Gallery of Modern Art, Glasgow
The Gallery of Modern Art is the main gallery of contemporary art in Glasgow, Scotland. GoMA offers a programme of temporary workshops. GoMA displays work by local and international artists as well as addressing contemporary social issues through its major biannual projects. Opened in 1996, the Gallery of Modern Art is housed in a neoclassical building in Royal Exchange Square in the heart of Glasgow city centre. Built in 1778 as the townhouse of William Cunninghame of Lainshaw, a wealthy Glasgow Tobacco Lord who made his fortune through the triangular slave trade, the building has undergone a series of different uses, it was bought in 1817 by the Royal Bank of Scotland who moved onto Buchanan Street. Reconstruction for this use was undertaken by David Hamilton between 1827 and 1832 and resulted in many additions to the building, namely the Corinthian pillars to the Queen Street facade, the cupola above and the large hall to the rear of the old house. In 1954, Glasgow District Libraries moved the Stirling's Library into the building.
When the library returned to Miller Street, the building was refurbished to house the city's contemporary art collection. Since its opening in 1996, the gallery has hosted several million visitors, it has a dedicated Education and Access studio, facilitating workshops and artists talks and in the basement a Learning Library. The building contains a café, free Internet access terminals, multimedia and general book-lending facilities. Exhibits include works by David Hockney, Sebastião Salgado, Andy Warhol as well as Scottish artists such as John Bellany and Ken Currie; the mirrored pediment on the exterior of the building is by artist Niki de Saint Phalle, entitled Tympanum. Saint Phalle installed the mirrored vestibule to the gallery. In front of the gallery, on the Queen Street pavement, stands an equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington sculpted by Carlo Marochetti in 1844; the statue has a traffic cone on its head. The jauntily placed cone has come to represent in tourist guidebooks, the city's light-hearted attitude to authority.
Two exceptions were on the occasion of Glasgow hosting the 2002 UEFA Champions League final, when the cone was replaced by a football-patterned hat bearing the logo of one of the tournament sponsors, in June 2010, on the run-up to the opening of hotel chain citizenM in Glasgow, when the cone was replaced with a'feel free' branded glitter cone. Around the time of the Independence Referendum, a saltire was attached to the cone; the cone was painted gold during the 2012 Olympic games as a celebration of the record haul of gold medals won by Team GB. Culture in Glasgow Glasgow art Museum website Historic Glasgow Architecture Photographs of the Gallery of Modern Art in Glasgow
Sauchiehall Street is one of the main shopping and business streets in the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland. Along with Buchanan Street and Argyle Street, it forms part of the main shopping area of Glasgow, containing many of its high street and chain stores. Although associated with the city centre, Sauchiehall Street is over 11⁄2 miles long. At its central west end is Charing Cross, followed by the Category-A listed crescents and terraces which lead up to Park Circus meeting Argyle Street in the West End, in front of Kelvingrove Park and the Kelvingrove Museum, where they merge at Kelvin Hall to form Dumbarton Road, continuing through Partick; the two streets run parallel through the city centre, before starting to conjoin westward of the M8 motorway at Charing Cross. Sauchiehall is a corruption of sauchie. Hauch is pronounced'haw' in Scots and was mistaken for the Scots haw, pronounced the same, meaning hall. Sauchiehall Street is one of the most famous streets in Glasgow due to its rich history.
The desire of wealthy merchants from 1800 onwards to own property on the outskirts of the city meant that Blythswood Hill and Garnethill started to be developed by William Harley of Bath Street fame, who planned and developed Blythswood Square in the 1820s. As a consequence, the meandering country road to Partick through the willows, between these hills, grew to become the Saughie-haugh road. After it was straightened and widened in the 1840s it was named Sauchiehall Street and attracted more villas, tenement housing from 1860s, shops and offices. A few of the original villas remained as of 1896, lastly the 1960s, according to the Ordnance Survey map of Central Glasgow. Over time, the street has been home by distinguished architects; this includes the Glasgow Empire Theatre, opened in 1897 at 31–35 Sauchiehall Street. The Theatre played host to big names such as Bob Hope, Frank Sinatra, Judy Garland, Dorothy Lamour, Jack Benny and Danny Kaye before it closed on 31 March 1963; the Royalty Theatre was situated on Sauchiehall Street, opening in 1879 and showing operas and plays up until its lease ran out in 1913.
