Bazooka is a brand of bubble gum introduced in 1947. Bazooka bubble gum was first marketed shortly after World War II in the U. S. by the Topps Company of Brooklyn, New York. The gum was packaged in a red and blue color scheme. Beginning in 1953, Topps changed the packaging to include small comic strips with the gum, featuring the character "Bazooka Joe". There are over 1,535 different "Bazooka Joe" comic-strip wrappers to collect. On the comic strip is an offer for a premium and a fortune. Older Bazooka comic strips are no longer available. In addition to "Original", Topps included the flavors "Strawberry Shake," "Cherry Berry," "Watermelon Whirl," and "Grape Rage." Bazooka gum makes sugar-free flavors such as "Original" and a "Flavor Blasts" variety, claimed to have a longer-lasting, more intense taste. Bazooka gum comes in two different sizes. Bazooka bubblegum is sold in many countries with Bazooka Joe comic strips translated to the local language. Bazooka gum is sold in Canada depending upon the city.
In Israel, it is manufactured under license by Elite in the company's factory in upper Nazareth. In 2012, Bazooka Candy Brands announced they would no longer include comics, instead using brain-teasing puzzle wrappers in an attempt to modernize the brand. In Argentina, sales continue with the comics in Spanish using the name "Yo amo Bazooka". Bazooka Joe was referenced in the Seinfeld episode "The Cafe."Bazooka Joe was referenced in the King of Queens episode "Thanks Man."Bazooka Joe gum was lampooned on 30 Rock, with Alec Baldwin's character telling a fictional story of the founder inheriting a "useless pink rock quarry" and turning it into gum by baking it. A "softer version of their gum was used to make armor-piercing bullets." A fictional advertisement for the gum, starring Stacy Keach, encouraged viewers to chew Bazooka Joe gum "because life is hard," and "it's like chewing a mountain that someone shot a freeze ray into."In a November 2013 episode of How I Met Your Mother, it was referenced by Marshall when he made a joke, not submitted to be part of the Bazooka jokes.
In the January 23, 2018 episode of The Flash titled "The Elongated Knight Rises", it was referenced synonymously by Cisco as his favorite gum that disappeared in the 1990s due to the actions of the original Trickster and Prank. Bazooka Joe
Wintergreen is a group of aromatic plants. The term "wintergreen" once referred to plants that remain green throughout the winter; the term "evergreen" is now more used for this characteristic. Most species of the shrub genus Gaultheria demonstrate this characteristic and are called wintergreens in North America, the most common being the American wintergreen. Wintergreens in the genus Gaultheria contain an aromatic compound, methyl salicylate, are used as a mintlike flavoring. Wintergreen berries, from Gaultheria procumbens, are used medicinally. Native Americans brewed a tea from the leaves to alleviate rheumatic symptoms, fever, sore throat, various aches and pains; these therapeutic effects arose because the primary metabolite of methyl salicylate is salicylic acid, a proven NSAID, the metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid known as aspirin. During the American Revolution, wintergreen leaves were used as a substitute for tea, scarce. Wintergreen is a common flavoring in American products ranging from chewing gum and candies to smokeless tobacco such as dipping tobacco and snus.
It is a common flavoring for dental hygiene products such as toothpaste. It is a component of the American-origin drink root beer. Wintergreen oil can be used in fine art printing applications to transfer a color photocopy image or color laser print to a high-rag-content art paper, such as a hot-press watercolor paper; the transfer method involves coating the source image with the wintergreen oil placing it face-down on the target paper and pressing the pieces of paper together under pressure using a standard etching press. Wintergreen oil is an ingredient in some popular vegetable-oil based lubricants used in firearm maintenance; these products, sold under the names Seal1 and Frog Lube, are proprietary blends of vegetable oils intended to clean and preserve the metal surfaces of firearms. They have the advantages over petroleum-based products of being biodegradable. Artificial wintergreen oil, pure methyl salicylate, is used in microscopy because of its high refractive index; the Gaultheria species share the common characteristic of producing oil of wintergreen.
Wintergreen oil is a pale yellow or pinkish fluid liquid, aromatic with a sweet, woody odor that gives such plants a distinctive "medicinal" smell whenever bruised. Salicylate sensitivity is a common adverse reaction to the methyl salicylate in oil of wintergreen. Wintergreen essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the leaves of the plant following maceration in warm water. Methyl salicylate is not present in the plant until formed by enzymatic action from a glycoside within the leaves as they are macerated in warm water. Oil of wintergreen is manufactured from some species of birch, but these deciduous trees are not called wintergreens. Spiraea plants contain methyl salicylate in large amounts and are used to wintergreen. Wintergreen has flavor. Wintergreen oil is used topically or aromatherapeutically as a folk remedy for muscle and joint discomfort, cellulite, edema, poor circulation, heart disease, rheumatism, cramps, eczema, hair care, gout and broken or bruised bones; the liquid salicylate dissolves into tissue and into capillaries and hence some will enter into the blood stream where it could present similar risks to some aspects of Aspirin for certain people, such as those with thrombosis.
Wintergreen is used in some perfumery applications and as a flavoring agent for toothpaste, chewing gum, soft drinks, confectionery and mint flavorings. One application is rust degreasing of machinery. Wintergreen is effective for breaking through sea water corrosion. Wintergreen oil has been shown to be beneficial in the restoration of the flexibility to hardened rubber components. One milliliter of oil of wintergreen is equivalent to about 1860 mg of aspirin, or six regular-strength adult aspirin tablets. Treatment is identical to the other salicylates. Early use of hemodialysis in conjunction with maximal supportive measures is encouraged in any significant ingestion of methyl salicylate. Gaultheria humifusa—alpine wintergreen Gaultheria ovatifolia—western teaberry or Oregon spicy wintergreen Chimaphila maculata—striped wintergreen Beck TR, Beck JB. Elements of Medical Jurisprudence, ed 11. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, 1963. Stevenson CA. "Oil of wintergreen poisoning". Med Sci 193:772–788. McGuigan MA.
"A two-year review of salicylate deaths in Ontario". Arch Intern Med 147:510–512
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe