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The bucentaur was the state barge of the doges of Venice. It was used every year on Ascension Day up to 1798 to take the doge out to the Adriatic Sea to perform the "Marriage of the Sea" – a ceremony that symbolically wedded Venice to the sea every year on the "Festa della Sensa". Scholars believe there were four major barges, the first significant bucentaur having been built in 1311; the last and most magnificent of the historic bucentaurs made its maiden voyage in 1729 in the reign of Doge Alvise III Sebastiano Mocenigo. Depicted in paintings by Canaletto and Francesco Guardi, the ship was 35 m long and more than 8 metres high. A two-deck floating palace, its main salon had a seating capacity of 90; the doge's throne was in the stern, the prow bore a figurehead representing Justice with sword and scales. The barge was propelled by 168 oarsmen, another 40 sailors were required to man it; the ship was destroyed in 1798 on Napoleon's orders to symbolize his victory in conquering Venice. In February 2008, the Fondazione Bucintoro announced a €20 million project to rebuild the 1729 bucentaur.

Work started on 15 March 2008 at naval dock. The origin of the name bucintoro is obscure, but one possibility is that it is derived from the Venetian burcio, a traditional term for a lagoon vessel, in oro, meaning covered in gold. On the other hand, man of letters Francesco Sansovino proposed, based on documents dating from 1293, that it was named after an earlier boat built at the Arsenale shipyard called the Navilium Duecentorum Hominum, it has been suggested that the vessel was named after the ship Centaurus referred to by Virgil when describing the funeral rites observed by Aeneas to honour his father's death. The name may refer to trumpets and horns that were played on board; the term bucintoro was Latinized in the Middle Ages as bucentaurus on the analogy of an alleged Greek word βουκένταυρος meaning "ox-centaur", from βους and κένταυρος. The common supposition was that the name derived from a creature of a man with the head of an ox, a figure of which served as the barge's figurehead.

This derivation is, fanciful. The name "bucentaur" seems, indeed, to have been given to any sumptuous Venetian vessels. Du Cange quotes from the chronicle of the Doge Andrea Dandolo: "... cum uno artificioso et solemni Bucentauro, super quo venit usque ad S. Clementem, quo jam pervenerat principalior et solemnior Bucentaurus cum consiliariis, &c "; the term was used to describe a 16th-century sumptuous transport boat and decorated in Modena, to celebrate the marriage of Lucrezia, the daughter of Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, to the Duke of Urbino. Before the age of the bucentaurs, it is probable that for ceremonies in the Venetian Lagoon the doge was assigned a small galley from the Venetian fleet; as Venice's wealth increased due to its naval power, plans were made for a special ship to be built. This is evidenced by the promissioni – sacramental pledges spoken by the doges when they were sworn into office – of Reniero Zeno of 1252, Lorenzo Tiepolo of 1268 and Giovanni Soranzo of 1312 which mention the construction of a bucentaur in the Arsenale shipyard and naval depot.

Historians agree. While there are believed to have been earlier vessels, the bucentaur of 1311 is regarded as the first significant one, for on 17 August 1311 the promissione was amended to add the statement "quod Bucentaurus Domini ducis fiat per Dominium et teneatur in Arsenatu"; this was the first time that Venetian law had provided that the expense of building the bucentaur was to be borne by the public budget. The two-decked bucentaur had a tiemo with two sections, one in purple velvet for the doge, the other in red velvet for Venetian nobles; the historian Marino Sanuto the Younger, in his work De origine, situ et magistratibus urbis Venetae described the ship as bearing a sculpture of Justice. The bucentaur was used not only for the Marriage of the Sea ceremony, but for other state functions such as festivals celebrating the Virgin Mary and the bearing of newly crowned dogaressas to the Doge's Palace. On 6 May 1401, a law was passed to prohibit the doge from making private use of the bucentaur.

Documents mention the construction of another bucentaur in 1449 larger than the 1311 one, but little is known about this vessel. The earliest known image of a bucentaur appeared in Jacopo de' Barbari's monumental woodcut Pianta di Venezia, published in 1500; this work pictured a bucentaur afloat in the Arsenale without oars or decoration save for a large wooden sculpture of Justice in the bow. A similar illustration was produced by Andrea Valvassore between 1517 and 1525. On 10 May 1526, Marino Sanuto the Younger recorded that on "Ascension Day the serenissimo went in the new bucintoro to wed the sea", adding that "it was a beautiful work and wider than the other one"; the proportions and rich decoration of this Bucentaur, built in the reign of Doge Andrea Gritti