Afterwards, during the First World War, it was purchased by the YMCA to become a hostel for soldiers and sailors. The building lived out the rest of its days after the war as the Lyric Theatre, before it was demolished in the late 1950s. By the 1900s the street contained noted picture houses, clubs, restaurants, art galleries and quality departmental stores, with numerous theatres in adjacent streets, including the Kings Theatre in Bath Street, Theatre Royal in Hope Street and the Pavilion Theatre, in Renfield Street, Glasgow Art School in Renfew Street. Glasgow's first "skyscraper", the Art Deco style Beresford Hotel, was built further along Sauchiehall Street in 1938 for the Empire Exhibition, Scotland 1938, it became offices for ICI and a hall of residence for Strathclyde University before being converted into private apartments. Its "moderne" architecture was disliked when it was built and the original mustard-coloured stonework with red fins was rather unkindly described as "custard and rhubarb architecture".
In 2014 Sauchiehall Street was the subject of the documentary TV series'The Street'. In January 2018, a £7.2million investment from Glasgow City Council to transform part of central Sauchiehall Street began to create of a multifunctional service verge, two-way cycle lane, two lane carriageway along with plantation of trees and free wireless internet through the street. The initial design plan was completed in 2015 with the project being part of the Glasgow Avenues Project, aimed to invest £115 million within the city between 2015-2021 and to create green and SMART infrastructure. Sauchiehall Street linked directly to Parliamentary Road at its eastern end, which continued through Townhead to the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Today at the eastern end of Sauchiehall Street is the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall and Buchanan Galleries, one of the largest city centre redevelopments in the UK; the section from West Nile Street to Rose Street was pedestrianised in 1972, with the easternmost part, linking to Buchanan Street, pedestrianised in 1978.
This part of the street consists of typical High Street retailers, although it includes the Willow Tearooms, designed in 1903 by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, restored to its original artistic designs and is open to the public as a tea room, restaurant and McIntosh venue centre. Nearby in Renfrew Street is the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland. At the western end of the city centre section of the street, towards Charing Cross, there is an abundance of restaurants and student-oriented clubs, such as the ABC, a former cinema and the largest nightclub in Glasgow, The Garage; this is a popular street in terms of Glasgow nightlife. Notable landmarks in this area of the street include the former Beresford Hotel, Glasgow School of Art, the Glasgow Film Theatre, CCA Glasgow, the McLellan Galleries, the Royal Highland Fusiliers Museum and the Glasgow Dental Hospital and School. Media related to Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow at Wikimedia Commons
Glasgow Caledonian University
Glasgow Caledonian University is a public university in Glasgow, Scotland. It was formed in 1993 by the merger of The Queen's College and Glasgow Polytechnic. In June 2017, the university's New York partner institution, founded in 2013, was granted permission to award degrees in the state, the first higher education institution founded by a foreign university to achieve this status; the University traces its origin from The Queen's College and the Glasgow College of Technology. The Queen's College, which specialised in providing training in domestic science, received the Royal accolade of being named after Queen Elizabeth in its centenary celebrations in 1975. Queen Elizabeth was, Patron of the College since 1944. Glasgow Polytechnic, one of the largest central institutions in Scotland, offered externally validated degrees and diplomas in engineering and the humanities: the first of, a BA in Optics, followed by degrees in Social Sciences and Nursing. On 1 April 1993, the two institutions amalgamated to form Glasgow Caledonian University.
The new university took its name from the poetic Latin name for present-day Scotland. The main campus of the university is built on the site of the former Buchanan Street Station, built by the Caledonian Railway. Independent research carried out in 2015 revealed that the University contributes over £480m to Scotland's economy each year with the quantifiable lifetime premium of a one-year class of graduates estimated at around £400m, bringing the University's total annual economic impact to around £880m in Scotland alone. Annie Lennox was installed as GCU's first female chancellor, taking over the role from Nobel Peace Prize laureate Muhammad Yunus, at a ceremony in July 2018. Pamela Gillies is the Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University, appointed in 2006; the University's coat of arms is the work of university academic and artist Malcolm Lochhead and draws on four elements from the coat of arms of the University's predecessor institutions. The Caledonian Oak Tree and the Book of Knowledge were borrowed from the arms of Glasgow Polytechnic while the Saltire Ermine and the Crossed Keys were taken from the arms of The Queen's College.
