Buccaneers were a kind of privateers or free sailors peculiar to the Caribbean Sea during the 17th and 18th centuries. The name applied to the landless hunters of wild boars and cattle in the uninhabited areas of Tortuga and Hispaniola; the meat they caught was smoked over a slow fire in little huts the French called boucanes to make viande boucanée – jerked meat or jerky – which they sold to the corsairs that preyed on the shipping and settlements of the Caribbean. The term was applied to the corsairs and privateers themselves known as the Brethren of the Coast. Though corsairs known as freebooters, were lawless, privateers were nominally licensed by the authorities – first the French the English and Dutch – to prey on the Spanish, until their depredations became so severe they were suppressed; the term buccaneer was taken from the Spanish bucanero and derives from the Caribbean Arawak word buccan, a wooden frame on which Tainos and Caribs roasted or smoked meat manatee. From it derived the French word boucane and hence the name boucanier for French hunters who used such frames to smoke meat from feral cattle and pigs on Hispaniola.

English colonists anglicised the word boucanier to buccaneer. About 1630, French interlopers were driven away from the island of Hispaniola and fled to nearby Tortuga; the Spaniards tried to drive them out of Tortuga, but the buccaneers were joined by many more French and English adventurers who turned to piracy. They set their eyes on Spanish shipping using small craft to attack galleons in the vicinity of the Windward Passage. With the support and encouragement of rival European powers, they became strong enough to sail for the mainland of Spanish America and sacked cities. During the mid 17th century, the Bahama Islands attracted many lawless people who had taken over New Providence. Encouraged by its large harbor, they were joined by several pirates who made their living by raiding the Spanish on the coast of Cuba, they called this activity buccaneering. In January 1684, Havana responded to the attacks by the buccaneers of the Bahamas in the event known as the Raid on Charles Town. English settlers.

The name became universally adopted in 1684 when the first English translation of Alexandre Exquemelin's book The Buccaneers of America was published. Viewed from London, buccaneering was a low-budget way to wage war on Spain. So, the English crown licensed buccaneers with letters of marque, legalizing their operations in return for a share of their profits; the buccaneers were invited by Jamaica's Governor Thomas Modyford to base ships at Port Royal. The buccaneers robbed Spanish shipping and colonies, returned to Port Royal with their plunder, making the city the most prosperous in the Caribbean. There were Royal Navy officers sent to lead the buccaneers, such as Christopher Myngs, their activities went on irrespective of whether England happened to be at war with France. Among the leaders of the buccaneers were two Frenchmen, Jean-David Nau, better known as François l'Ollonais, Daniel Montbars, who destroyed so many Spanish ships and killed so many Spaniards that he was called "the Exterminator".

Another noted leader was a Welshman named Henry Morgan, who sacked Maracaibo and Panama City, stealing a huge amount from the Spanish. Morgan became rich and went back to England, where he was knighted by Charles II. In the 1690s, the old buccaneering ways began to die out, as European governments began to discard the policy of "no peace beyond the Line". Buccaneers were hard to control. Notably, at the 1697 joint French-buccaneer siege of Cartagena, led by Bernard Desjean, Baron de Pointis, the buccaneers and the French regulars parted on bitter terms. Less tolerated by local Caribbean officials, buccaneers turned to legal work or else joined regular pirate crews who sought plunder in the Indian Ocean, the east coast of North America, or West Africa as well as in the Caribbean; the status of buccaneers as pirates or privateers was ambiguous. As a rule, the buccaneers called themselves privateers, many sailed under the protection of a letter of marque granted by British, French or Dutch authorities.

For example, Henry Morgan had some form of legal cover for all of his attacks, expressed great indignation at being called a "corsair" by the governor of Panama. These rough men had little concern for legal niceties, exploited every opportunity to pillage Spanish targets, whether or not a letter of marque was available. Many of the letters of marque used by buccaneers were invalid, any form of legal paper in that illiterate age might be passed off as a letter of marque. Furthermore those buccaneers who had valid letters of marque failed to observe their terms; the legal status of buccaneers was still further obscured by the practice of the Spanish authorities, who regarded them as heretics and interlopers, thus hanged or garroted captured buccaneers without regard to whether their attacks were licensed by French or English monarchs. French and English governors tended to turn a blind eye to the buccaneers' depredations against the Spanish when unlicensed, but as Spanish power waned toward the end of the 17th century, the buccaneers' attacks began to disrupt France and England's merchant traffic with Spanish America, such that merchants who had regarded the buccaneers as a defense against Spain now saw them as a threat to c

Tom Harper (actor)

Tom Harper is a British actor. Tom Harper was born in 1977, he attended the Webber Douglas Academy of Dramatic Art in England. Harper has appeared in more than ten television productions, his first screen role was as Acastus in Jason and the Argonauts, a two-part, fantasy-adventure television film. Harper has since appeared in other television productions including episodes of the television series Agatha Christie's Poirot, Foyle's War, Silent Witness, Spooks: Code 9, his film work includes appearing in The Upside of Telstar: The Joe Meek Story. Knights, Emma. "New Take on Hamlet at Norwich Arts Festival". Eastern Daily Press. Retrieved 27 January 2017. Hamlet: The Undiscovered Country and Prologue double bill October 30 until November 3... Tom, a professional actor for the past 12 years, has performed with... Scheck, Frank. "Blood and Chocolate". The Hollywood Reporter. Associated Press. Retrieved 27 January 2017. Cast / Vivian: Agnes Bruckner / Aiden: Hugh Dancy / Gabriel: Olivier Martinez / Astrid: Katja Riemann / Rafe: Bryan Dick / Ulf: Chris Geere / Gregor: Tom Harper...