Faris al-Zahrani

Sheikh Faris bin Ahmed Jamaan al-Showeel al-Zahrani was on Saudi Arabia's list of 26'most-wanted' suspected terrorists. On 2 January 2016 Sheikh Zahrani was executed by the Saudi state along with 46 others convicted of terrorism. Fares bin Ahmad Al Shuwayl al-Zahrani فارس بن أحمد آل شويل الزهراني ، was born in 1977 in al-Jawfa’ الجوفاء village in Bilad Zahran in southern Saudi Arabia, his tribal affiliation is Azd. His family moved to a nearby al-Nu’us النعوص village from which Fares would graduate his elementary school, he would pass high school in the same village in 1996 with high grades. Where Fares went to college differed amongst the many articles/news/message boards. Here are a list of schools that he was said to have been in: -Kulliyat ‘Ulum al-Quran in al-Madina, for one semester. كلية علوم القرآن في المدينة المنورة. -The University of al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud al-Islamaiyah in al-Qasim, جامعة الإمام محمد بن سعود الإسلامية في القصيم -The University of King Khaled in Abha. Growing up in the Al-Baha region, al-Zahrani attended the Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University where he studied law, while working as an Imam.

There is no clear date on. But one can trace. What is a fact is that after a series of deadly clashes between the Saudi government and Jihadis in 2003, a list of 26 people came out in November with the name Fares al-Zahrani on it. Before this no one knew of him. After this date, things became different and he came out in the open with his real name. Fares al-Zahrani was active under the two names he used online: al-Mutaharek المتحرك, abu Jandal al-Azadi أبو جندل الأزدي, the name he wrote under his first few books, which appeared only online and gained immediate popularity because of its timing and topic. Among the message boards Fares, aka Abu Jandal al-Azadi, was active in was Minbar al-Jihad wa-al-Tawhid: a active blog/message board dealing with Jihad related issues; the same blog interviews Fares al-Zahrani, the only in depth talk made with him, where he responded to people’s questions. Fares al-Zahrani’s first important book was: al-Baheth ‘Ann Hikm Qatl Afrad wa-Dubat al-Mabaheth, which could be translated into English as:.

This book came after a series of deadly confrontations with the Saudi police. It was written under the name Abu Jandal al-Azadi; the importance of this book comes from the fact it contained an attempt to find religious approval for the killing of the police officers. Fares was able to make the links between al-Quran, al-Hadith, some militant thinkers, namely Sayyid Qutb and Abu Qutadah, to justify the act of killing; this was something new the whole book came online, as a product of many online arguments on the Jihadis blogs. Fares al-Zahrani has another important book regarding the sanctity of violence entitled: Tahrid al-Mujahidin al-Abtal Ala Ihya’ Sinat al-Ightiyal, which could be translated into English as: Encouraging the hero Mujahidin to revive the sanctioned practice: Assassination; the title tells. Assassinations were to be made, the religious Fatwa was provided by al-Zahrani, he wrote other important books which are listed in a bibliography below. Fares al-Zahtani made many important audio messages, the most known is the one entitled: “Your citizenship is under my feet.”

In this message, he denounced his Saudi citizenship. This speech was quoted in the year 2014 by Saudi fighters in the ranks of the Islamic State when they tore into pieces burned their Saudi Passports in a famous videos. In this audio message, Fares al-Zahrani speaks in clear terms of the Muslim Ummah that does not recognize any of the borders/nationalities we have today. Other important audio messages: a- Risalah ila- Askar b- His message to his son and daughter, he was arrested in Abha by Saudi police on 5 August 2004 on charges of terrorism. His capture was considered a serious blow to Al Qaeda in Saudi Arabia. Four weeks prior to his arrest, al-Zahrani wrote an article in which he said he was evading the Saudi crackdown. Several weeks before the arrest, al-Zahrani said, in an interview with the online publication Voice of Jihad: "I would like to reassure the people who love me... I am careful in my movements and contacts, I take all necessary precautions." In the same statement, al-Zahrani rejected an amnesty.

Al-Zahrani and another man were arrested without incident though both were armed. Tahrid al-Mujahidin al-Abtal Ala Ihya’ Sinat al-Ightiyal al-Baheth ‘Ann Hikm Qatl Afrad wa-Dubat al-Mabaheth al-Ayat wa al-Ahadith al-Ghazirah fi Kifr Quwat Rad’ al-Jazeerah Nusus al-Fuqaha’ Hawl Ahkam al-Gharah wa-al-Tatarrus. Usamah Ibn LAden Mujadded al-Zaman wa-Qaher al-Amrican Wujub Istinqaz al-Mustdafin min Sujun al-Tawagheet wa-al-Murtaddin Allahu Akbar Kharabet Amrica Tarikhiyah lil-Matlibin His important audio messages Profile with Biography

Janet Gaynor

Janet Gaynor was an American film and television actress and painter. Gaynor began her career as an extra in silent films. After signing with Fox Film Corporation in 1926, she rose to fame and became one of the biggest box office draws of the era. In 1929, she was the first winner of the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performances in three films: 7th Heaven, Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans, Street Angel; this was the only occasion. Gaynor's career success continued into the sound film era, she achieved a notable success in the original version of A Star Is Born, for which she received a second Best Actress Academy Award nomination. After retiring from acting in 1939, Gaynor married film costume designer Adrian with whom she had a son, she returned to acting in films and television in the 1950s and became an accomplished oil painter. In 1980, Gaynor made her Broadway debut in the stage adaptation of the 1971 film Harold and Maude and appeared in the touring theatrical production of On Golden Pond in February 1982.