A visual feature was added to the new arms with the illuminated capital letters in the Book's paragraphs reading: G C U. The Coat of Arms was matriculated by the Lord Lyon King of Arms and is inscribed into university degree parchments; the University's motto: "for the common weal", adopted since 1975, features in the full design of the arms. GCU's main campus is in Glasgow city-centre. A second campus in London is home to the British School of Fashion. In September 2013 the university founded Glasgow Caledonian New York College, an independent partner institution whose Wooster Street campus is based in the city's SoHo district. GCU's IT, engineering and construction experience is housed within the School of Computing and Built Environment; the School is composed of 8 departments: Applied Science Electrical and Electronic Engineering Mechanical Engineering Construction and Surveying Civil Engineering and Environmental Management Applied Computer Games Computing Cyber Security and NetworksThe School's links with industry include the £1.2m Doble Innovation Centre for On-Line Systems, which works on diagnostic test instruments and expert consulting and knowledge exchange services for the electric power industry.
GCU is a partner in five of the Scottish Government-funded collaborative Innovation Centres which bring knowledge from higher education institutions to solve real-world business challenges – these are DataLab, the Digital Health and Care Institute, Construction Scotland Innovation Centre and Gas Innovation Centre and CENSIS. The School performs research into built environment and connections with industry leaders in growing markets such as games design; the School has a Centre for Climate Justice, involved in policy relevant research for development and learning, broadening knowledge in the area of climate justice. The Glasgow School for Business and Society brings together disciplines in business and social sciences and research in Fashion, Risk Management and Multimedia Journalism; the School leads the University-wide delivery of the Principles for Responsible Management Education, a United Nations Global Compact-backed initiative which places social responsibility and sustainability at the top of the agenda for training future leaders.
GCU became a PRiME signatory in January 2012 and is a founding member of the UK and Ireland PRiME Chapter. GCU is a member of Business in the Community Scotland and school students and staff manage the Work Ready Action Programme, which sees students mentor school pupils from the Glasgow area. In 2015, the School's 10 BA Business Programme Set and its MSc International Fashion Marketing Programmes achieved the EPAS accreditation, becoming the first institution in Scotland and one of only 69 recognised worldwide, it is designated a Centre of Excellence by the Chartered Institute for Securities and Investment and is the only business school to offer triple-accredited degrees in financial services. The school is home to the Moffat Centre, one of the world's university research centres in tourism and travel; the School is composed of the following three departments: Department of Law, Accountancy & Risk Department of Busin
Argyle Street, Glasgow
Argyle Street is a major thoroughfare in the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland. With Buchanan Street and Sauchiehall Street, Argyle Street is one of the main shopping streets in the city centre, it is the longest street by distance in the city centre, running for 2.1 miles. It begins in the south-eastern corner of the city centre, at the Trongate, where it is pedestrianised as far as Queen Street; this section forms the major shopping section of the road, including the St. Enoch Centre and the Argyll Arcade, it passes underneath Glasgow Central Station before becoming a major thoroughfare connecting the M8 motorway and the Clydeside Expressway at Anderston. The route joins St. Vincent Street where it heads out towards the West End of the city, it connects with Sauchiehall Street at Kelvingrove Art Gallery, the road itself ends just beyond the Kelvin Hall on a bridge over the River Kelvin, where it becomes Dumbarton Road. Known as Westergait, Argyle Street led west from Trongate to the city's West Port, the western gate out of the city's walls.
It was renamed in honour of the Duke of Argyll, some time after the removal of the West Port in 1751, as a result of the expansion of the city westward. Major reconstruction of the area at the turn of the 1970s which saw the construction of the Glasgow Inner Ring Road, the demolition of Anderston Cross and its replacement with the Anderston Centre complex changed the line of Argyle Street, the eastern half now terminating underneath the Kingston Bridge approach viaduct whilst the main vehicle route over the motorway runs along St. Vincent Street, leaving a 250-metre stretch of the western half of road in Anderston isolated as a cul de sac. Media related to Argyle Street, Glasgow at Wikimedia Commons
St Enoch Square
St. Enoch Square is a public square in Glasgow, situated at the junction of Buchanan Street and Argyle Street, the city's two busiest shopping streets; the Square sits on land that once was the western part of Glasgow Green, alongside the river Clyde, had a chapel and burial site of St Thenew mother of St Kentigern. The site changed hands to the Luke family of goldsmiths, managers of the soaperie in Candleriggs and owners of the glass-works next to the Clyde, who in turn sold it to the Merchants House of Glasgow, from there to Glasgow City Council who laid the foundation stone of St Enoch Church in 1780, it is one of six squares in the city centre. The square, always of a quiet and retiring nature was joined by grand Regency style buildings between around 1780-1820, the focal point south of the centre being St Enoch's Church designed by James Jaffray in 1780; the church was substituted for another, this time designed by David Hamilton in 1827. The centre was planted with grass and shrubbery with an iron railing round it, grazed with sheep.