Ferraro, Pietro. "Stasera in TV:'Litigi D'Amore. Canale Blogo Entertainment. Retrieved 27 January 2017. Cast e personaggi / Joan Allen: Terry Ann Wolfmeyer / Kevin Costner: Denny Davies / Erika Christensen: Andy Wolfmeyer / Keri Russell: Emily Wolfmeyer / Alicia Witt: Hadley Wolfmeyer / Evan Rachel Wood: Lavender Wolfmeyer / Mike Binder: Adam Goodman / Tom Harper: David Junior... Elley, Derek. "Review:'Telstar: The Joe Meek Story'". Variety. Retrieved 27 January 2017. Telstar: The Joe Meek Story / UK... With Con O'Neill, Pam Ferris, J. J. Feild, James Corden, Tom Burke, Kevin Spacey, Ralf Little, Sid Mitchell, Mathew Baynton, Shaun Evans, Callum Dixon, Tom Harper... "Telstar: The Joe Meek Story". BBC Two. 28 January 2007. Retrieved 27 January 2017. Joe Meek—Con O'Neill, Major Wilfred Banks—Kevin Spacey, Heinz Burt—JJ Feild, Mrs Violet Shenton—Pam Ferris, Clem Cattini—James Corden, Geoff Goddard—Tom Burke, Chas Hodges—Ralf Little, Patrick Pink—Sid Mitchell, Billy Fury—Jon Lee, Ritchie Blackmore—Matthew Baynton, Lord Sutch—Justin Hawkins, John Leyton—Callum Dixon, Alan Caddy—Tom Harper...

Tom Harper on IMDb

W. M. S. Russell

William Moy Stratton Russell known as Bill Russell, was a British zoologist, best known for writing, along with R. L. Burch The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, a landmark in the humane use of animals in research and testing. Russell and Burch introduced the concept of the Three Rs in the scientific community and provided a blueprint for combining animal welfare considerations and quality of research. Bill Russell was born in 1925 in Plymouth, UK, his father, Sir Frederick Stratten Russell, was the Director of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. At the age of seventeen Bill started to study Classics at Oxford, but one year he joined the army. In the autumn of 1944 his battalion was sent to Northwest Europe. Places he served included the area of the Netherlands. After the war Bill continued to study Classics and English Literature at Oxford but switched on to Zoology, with Peter Medawar as tutor. In 1952 he defended his thesis on endocrinology and behaviour of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

As part of his thesis study he developed, together with Richard Murray, a more humane method of killing this species and introduced, for the first time in ethology, Sir Ronald Fisher’s method of experimental design and statistical analysis. He studied psychology and worked for some time as an agricultural research fellow at Oxford. From 1954 to 1959 he worked, together with Rex Burch, on a project funded by UFAW; the founder of UFAW, C. W. Hume, described Bill Russell as “a brilliant young zoologist who happens to be psychologist and a classical scholar”; as the result of this project the Principles of Humane Experimental Technique was published in 1959. In the UK the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments, established in 1969, was among the first to recognize the importance of the Three Rs concept. In the years thereafter, recognition of the concept increased, first but on exponentially, when centres on animal alternatives were established in several parts of the world and a series of World Congresses on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences was started.

After publication of the book Bill worked for five years in private practice as a psychoanalyst and for two years as scientific information officer at the Commonwealth Bureau of Pastures and Field Crops, where he learned Japanese with the aim to understand the contents of agricultural publications from Japan. In 1966 he was appointed as a lecturer at the Department of Sociology, University of Reading, teaching several disciplines such as sociology, statistics and cultural evolution, he became Reader in 1971 and Professor in 1986. He was not aware of the growing impact of the book until the early nineties, when Marty Stephens, vice-president of the Humane Society of the United States, took the initiative to institute the Russell and Burch Award for advancement of the Three Rs in science and Alan Goldberg, director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, invited Bill and his wife Claire to participate as guests of honour in the First World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences in Baltimore.

They accepted the invitation. Bill announced the next World Congress in Utrecht with a song, paraphrasing Cole Porter's "Another Op'nin, Another Show" from the musical Kiss Me, Kate. Singing was one of his trademarks. From the time that he was Lecturer in Reading he used to present parts of his lectures in rhyming songs to the tunes of Gilbert and Sullivan; these were the years that he earned great popularity in Great Britain by his original approach and through singing answers to some of the questions in BBC radio's Round Britain Quiz. For eight years he was a regular contestant on this programme, representing the West of England. Bill Russell published several books on quite different subjects. Together with Claire he published Human Behaviour, Violence and Man, Population Crisis and Population Cycles, he published a science fiction novel The Barber of Aldebaran, wrote the introduction to The Myths of Greece and Rome and was a past president of the Folklore Society. The three Rs have been globally influential, including in India.

In 2004, in response to a House of Lords Select Committee report informed by Russell's work, the UK launched the National Centre for the Replacement and Reduction of Animals in Research NC3Rs. Russell work has been influential in shaping EU legislation. In 1990 Russell became an Emeritus Professor at the University of Reading and continued writing and publishing until his death in 2006