In September 1982, she sustained multiple injuries when the taxicab in which she and others were passengers was struck by a drunken driver. These injuries caused her death in September 1984. Gaynor was born Laura Augusta Gainor in Philadelphia. Nicknamed "Lolly" as a child, she was the youngest of two daughters born to Laura and Frank De Witt Gainor. Frank Gainor worked as paperhanger; when Gaynor was a toddler, her father began teaching her how to sing and perform acrobatics. As a child in Philadelphia, she began acting in school plays. After her parents divorced in 1914, her sister, her mother moved to Chicago. Shortly thereafter, her mother married electrician Harry C. Jones; the family moved west to San Francisco. After graduating from San Francisco Polytechnic High School in 1923, Gaynor spent the winter vacationing in Melbourne, where she did stage work. Upon returning to San Francisco, her mother, stepfather moved to Los Angeles, where she could pursue an acting career, she was hesitant to do so, enrolled at Hollywood Secretarial School.

She supported herself by working in a shoe store and as a theatre usher. Her mother and stepfather continued to encourage her to become an actress and she began making the rounds to the studios to find film work. Gaynor won her first professional acting job on December 26, 1924, as an extra in a Hal Roach comedy short; this led to more extra work in feature films and shorts for Film Booking Offices of America and Universal. Universal hired her as a stock player for $50 a week. Six weeks after being hired by Universal, an executive at Fox Film Corporation offered her a screen test for a supporting role in the film The Johnstown Flood, her performance in the film caught the attention of Fox executives, who signed her to a five-year contract and began to cast her in leading roles. That year, Gaynor was selected as one of the WAMPAS Baby Stars, By 1927, Gaynor was one of Hollywood's leading ladies, her image was that of a sweet and pure young woman, notable for playing her roles with depth and sensitivity.

Her performances in 7th Heaven, the first of 12 films she would make with actor Charles Farrell. This practice was prohibited three years by a new Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences rule. Gaynor was not only the first actress to win the award, but at 22, was the youngest until 1986, when actress Marlee Matlin, 21, won for her role in Children of a Lesser God. Gaynor was one of only a handful of established lead actresses who made a successful transition to sound films. In 1929, she was reteamed with Charles Farrell for the musical film Sunny Side Up. During the early 1930s, Gaynor was one of Fox's most popular actresses and one of Hollywood's biggest box office draws. In 1931 and 1932, she and Marie Dressler were tied. After Dressler's death in 1934, Gaynor held the top spot alone, she was cited as a successor to Mary Pickford, was cast in remakes of two Pickford films, Daddy Long Legs and Tess of the Storm Country. Gaynor drew the line at a proposed remake of Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, which she considered "too juvenile".

Gaynor continued to garner top billing for roles in State Fair with Will Rogers and The Farmer Takes a Wife, which introduced Henry Fonda to the screen as Gaynor's leading man. However, when Darryl F. Zanuck merged his fledgling studio, Twentieth Century Pictures, with Fox Film Corporation to form 20th Century-Fox, her status became precarious and tertiary to those of burgeoning actresses Loretta Young and Shirley Temple. According to press reports at the time, Gaynor held out on signing with the new 20th Century-Fox until her salary was raised from $1,000 a week to $3,000; the studio issued a statement denying that Gaynor was holding out for more money. She signed a new contract, the terms of which were never made public. Gaynor received top billing above Constance Bennett, Loretta Young, Tyrone Power in Ladies in Love but her box office appeal

Minami-Utsunomiya Station

Minami-Utsunomiya Station is a railway station on the Tobu Utsunomiya Line in Utsunomiya, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Tobu Railway. The station is numbered "TN-39". Minami-Utsunomiya Station is served by the Tobu Utsunomiya Line, is 22.1 km from the starting point of the line at Shin-Tochigi. The station consists of one island platform connected to the station building by a level crossing. Minami-Utsunomiya Station opened on 17 April 1932 as Yakkyujomae Station, it was renamed to its present name on 15 December 1932. From 17 March 2012, station numbering was introduced on all Tobu lines, with Minami-Utsunomiya Station becoming "TN-39". Utsunomiya Culture Center Utsnomiya Public Library List of railway stations in Japan Official website