The grass plot remained till about 1860, when it was removed to make way for the farmers, who in that year, were prohibited from meeting in Stockwell Street on the Wednesday market-days. With increasing traffic and a congregation now living further away the church was demolished in 1926, in order to allow space for a bus terminus and car parking. In the 1860s many streets, of houses, warehouses, restaurants and inns, theatres including the Theatre Royal in Dunlop Street, David Brown`s Royal Music Hall, on the east side were demolished to make way for the railway lines of the Glasgow & South Western Railway Company crossing the Clyde. One of the major buildings on the square, which had to move, was the Faculty and Surgeons Hall of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow which moved to new premises 242 St Vincent Street where the College remains today. St. Enoch Station opened in 1876, with its St. Enoch Hotel opening in 1879; the hotel was the largest hotel in Glasgow, with over 200 bedrooms.
The station and hotel were both one of the first buildings to be lit by electricity in the city. The hotel closed in 1974, was used as a car park until work began on the indoor St. Enoch Centre in 1985, designed by Arup Associates and built by Sir Robert McAlpine & Sons. A £150 million refurbishment programme began in 2005; this work concluded in May 2010. Along with this work, St Enoch Square received an upgrade, transforming the area into a plaza like environment, housing large screens for broadcasting, creating a more pleasant urban area for pedestrians. Refurbishment of the St Enoch Underground, created in 1896, began in 2014, was completed in 2015, in an attempt to create a more modern and efficient environment; the £5.3 million contract involved replacing the entrances to the subway with new entrance canopies made of glass and steel, replacement of the floor and ceiling materials, general upgrading of facilities and equipment. Located adjacent to the square is the St Enoch Centre, on the site of the former station and hotel, the largest glass-covered enclosed commercial area in Europe.
The current east row, containing the St Enoch Centre buildings, retains a lot of the same architecture as they did, barring the storefronts of the many shops along the street level. The original 2-storey Subway ticket office building, designed by James Miller in 1896 for the Glasgow Subway, uses Flemish Renaissance architecture; the masonry is polished ashlar, most distinguished by the use of it in the 4 turrets that are corbelled out at each corner of the building. The original building is now a coffee shop; the IET Glasgow: Teacher building, used for meetings and offices, but the headquarters of whisky distillers William Teacher & Son Ltd designed in 1875 by James Boucher, is on the west side of the square. To the south and into Clyde Street is the A-listed Custom House of Glasgow designed in 1840 by John Taylor at the Broomielaw to collect dues and monitor imports from the expanding shipping traffic, it sits atop the town`s early glass-works. Hosted every year between November and December, the Glasgow Christmas Market takes place in St Enoch Square.
The event offers continental beers along with mulled wine that are served at Continental Bars that will be present during the time. Website for Christmas Market IET: Teacher building St Enoch site
First Minister of Scotland
The First Minister of Scotland is the leader of the Scottish Government. The First Minister chairs the Scottish Cabinet and is responsible for the formulation and presentation of Scottish Government policy. Additional functions of the First Minister include promoting and representing Scotland in an official capacity, at home and abroad, responsibility for constitutional affairs, as they relate to devolution and the Scottish Government; the First Minister is a Member of the Scottish Parliament and nominated by the Scottish Parliament before being appointed by the monarch. Members of the Cabinet and junior ministers of the Scottish Government as well as the Scottish law officers, are appointed by the First Minister; as head of the Scottish Government, the First Minister is directly accountable to the Scottish Parliament for their actions and the actions of the wider government. Nicola Sturgeon of the Scottish National Party is the current First Minister of Scotland. Following a referendum in 1997, in which the Scottish electorate gave their consent, a Scottish Parliament and Scottish Government were reconvened by the Labour government of Tony Blair, having been suspended following the Acts of Union in 1707.
The process was known as devolution and was initiated to give Scotland some measure of home rule or self-governance in its domestic affairs, such as health and justice. Devolution resulted in administrative and legislative changes to the way Scotland was governed, resulted in the establishment of a post of First Minister to be head of the devolved Scottish Government; the term "First Minister" is analogous to the use of Premier to denote the heads of government in sub-national entities of Commonwealth nations, such as the provinces and territories of Canada, provinces of South Africa, states of Malaysia and the states of Australia. Prior to devolution the comparable functions of the First Minister were exercised by the Secretary of State for Scotland, who headed the Scottish Office, a department of the wider United Kingdom Government and existed from 1885 to 1999; the Secretary of State was a member of the British Cabinet and appointed by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom to have responsibility for the domestic affairs of Scotland.
Since 1999, the Secretary of State has a much reduced role as a result of the transfer of responsibilities to the Scottish Parliament and Scottish Government. The First Minister is nominated by the Scottish Parliament from among its members at the beginning of each term, by means of an exhaustive ballot, they are formally appointed by the monarch. In theory, any member of the Scottish Parliament can be nominated for First Minister. However, the government must maintain the confidence of the Scottish Parliament to in order to gain supply. For this reason, the First Minister is always the leader of the largest party, or the leader of the senior partner in any majority coalition. There is no term of office for a First Minister. In practice, they hold office as long. Whenever the office of First Minister falls vacant, the Sovereign is responsible for appointing the new incumbent. Given the additional member system used to elect its members, it is difficult for a single party to gain an overall majority of seats in the Scottish Parliament.
The SNP gained an overall majority of seats in the 2011 election, thus had enough numbers to vote in its leader, Alex Salmond, as First Minister for a second term. After the election of the Scottish Parliament, a First Minister must be nominated within a period of 28 days. Under the terms of the Scotland Act, if the Parliament fails to nominate a First Minister, within this time frame, it will be dissolved and a fresh election held. If an incumbent First Minister is defeated in a general election, they do not vacate office; the First Minister only leaves office. After accepting office, the First Minister takes the Official Oath, as set out in the Promissory Oaths Act 1868; the oath is tendered by the Lord President of the Court of Session at a sitting of the Court in Parliament House in Edinburgh. The oath is: I, do swear that I will well and serve Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth in the office of First Minister, So help me God; the period in office of a First Minister is not linked to the term of Members of the Scottish Parliament.
The Scotland Act set out a four-year maximum term for each session of Parliament. The Act specifies than an election to the Scottish Parliament will be held on the first Thursday in May, every four years, starting from 1999. Parliament can be dissolved and an extraordinary general election held, before the expiration of the four-year term, but only if two-thirds of elected MSPs vote for such action in a resolution of the Scottish Parliament. If a simple majority of MSPs voted a no-confidence motion in the First Minister/Government, that would trigger a 28-day period for the nomination of a replacement; the First Minister, once appointed continues in office as the head of the devolved Scottish Government until either they resign, is dismissed or dies in office. Resignation can be triggered off by the passage of
Buchanan Street subway station
Buchanan Street subway station is a station on the Glasgow Subway in Scotland. It serves Buchanan Street, popular with shoppers. Close to Buchanan Bus Station and providing interchange with Glasgow Queen Street railway station via a travelator, it is the busiest station on the Subway, with 2.54 million passengers in the 12 months ending 31 March 2005. When built in 1896 the station had a single island platform serving both tracks. An additional side platform was added as part of the 1977-1980 modernisation scheme. A glass wall was added on one side of the island platform to prevent access to the train, boarding at the side platform; each platform has a single stairway linking it to the ticket hall, causing congestion during peak hours due to conflicting passenger movements in the same space. Other than St Enoch it is the only station with an underground ticket hall, surface buildings are restricted to new mid-street entrance canopy, rebuilt in 1999 as part of the repaving of Buchanan Street; this canopy is constructed of structural glass: all beams and columns, the walls and roof are glass.
Part of carriage 41 from the Subway's pre-1977 rolling stock was preserved within the station. Nearby places: Buchanan Galleries University of Strathclyde 2011/12: 2.484 million annually