Sons of the San Joaquin

The Sons of the San Joaquin is a Western family band. Jack and Joe Hannah are brothers, they began performing together in 1987 at a birthday party for Lon's grandfather. They have been credited with "rich durability of the traditional Western music they present, as well as the outstanding original cowboy songs" and being reminiscent of the Sons of the Pioneers. Roy Rogers called them "the only singing group alive who I feel sound like the original Sons of the Pioneers." They have over a dozen albums, including a greatest hits album. They were inducted into the Western Music Association Hall of Fame in 2006. Several of their albums have been given awards by the National Western Heritage Museum. Jack Hannah – Jack Hannah is the younger brother of Joe Hannah and the paternal uncle of Lon Hannah. Jack pitched for the Milwaukee Braves farm system and became a high school counselor and coach He was inducted into the Fresno Athletic Hall of Fame in 1998. A professional songwriter, Jack shared in the Sons of the San Joaquin Round Up Newsletter that he struggled through grade and high school and if he had been "born today" would have been diagnosed with ADD.

"I wrote songs. I have written scores of songs that will never see the light of day because I write them for no other purpose than that they are just there, a consequence of reading." Stressing the importance of reading the Young at Heart CD, was written with the purpose of creating in the minds of children a passion for learning, a desire to read. "I start the day reading the Book of the Bible. I am not trying to sound pious. I'm telling you this is to underscore. To try to understand the Divine and to grasp the lessons of history are my passions and most of my songs flow from these sources." Jack has written for a critically acclaimed children's series "Red, Rite & Recite, a series of books, CD's and videos that feature Dusty Trails Jack has repeated won Songwriter of the Year awards from the Western Music Association and was the recipient of the Wrangler Award from the National Cowboy Hall of Fame. Joe Hannah – According to the Sons of the San Joaquin Round Up Newsletter, in high school, Joe was courted by the Yankees and Dodgers and received major college scholarship offers from USC, UCLA and other schools.

In 1950, he started playing for their class A Visalia, California team. When the season was over, he went to the Los Angeles Angels. In 1952, his career was interrupted. Upon return in 1958, his contract was bought by the Toronto Maple Leafs baseball club, he spent 13 seasons in minor league baseball with a hitting life-time average of.275 before retiring. Joe became a high school teacher and music director, his solo song "Wyoming on my Mind" was written for him by recording artist Charlie Daniels. Lon Hannah – According to the Sons of the San Joaquin Round Up Newsletter, Lonnie Joe Hannah was born in Pasadena, California while his father Joe Hannah was playing ball on the opening night of the Pacific Coast League on April 10, 1956, his father Joe hit a double, his team won and his wife Kay gave birth to Lonnie Joe. Lon became an elementary school teacher and was the originator of the family coming together to sing the cowboy songs so loved by many. Great American Cowboy Bound For the Rio Grande A Cowboy Has to Sing Songs of the Silver Screen From Whence Came the Cowboy Gospel Trails Christmas Horses and Coyotes Sing One For the Cowboy 15 Years: A Retrospective For the Young, the Young At Heart Way Out Yonder A Cowboy's Song One More Ride Songs of Faith - Jack Hannah'Cause I Always Wanted To - Lon Hannah The Sons — Official home page Band profile

Secretary of State for the Northern Department

The Secretary of State for the Northern Department was a position in the Cabinet of the government of Great Britain up to 1782, when the Northern Department became the Foreign Office. Before the Act of Union, 1707, the Secretary of State's responsibilities were in relation to the English government, not the British. After the Union, there was still a separate Secretary of State for Scotland until 1746, though the post was sometimes vacant; this continued the previous Scottish government post of Secretary of State. Before 1782, the responsibilities of the two Secretaries of State for the Northern and the Southern Departments were not divided up in terms of area of authority, but rather geographically. Both were responsible for Wales; the Secretary of State for the Northern Department, the more junior of the two, was responsible for foreign relations with the Protestant states of Northern Europe. The more senior Secretary of State for the Southern Department was responsible for relations with the Catholic and Muslim states of Europe.

In 1782, the two Secretaries of State were reformed as the Secretary of State for the Home Department and the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. During the 18th century, Secretaries of State for the Northern Department, if peers, were Leaders of the House of Lords as well. Included: Secretary of State England Secretary of State for the Southern Department Home Secretary Anson, Sir William Reynell; the Law and Custom of the Constitution. Clarendon Press. Pp. 157–158. Retrieved 2007-08-18. Sainty, J. C.. Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 2 Officials of the Secretaries of State 1660-1782. Pp. 22–58. Retrieved 2007-08-19